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Full text of "History of the Catholic Mission in the Hawaiian Islands [microform]"

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UNIVERSITY 
OF CHICAGO 
v LIBRARY / 



From the Library of 
ELINOR CASTLE NE 

and 
JOHN U. NEF 




'wary of 
TLE NEF 



NEF 




RT. REV. STEPHEN P. ALENCASTRE, BISHOP OF ARABISSUS 
To Whom This Work Is Lovingly Dedicated 




RT. REV. STEPHEN P. ALENCASTRE, BISHOP OF ARABISSUS 
To Whom This Woi'k Is Lovingly Dedicated 




FATHER REGINALD YZENDOORN, SS.CC. 




H. . 3K. . 

1*130 

/HISTORY 



of 



Catholic Mission in the Hawaiian 

Islands , 



Father REGINALD YZENDOORN, SS.CC. 

Chancellor-Secretary of the Vicariate 




HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN, LIMITED 

HONOLULU, T. H. 

1927 




FATHER REGINALD YZICXDOORX. SS.CC, 




H3 



Imprimi potest. 

Paris, 25 Beptembris, 1926. 

Flavien Prat. Sup-Gen. 

Congreg. Sacr. Cordium. 



Imprimatur. 

1 Beptembris, 1926. 
t Stephen P. Alencastre. 

episc. Arabissensis. 




-U 0* 

U. Nel 



Copyrighted 1027 

by 
Reginald Yzendoorn 



"Illud in primis scribentium observetur animo, primam 
ease historlae legem, ne quid falsi dicere audeat, deinde 
ne quid veri non audeat; ne qua suspicio gratiae sit in 
scribendo, neque simultatis." 

Bpist. Leo XIII, Aug. 18, 1883. 

Historiam scribere non panegyricum. 
Nihil addere, nihil in majus tollere, more laudantium. 

S. Hieronymus. 



This, above all, writers should keep in mind: that 
the first law of history is that no one dare say any- 
thing false, and next, that no one be afraid to say 
anything which is true; less there be a suspicion that 
the writer seeks to carry favor or is actuated by malice. 
Letter of Leo XIII, August 18, 1883. 

To write HISTORY, and not a panygeric. 
Do not add anything; do not exaggerate anything; 
as is the custom of sycophants. 

St. Jerome. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Table of Contents vii-ix 

Preface xi 

List of Illustrations xi 

CHAPTER I 
GROPING IN THE MIST OF HAWAII'S PAST 

Location. Discovery by Cook. Origin of the Hawaiians. Oral Ti-adition and 
Chronology. The White Priest Paao. A Weird Story. Nothing but a Dream. Some 
more Genealogy. The White Flag. Gaetano's Claims to Discovery Denied. Old 
Maps. The Statue of the Spaniard. Paao and Pili are Spaniards. They Preached 
the Catholic Religion. Remnants of Catholic Teaching. The Meaning of a Name. 
Cook once more, and Other Arrivals. Internecine Wars. Consolidation of the 
Group into One Kingdom. Baptism of Two Chiefs. Abolition of the Taboo 1 

CHAPTER II 
A PROTESTANT MISSION 

The American Board of Foreign Missions First Mission to the Sandwich Islands 
First School. Bibliopathy. Printing Press Started. Ellis' First Visit. Reinforce- 
ment. Ellis' Second Visit and Tour around Hawaii. Foundation of Missions at 
Kailua and Lahaina. Death of Kaumualii. Rebellion on Kauai. Kaahumanu's 
Interest in the Mission. Incipient Success 21 

CHAPTER III 
A ROYAL ADVENTURE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES 

Missionaries and Liberals. Liholiho's Voyage to England. The Frenchman 
John Rives and his Negotiations. The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts. A 
New Prefect Apostolic. Around the Horn. Arrival in Honolulu Harbor 26 

CHAPTER IV 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CATHOLIC MISSION 

Rives not Arrived. F. Bachelot Sees Boki. Difficulties with Capt. Plassard. 
Meeting of the Chiefs. The First Catholic Mission Settlement. First Experi- 
ences. Study of the Hawaiian Language. Sailing of La Comete. The King's Grant 
of Land. D. Francisco Marin. Opening of the Chapel to the Public. First Fruits 34 

CHAPTER V 
PERSECUTION 

A Committee to Investigate the "Jesuits." Its Investigation. It Reports. 
Resolutions Adopted by the Protestant Missionaries. How they were Executed. 
Anti-Papist Geography. A Dissenting Minister. Other Anti-Catholic Forces. 
The Rival Chiefs. Their Reconciliation. Natives are Prohibited from Attending 
the Catholic Services. Visit of the Vincennes. A Prophecy. Boki's Fatal Expedi- 
tion. A False Alarm. Beginning of Persecution. Louisa. Invasion of Chapel. 

Priests are Forbidden to Preach. Renegades. Akeroniko. Kaahumanu's 
Coup'd Etat. A Cowardly Don. Valeriano and Kimeone. Alokia, a Martyr for 
the Faith. An Abortive Revolution 44 

CHAPTER 'VI 
THE EXPULSION 

Before the Council of the Chiefs. Decree of Banishment. The Prefect's 

Speech. Whether Permission to Reside Ever had been Granted or not. Visits of 

Kaikeoewa and Kuakini. The Prinzessin Luiza. Doings of Hill. F. Bachelot's 
Apology. The Brig Waverley. Kalola. The Waikiki Wall Confessors. Captain 
Sumner. Bingham, the Hawaiian Nathanael. The manifesto: "This is our Reason" 
Consular Protests. Religion, the Cause of Deportation. Declarations of the Con- 
suls. The Forcible Embarkment CO 



viii Contents 

Page 

CHAPTER VII 
IN EXILE 

Landing: on the California Coast. Departure of the Wavefley. Kind Reception 
at San Gabriel. Again Threatened with Banishment. Hawaiian Visitors. Death of 
Kaahumanu. Kinau, "our Greatest Enemy." Visit of the Potomac. ^Conference of 
Commodore Downes with the Chiefs. Waikiki Prisoners Liberated. The Prophetess 
Kahapuu 76 

CHAPTER VIII 
THE CHARGE OP THE IRISH BRIGADE 

Ecclesiastical Division of Oriental Oceania. The First Vicar-Apostolic. The 
King's Majority. Saturnalia. Bro. Columba Murphy. New Persecution. An Eva- 
sive Document. Arrival of Father Walsh. Visit of La Bonite. A Dinner on Board. 
An After-Dinner Speech. H. B. M. Acteon. English Treaty. An Absurd Clause. 
Father Walsh's Activity 86 

CHAPTER IX 
THE AFFAIR OF "LA CLEMENTINE" 

Papal Encouragement. On the Look-out for an Opportunity. Fathers Bachelot 
and Short again Embark for Hawaii. Arrival at Honolulu. Ordered to Leave. 
Kinau Offers a Bribe to Dudoit. Forcible Reembarkatlon. A Floating Prison. 
Epistolary War. A Clear Case of Angaria. Something anent the Divine Rights of 
Kings. The Sulphur and the Venus. La Clementine Recaptured. F. Bachelot's 
Memorial to Capt. Du Petit- Thouars. A Stormy Conference. The Commander's 
Promise that the Priests shall Depart. A Treaty with France. The Imogene. 
Father Short leaves 98 

CHAPTER X 
DEATH OF BACHELOT 

FF. Caret and Maigret at Valparaiso. Mgr. Pompalller. Ordination of F. 
Columba Murphy. FF. Maigret and Murphy for Hawaii. F. Maigret Refused a 
Landing. Consular Intervention in Vain. A Question of Veracity. The "Honolulu" 
Bought. FF. Bachelot and Maigret Sail for Ponape. Sickness of F. Bachelot. 
His Death. F. Maigret on Ponape. The Last Resting Place of F. Bachelot 113 



CHAPTER XI 
THE DEATH-SPASM OF PERSECUTION 

An Ordinance Rejecting the Catholic Religion. The Protestant Revival. Prohi- 
bition Laws. On the Crime of Smoking Tobacco. Anent Baptism and Confession 
as Practiced in the Protestant Churches. More Persecution. The Affair of the 
Albatross. F. Walsh's Literary Activity. H. B. M. Ship the Fly. A Greek Orthodox 
Funeral. Translation of the Bible. Death of Kinau. The 67 Waianae Catholics. 
A Change of Hearts. The Last Confessors 121 

CHAPTER XII 
L' ARTEMISE 

The Manifesto. No Protection for Missionaries. Committee of Vigilance. 
Armistice. The $20,000 Guarantee. Grant of Religious Liberty. Military Mass. 
The Commercial Treaty. An Apology for Laplace. Whatever we have done to 
Others, do not do it to us. The U. S. East-India Squadron. A Diplomatic Roman 
Candle 134 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE EPISCOPATE OF BISHOP ROUCHOUZE 

Land Tenure. Fasts and Feasts. Catholics Again Annoyed. Declaration of 
Rights'. First Publications. Zeal of Converts. Arrival of Mgr. Rouchouze and 
Company. A Protestant Missionary Tries to Convert the Priests. Visit of La 
Pylade. Foundation of Kailua Mission. The Lahainaluna History of the Church. 
Building of the Cathedral. Bingham Leaves for America. Armstrong, his Suc- 
cessor. Public Controversies. Needs of the Mission. Voyage of Mgr. Rouchouze to 
France. The Fate of the Marie-Joseph 141 



Contents ix 

Page 

CHAPTER XIV 

THE SCHOOL QUESTION A STRUGGLE FOR LIFE 

School Law of October 15, 1840. Catholic Principles on Education. Reasons for 
Catholic Opposition Against Hawaiian Common Schools. Father Maigret's Policy. 
His Normal School. Schoolbooks. The Centuries. Success of Catholic Schools. 
School Law of May 21, 1841. Oppressive Taboos. The Embuscade. French De- 
mands. Dionisio of Molokal. Catholic Pupils Punished. King Advocates Harmony. 
The Frienjl on F. Maigret's Normal School. The Ahuimanu Grant. Department 
of Public Instruction. Admiral Tromelin, the Poursuivante. French Outrage. 
Further Concessions. No Privileges Asked 155 

CHAPTER XV 
BRANCHING OUT 

Foundation of Mission on Kauai. Koloa. Moloaa. Opposition. First Baptisms. 
Mission Established on Niihau. The Mighty Apela. Schools. Rowdyism. The 
Mission on Maul. Passing Visits. The Catechist Kanui. The Catechlst Helio. 
David Malo's Missionary Methods. Ludicrous Incidents. Father Desvault's Visit. 
The Demonstration "Paakaula." Work on the King's Plantation. A Case of 
Telepathy. Kamakau's Raid. Arrival of Priests. Growth of the Mission on Hawaii. 
New Post at Waimea. Puna and Hilo. Division of Island into Missionary Dis- 
tricts. Kau, an Unfallowed Field. Calvinism or Starvation. Both Rejected as 
Unpalatable. Reverses. Praise from the Enemy. Father Charles at Hllo: a Dread- 
ful Foe. The Secret of Success 175 

CHAPTER XVI 
EPISCOPATE OF BISHOP LOUIS MAIGRET 

Nomination and Resignation of Father Duboize. Father Maigret Elected and 
Consecrated Bishop. El Dorado. Jesuits. Father Flavian Fontaine. His College at 
Mission Dolores. In Bankruptcy. In the Various Missions. Mormons in Hawaii. 
The Anglican Mission. Press and Publication. Schools. Arrival of Sisters of the 
Sacred Hearts. Ahuimanu. Father Larkin. His College. Father Herman Koecke- 
mann as Coadjutor. The Collapse of St. Louis College Building. Exit Father 
Larkin 186 

CHAPTER XVII 
FATHER DAMIEN 

Introduction and Spread of Leprosy in Hawaii. Efforts to Repress the Disease. 
The Molokai Settlement. Need of a Priest. Building of the First Catholic Chapel. 
Arrival of F. Damien at Molokai. Biographical Notes. First Tears of Missionary 
Life His Description of the Settlement and of his Work There. A Leper. 
Assistants, Father Andrew, Father Albert, Father Gregory, Dutton; Sisters; Father 
Conrardy. Father Wendelin. Last Sickness and Death. Hyde's Letter. Stevenson's 
Philippic. Defects Discussed. Morality Vindicated. Dutton's Report. Hyde's Second 
Letter. Beissel's Controversy. Final Vindication by "a Missionary." 197 

CHAPTER XVIII 

EPISCOPATES OF BISHOP HERMAN KOECKEMANN AND 
BISHOP GULSTAN ROPERT 

Consecration of Bishop Herman. Death of Bishop Louis. Portuguese in Hawaii. 
An Apostate under the Shadow of his Bushel. Portuguese Immigration. Padre 
Fernandes. Missions to the Portuguese. The New St. Louis College. Arrival of 
the Brothers of Mary. Government Subsidies. The School Question Again. 
Demise of the Bishop of Olba. His Successor Bishop Gulstan. Missions to the 
English Speaking Population. Condemnation of Secret Societies. Catholic Societies. 
Brothers Inflrmarians for the Lepers. Father Wendelin and the Board of Health. 
Schools. Sickness and Death of the Bishop of Panopolis i 222 

CHAPTER XIX 
EPISCOPATE OF BISHOP LIBERT 

Bishop Libert. Kalihi Orphanage. Wailuku Orphanage. Father Louis Boys' 
Home. New Churches. Kaimuki Academy. St. Louis College. K. C. Building. 
Filipino Immigration. Apostolate among Orientals. Death of Bishop Libert 234 

CHAPTER XX 
BISHOP STEPHEN'S ACCESSION. ACTUAL STATUS OF THE MISSION 

Bishop Stephen Alencastre. Erection of Curia. Missionaries. Districts and 
Churches. Catholic Population. Schools. Catholic Societies. Religious Papers.... 240 

Alphabetical Index 249 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Rt. Rev. Stephen P. Alencastre, Bishop of Arabissus Frontispiece 

Father Reginald Yzendoorn, SS.CC Page 2 

Facing Page 

Map of Hawaiian Islands, drawn in 1587 - 16 

Statue of Spaniard in Bishop Museum 17 

Bishop Libert Boeynamens Group Picture Churches and Chapels 32 

Boki and Liliha 33 

Honolulu Harbor in 1821 48 

Kalanimoku 49 

Baptism of Kalanimoku on Board L'Uranie, 1819 64 

Father Bachelot's Algaroba Tree 65 

Columbus Welfare Hall 80 

Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace 80 

Sacred Hearts Sisters' School at Honolulu 80 

Academy of the Sacred Hearts, Kaimuki, Honolulu 81 

Sacred Heart Church, Punahou, Honolulu 96 

Church of St. Anthony, Wailuku, Maui 97 

Bishop Stephen Alencastre and Group of Japanese Converts 112 

Father Maigret at the Grave of Father Bachelot 113 

Kimeone 113 

Malia Makelena Kaha 113 

Juliana Makuwahine 113 

St. Anthony's Orphanage at Kalihi-Uka, Honolulu 128 

Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, Honolulu 128 

St. Francis Hospital, Honolulu 144 

Our Lady of the Mount, Kalihi-Uka, Honolulu 145 

Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in 1828 160 

Rt. Rev. Stephen Rouchouze, Bishop of Nilopolis 161 

Father Alexis Bachelot 161 

Rt. Rev. Louis Maigret, Bishop of Arathia 161 

Primitive Church in Puna, Hawaii 176 

St. Louis College, Honolulu 177 

Bishop Herman Koeckemann and Clergy, 188S 192 

College of Ahuimanu, 1926 193 

Father Damien de Veuster, Apostle to the Lepers 208 

Brothers Infirmaries ofl the Sacred Hearts, Molokai 209 

Grave of Father Damien de Veuster 224 

Grave of Mother Marianne 225 

Rt. Rev. Gulston Rupert Bishop of Panopolis 240 

Bishop Libert Boeynaems and Clergy, 1923 241 



Preface 

During my four years' stay at Hilo, in the Island of Hawaii, I once visited 
the neighboring district of Puna, where my congenial confrere, Father Ulrich 
Taube, conducted his flock Heavenward with music and with song. 

The Pahoa Mission band was through rehearsing, and the native boys passed 
the rest of the evening with telling stories of by-gone days. One of these 
became the indirect cause of the present historical study. 

As the story went, there had lived in the district, before the arrival of the 
first Catholic priest, a young Hawaiian girl who had foretold the coming of 
Catholic missionaries in terms to this purport: That one day there was to come 
a man dressed in a "kapa loloa," a long garment; he and his companions were 
the ministers of the true religion. 

Kahapuu was the name of the Hawaiian maid. As part of her prophecy she 
was said to have taught the inhabitants of Puna the Lord's prayer, which she 
herself should have learned by Divine revelation. She died a martyr to the 
unknown faith. 

In the Marquesas the arrival of the Catholic missionaries had been foretold in 
a similar way by another Polynesian prophetess. Maybe, I thought, our Fathers 
have told that tradition to the natives here, who in their turn have adapted it as 
a tradition of their own. 

Back in Hilo I consulted old natives. They all knew the story. They all 
agreed to the different details and knew Kahapuu's prayer, which, however, was 
not the Our Father, and did not sound like a Catholic invocation. Further 
researches concerning my native druid confirmed the story, but made me doubt 
the supernatural source of the seeress' revelations. 

After some time I was thinking of making Kahapuu the subject of a his- 
torical novel, when Bishop Libert advised me to write rather the History of the 
Mission in Hawaii. Much earlier the Very Reverend Father Marcellin Bousquet, 
Superior General of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, had expressed a 
similar desire, saying: "It seems that nothing is known of the apostolic labors 
of our missionaries and of the history of the people of Oceania. A missionary 
who would devote his hours of leisure to the composition of such historical study, 
would thereby perform a task both useful and agreeable to many people." 

Thus encouraged I looked over the documents at my disposal in the archives 
of the Mission, and thought that I might attempt the task. This was in the 
beginning of 1908. After more than five years of patient and extensive research, 
I had the satisfaction of seeing the work completed. Bishop Libert, however, did 
not feel inclined to have it published, but after the Prelate's demise, Bishop 
Stephen ordered the author to give it to the press. The last chapter was 
rewritten and a new one added, bringing the History up-to-date, and making it 
embrace the entire century which has elapsed since the departure of the first 
Catholic missionaries from France for the Hawaiian shores. 

Unlike many other Ecclesiastical Histories, this History is neither apologetic 
nor controversial. No such needs have prompted the writing of its pages. As 
it is the duty of every man to oppose error, when its toleration would not be 
for the greater good, I have not reproached nor condemned the Protestant mis- 
sionaries for opposing with all their might what in their opinion is the error of 



xiv Preface 

errors. If the Reverend Messrs. Hiram Bingham and C. M. Hyde have been 
handled with severity, it is not because their opposition was more violent, but 
because ungentlemanly they made use of unfair weapons. 

For assistance in the work sincerest thanks are due to Messrs. Geo. R. 
Carter and Sydney Ballou, who kindly permitted the use of their libraries 
replete with works on Hawaiian History. Also to the late Professor W. D. 
Alexander and Rev. W. D. Westervelt, who have given me valuable aid by 
reading the greater part of the manuscript and offering weighty criticisms which 
repeatedly have induced me to alter certain views, and have contributed much 
in rendering this History as correct and impartial as possible. 

But it is principally to Professor Howard M. Ballou, who since has passed 
away to my immense regret, that I must acknowledge considerable obligation for 
his painstaking correction of the manuscript, and further valuable aid which 
during several years he has rendered me in many ways. A member of the 
Mission could not have taken more interest in the work and given me better 
assistance. 

FATHER REGINALD YZENDOORN, SS.CC. 

Honolulu, T. H., Christmas, 1926. 



"f 

/ 

V.*. it') 



CHAPTER I. 

Groping in the Mist of Hawaii's Past. 

Location. Discovery by Cook. Origin of the Hawaiians. Oral Tradition and 
Chronology. The White Priest Paao. A Weird Story. Nothing but a Dream. Some 
more Genealogy. The White Flag. Gaetano's Claims to Discovery Denied. Old Maps. 
The Statue of the Spaniard. Paao and Pili are Spaniards. They Preached the 
Catholic Religion. Remnants of Catholic Teaching. The Meaning of a Name. Cook 
once more, and other Arrivals, Internecine Wars. Consolidation of the Group into 
One Kingdom. Baptism of Two Chiefs. Abolition of the Taboo. 

THE Hawaiian Archipelago, formerly called the Sandwich Islands, is situ- 
ated in the Pacific Ocean, between 18 55' and 22 2' North Latitude, and 
154 47' and 160 14' 40" West Longitude. 

The group consists of eight greater and several smaller islands with a 
North West to South East trend. They are partly coral and partly of volcanic 
origin. Only seven of the islands are inhabited, which are, in their geo- 
graphical order from West to East: Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, 
Maui, and Hawaii, the latter being the home of two active volcanoes, whilst on 
the others all volcanic activity has ceased for centuries. 

Of this archipelago an American congressman has said, that it is further 
away from anywhere than any other place in the world. Whether this be true 
or not, actually the islands are over two thousand miles from any other inhab- 
ited island-group of either the North or South Pacific; whilst outside of 
Oceania, the nearest ports are San Francisco (2100 miles), Acapulco, Mexico 
(3310 miles), Yokohama (3445 miles), and Manila (4778 miles). 

The Islands were visited in 1778-79 by the British explorer Cook, who 
touched at Kauai and Hawaii with his vessels, the Discovery and the Resolu- 
tion. He found them inhabited by members of the Polynesian race, which 
since has been called by ethnologists the Sawaiori, because its principal repre- 
sentatives are the SA-moans, the HaWAI-ians, and the Ma-ORI of New 
Zealand. 

By the following curious process, Cook's second in command, Capt. King, 
estimated the population at 400,000. 

Having counted the houses in Kealakekua bay, at that time one of the 
best populated parts of the islands, and supposing each hut to be the home of 
six persons, he obtained 2400 souls for that district. Then comparing the 
circumference of the islands with the extent of coastline of Kealakekua bay, 
after deducting one-fourth for uninhabited land, King made his census after 
the following formula: 

2400: Total Population:: Extent of Kealakekua bay: fy sum of circumfer- 
ence of all the islands. 1 

How inexact his formula was is shown at once by the fact that he attributes 
to Lanai and Lehua, two of the smaller islands, a population of respectively 
20,400 and 4000 souls, whilst the former island's population was probably not 
over 3000, and the latter was entirely uninhabited then, as at present. 

The actual number of inhabitants at the time of Cook's visit most probably 
did not exceed 150,000. 2 

1 Troisieme Voyage de Cook, vol. IV, pp. 56, 57. 

2 Cf. the numbers obtained in the first census of 1832, in Jarves' History, p. 403, and the 
remarks anent Ellis' census of 1823, in the second chapter of the present volume. 



2 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Ellis gives 140,000 as the population of the Archipelago in 1823, dividing it 
as follows: Hawaii, 85,000; Maui, 20,000; Lanai, 2000; Molokai, 3000; Oahu, 
20,000, and Kauai, 10,000. 

On page 121 he describes his method of taking the census of the Big Island 
which he toured on foot. 

Between Kailua and Keauhou, on a distance of 6 miles, and then the most 
popular part of the Island, he counted 610 houses, and reckoning 5 persons to 
a house, and adding 100 more houses for people living in the plantations on 
the side of the hills, he estimated the population of that district to be 3550. 
Now every Hawaiian family had then at least six houses: the hale moe or hale 
noa, living and sleeping houses ; the hale aina, woman's eating house ; hale pea, 
the woman's place during her monthly infirmity ; hale mua, men's eating house ; 
hale kuku, woman's workshop ; and the heiau or house chapel. We would then 
obtain a population of 591 for that part of the Island, and 14,166 for the whole 
Island. In the same proportions the total population would have been only 
23,300, but he must have received his data concerning the other islands from 
persons who followed a different method of calculation. 

How and when the Hawaiian branch of the Sawaioris reached these islands, 
so isolated from the rest of the world, and where the race had its habitat 
before entering the -Pacific Ocean, are problems which ethnologists have 
hitherto vainly endeavored to solve. Different theories have been proposed, 
each and all supported by an imposing array of arguments. 

Fornander, the author of "An Account of the Polynesian Race," is of the 
opinion that: "At the close of the first and during the second century of the 
present era, the Polynesians left the Asiatic Archipelago and entered the 
Pacific, establishing themselves on the Fiji group, and thence spreading to the 
Samoan, Tonga, and other groups eastward and northward; . . . settled 
on the Hawaiian Islands during the fifth century A. D., when several parties 
of emigrants from the Marquesas, Society and Samoan groups arrived. . . ." 3 

W. Fruin Mess, Geschiedenis van Java, says : "In very ancient times the an- 
cestors of the population of Java, being one people with the inhabitants of all 
the islands which are situated between Formosa and New Zealand, Easter Island 
and Madagascar (with exception of the Papuas of New Guinea, the Negritoes of 
the Philippines and others), seem to have lived in Indo-China, there where are 
now Cochin China, Cambodga and Annam. Already then they were divided 
into tribes. 

Once upon a time, when we cannot even approximately tell, this people was 
forced to leave its home. . . . The cause of this emigration probably was. . . 
the coming of some other people strong enough to expel the ancient inhabitants. 
The conquerors came from the North West and forced the people gradually 
more and more towards the coast, until finally by groups or by tribes they retired 
from the continent and settled on the numerous islands between Asia and 
Australia, East Africa and the West coast of America. . . . Three groups 
established themselves on Java; one on West Java, a second one principally in 
Central Java, and the third h^East Java and on Madura. 

In the second and third century of our era coming from what is now 
British India, they established colonies on West Java and became soon the 
ruling race. Two centuries later, other immigrants from the same country 
arrived and established themselves on Central Java, where also they obtained 
the upper hand, the Javanese (here) accepted gradually the religion of the 
Hindus. . . . The Hindus did not suppress the Javanese language. 

3 Opus citatum, I. p. 168. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 3 

In East Java hot so many Hindus established themselves, and a stronger 
mixing of the original population with the strangers took place. Here the 
pure Hindu type gradually got lost." 

If then the original Polynesians maintained themselves on Java, where are 
they? They ought to be of the same race with the Sawaiori. Dares any one 
say that a Sawaiori and a Malay belong to the same race ? 

A French savant, Dr. A. Lesson, has written four ponderous volumes ; "Les 
Polynesiens," and an addition : "Legendes tirees de Fornander," to demonstrate 
that the cradle of the Sawaiori race rocked nowhere else but in Kawai-Punamu, 
the South Island of New Zealand. From thence they emigrated to the North 
Island and further to Tonga and Samoa. 4 

If we may believe this author, who is a transformist and polygenist, there 
can be no doubt that the Maori were strictly autochthones of the first named 
island. Not that they sprung from the soil ready made; but through a series 
of gradual modifications, the last pre-human stage being the "seal" (Otaries 
molosses) ; in proof of which a Maori legend, the incontestable fact that seals 
are mammals, and the overworked skull of Neanderthal, are adduced. 5 

Dr. Shortland 6 conducts the Polynesians from the Philippines via the 
Mariannes to Hawaii, and from there to New Zealand. 

Considering that the prospective Hawaiians had to sail all the time against 
the wind and the currents, the author deserves considerable credit for this 
remarkable, though not impossible, feat of seamanship. 

A German author, Eduard Michelis, declares the fact that the Polynesians 
are descendants of the Ainos to be "beyond all doubt." 7 

Had he ever seen a Sawaiori and an Aino together, he might have conceived 
some doubt as to their close relationship, and having thus been induced to ponder 
again his arguments, not have found them so very conclusive. 

Whilst the hitherto quoted writers make the Polynesians enter the Pacific 
from the West, others had them come rather from an opposite direction, to wit, 
from either North or South America. Goodly arguments both in favor and 
against these theories are not wanting, and may be found summarized in Prof. 
Alexander's paper on the Origin of the Polynesian Race. 8 

Another hypothesis yet, which makes of the Hawaiians descendants of the 
Lost Tribes of Israel, has found much favor with the natives themselves, since 
they have become acquainted with the Bible. 

In regard to this theory much has been made of the alleged Hawaiian practice 
of circumcision. In reality, however, the Hawaiians never did practice circum- 
cision. The Protestant missionaries, when translating the Bible, had to coin a 
new word "okipoepoe" to describe it. The kindred ceremony of the Polynesians 
is rather a supercision, as may be seen from David Male's and Cook's accounts. 9 
The Hawaiians term it "kahe omaka." 

From these many conflicting theories may be inferred that historically the 
origin of the Hawaiians, and of the Polynesians in general, is unknown. 

The natives themselves say in their legends that their ancestors came from 
Kahiki, which has the same vague meaning as the English "abroad." 

4 Legend,es, p. 56. 

5 Legendes, p. 72. 

6 Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, pp. 42-45. 

7 Die Voelker der Suedsee und die Geschichte der protestantischen und katholischen Mis- 
aionen unter denselben. Munster, 1847, p. 42. 

8 Seventeenth Annual Report of the Hawaiian Historical Society, pp. 15-17. 

9 Hawaiian Antiquities, pp. 128, 129. Troisieme Voyage, II, p. 62. 



4 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

We may then safely conclude that whatever arguments prove satisfactory to 
ethnologists, the historian does not feel justified to improve upon the utterances 
of the native bards : No other cradle can thus far be assigned to the Sawaiori, 
besides Kahiki, the Wide Unknown. 

The history of the Hawaiian Islands begins with the visit of the Discovery and 
the Resolution : Cook and his lieutenant King wrote its first pages. 

The Hawaiians possessed indeed an unwritten literature made up of songs and 
other poetic pieces, of legends and old genealogies, but the art of writing they 
knew not. 

"When Nineveh ceased to write, its history came to an end," says Father 
Lagrange. 10 If history is thus so linked to writing that without it it cannot exist, 
we are bound to admit that a nation's history cannot antedate the moment it 
acquires the use of writing, principally if this nation is isolated from those who 
have acquired the art. 

Under ordinary circumstances we may not expect oral tradition to preserve 
faithfully the events of the past. 

It should not be deducted herefrom, that the popular legends are void of all 
value. What they tell us has probably not happened just so as they would fain 
make us believe. It occurred perhaps to other persons, or in other places, or at 
different times than those mentioned in the tradition. The whole composition 
may be either a myth or an allegory, having no foundation in historical fact. 
For the moment we are unable to determine what the tradition is worth. But 
later on fresh data may come to hand which will allow us to pick out some episode 
from the legendary mist, and assign it a place on the pages of history. 

The Hawaiians, as all Polynesians, have preserved the reminiscences of by- 
gone ages under the form of genealogical lists and all kinds of poetry. The 
therein contained data students of ancient Hawaiian lore have striven to unravel 
a toilsome task and with the material thus obtained they have undertaken to 
raise the historical structure of the nation's past. 

Fornander, as we have previously stated, has endeavored to show that the 
Hawaiian Islands were settled by Sawaiori as early as the fifth century of our 
era. However, even to his keen eye-sight, the seven ensuing centuries reveal 
nothing but, here and there, a shadowy figure, dimly standing out against the 
nebulous background. 

But the Middle-Ages of our group have for him no secrets. The long and 
dry genealogical lists of chieftains, which to us convey no more information 
than the fifth chapter of the Book of Genesis offers concerning the Patriarchs, 
but which confine themselves to apprise us that "Nanamea and Puia were the 
parents of Pehekeula, who marrying Uluae had a son by the name of Peheke- 
mana, who married Nanahapa and begot Nanamua" 11 and so forth for over 
fifty generations : these long and dry lists, he ingeniously enlivens and spins out 
into an interesting, historical looking, narration. 

Writing is not the only requisite of history: geography and chronology are 
equally indispensable. They are the very eyes of history, without which it can- 
not see clearly. 

Fornander well understood this. Hence he has endeavored to rediscover the 
lost countries, the names of which are contained in Hawaiian legendary lore, 
and he identifies them with islands and places of the Asiatic Archipelago, 12 with 
what success we have no interest to discuss. 



10 Historical Criticism and the Old Testament, p. 194. 

11 Nanaulu Genealogy. 

12 An Account, vol. I, pp. 3-26. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 5 

The genealogical lists have served him as material to build up his chronology, 
in accordance with the following method: 

"Hawaiian chronology counts by generations, not by reigns, nor by years. In 
computing long genealogies, thirty years to a generation will be found approximately 
correct. Keliiokaloa, it will be seen by all genealogies of his contemporaries in the 
other islands of the group, is the eleventh generation back of the present one now 
(1880) living. But the present generation and for illustration we take his present 
majesty, Kalakaua, was born in 1836. Eleven generations, or 330 years back of 
1836, bring us to A.D. 1506 as the year of Keliiokaloa's birth . . . . 13 

We believe that Fornander commits here a fundamental error which affects, 
impairs and dislocates his whole carefully raised historical structure. 

The average lifetime of man is commonly estimated as one third of a century. 
If therefore the child succeeded his parent as the sugarcane shoot grows up 
from the ratoon after the cane has been cut, Fornander would be right in stating : 
"In computing long genealogies, thirty years to a generation will be found 
approximately correct." 

But, as a rule, the child does not succeed his parent until after having lived 
together a number of years. To calculate the length of time embraced by a 
genealogical list, there can be only one method if no exact data are at hand ; this 
is to multiply the number of individuals on the list, not by the average lifetime of 
man on earth, but by the average number of years which elapse between the 
time of one's birth and that of his active begetting. 

Whilst it can be discussed whether such chronology ought to be based upon 
the male or upon the female line, a matter which could be decided only by 
complicated statistical calculations, the difference is perhaps immaterial when the 
individuals who make up the genealogy are pagan children of nature, leading a 
promiscuous life in tropical climes. 

At variance with Fornander's opinion, some others think with Jules Remy 14 
that Hawaiian chronology counts by reigns, and in calculating time, take 15 
years as the mean length of a reign. 

Whilst I hold him to be very near the truth as far as his chronological calcu- 
lations go, he is probably wrong in assuming the different generations to stand 
for as many reigns. For there is no reason why the genealogy of the reigning 
chiefs should essentially differ from those of the other nobles and of the priests. 
However, I hope to show that in whatever sense the generations are taken, we 
reach nearly the same conclusion as to their average length. 

There are good reasons to convince us that the genealogical lists have 
registered more generations than really succeeded each other. 

The Nanaulu genealogy as given by Zepherino, and which counts no less 
than 114 generations from Kumuhonua till Kamahameha I, enumerates suc- 
cessively chiefs who were brothers. To quote a few striking examples: Liloa, a 
sovereign of the Big Island, No. 47 on the list, had two sons, Hakau and Umi, 
who are placed on the list as Nos. 48 and 50. Between them comes one 
Keanomeha, who was the husband of Hakau's daughter, Pinea II. 

Umi's five sons, Kapunanahuanui, Noho, Kumalae, Keliiokaloa and Keawenui, 
with his son-in-law, Kahakumakaluia, come as the 51st, 52nd, 53d, 54th, 56th, and 
55th generations. It is noteworthy that Umi begot these children by six different 
wives, whom probably he kept simultaneously, as the Hawaiian grandees were 
wont. 



13 An Account, vol. I, p. 108. 

14 Histoire de 1'Archipel Havaiien, p. xxxvL 



6 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Somewhat later on the list come Puna (76th generation) and Hema (78th 
generation), both sons of Aikanaka (75th generation). Ua, a son of Puna, is 
counted before his uncle Hema, as the 77th. 

We might multiply similar examples, but think to have quoted sufficiently to 
show that even this list which Fornander considers "The most reliable and least 
affected by ... interpolations . . . ," 15 must be considerably curtailed, if we 
wish to see in it a series of generations, whilst if considered as reigns, it can be 
scarcely believed that Umi's six children governed successively; it would be 
much more likely that they reigned over some portion of their father's dominions 
simultaneously. 

The fact that the chiefs frequently changed their names 16 may have been 
another cause why the genealogical lists were unduly lengthened. By submitting 
them to a thorough criticism, we might, indeed, amend them; but it seems 
inf easible to improve them so as to make them available as a basis for chronology. 

Only of the later generations we may hope such approach to accuracy, and 
whatever average of years one is induced to fix upon as the length of either a 
generation or a reign, it can be applied only to these later generations, without 
fear of obtaining dates which are considerably at variance with the truth. 

If now we consider a generation as the time between a person's birth and 
his active begetting the only possible sense the word can have in genealogy it 
must not be difficult to determine its average extension. 

The age of puberty is generally recognized to be 14 for males and 12 for 
females. In many countries, however, the actual age of marriage is considerably 
higher because of the male's inability earlier to provide for a family, and of the 
requirements of the military service; whilst extra-matrimonial intercourse is 
retarded and restrained by religious and climatic influences. In countries where 
there is no obligatory military service and where a lenient climate considerably 
reduces the necessities of life Brazil and Mexico may be taken as examples the 
age of marriage often coincides with that of puberty. 

I am not aware that in Ancient Hawaii any conditions existed which could 
have acted as restraints on the passions or as reasons why marriage should have 
been deferred, for Hawaii was then the ideal land for easygoing and improvident 
people. 

Infanticide and race-suicide are said by the early Protestant missionaries to 
have been practised to a very great extent. But as no shame was attached to, nor 
blame expected for extra-matrimonial intercourse and conception, I think it 
improbable that early conceptions should have been generally interfered with. 
The cruelty and ungenerous instincts which incite to these criminal practices, seem 
to be less proper to the years of pubescence than to the more advanced age. 

That this disgusting and unnatural crime was committed by the Hawaiians of 
the beginning of the nineteenth century with any special frequency, I have no 
reason to believe. Ellis (Narrative, pp. 324, 330), Bingham (Residence, p. 368), 
and Dibble's (History, 1909 ed. p. 108) unanimously indict the Hawaiians. 

But as Ellis claimed (loc. citato) that in 1823 the missionaries had checked 
that criminal custom, which success they could not well have obtained in the short 
period of three years, it would appear that their unfavorable judgment was 
rather a rash one. 

Even the ancient but queer and unnatural custom of adopting other people's 



15 Opus cit., vol. I, p. 188. 

16 Stewart, Journal, p. 94. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 7 

babies whilst giving away his own, rather goes to show the Hawaiian's love of 

children. 

If then we take 15 years as the mean age of active generation, both for 
males and females, and consequently take this as the average length of generation, 
we do not think that we can be far from the truth. 

It may, however, be remarked that the Hawaiian chieftains did not succeed 
each other according to their rights of inheritance; some, no doubt, took the 
place of their predecessors as a consequence of revolutions or of the chances of 
war. Is Jules Remy perhaps right as some instances of the genealogical lists 
suggest, in taking the generations to mean reigns? In that case how many 
years have we to count for an average reign ? 

If we consider the reigns of the Hawaiian princes as far as they are 
historically known, we have the following : L,iholiho reigned 5 years ; Kamehameha 
III, 29 years ; Kamehameha IV, 9 years ; his successor the fifth Kamehameha also 
9 years; Lunalilo 2; and Kalakaua 17 years. This gives for six kings reigning 
over a period of 71 years a mean length of 12 years. If we add the reign of 
Kamehameha I, which was extraordinary long (39 years), we get for seven 
princes over 108 years, an average of 15 years. 

In whatever sense then we are inclined to take the generations that compose 
the Hawaiian genealogies, we feel justified in assigning them an average length of 
15 years, in which we agree with Jarves, Remy and others. 

The preceding remarks will be helpful in trying to elucidate a hypothesis 
proposed by Ellis and Jarves anent the existence of a Catholic mission in the 
Hawaiian group during the sixteenth century, and in fixing the date of a first 
discovery of these islands by the Spaniards. 

The first part of this hypothesis is entirely, the second one partly, based upon 
the traditions first gathered from the natives by the Protestant missionary s 
William Ellis, who in 1823 made a tour around the Island of Hawaii. 

What greatly enhances this writer's authority is not only that through his 
knowledge of the Hawaiian language and of the customs and character of other 
Polynesian tribes he was eminently fit to collect Hawaiian lore, but also the fact 
that he did this at a time when the mind of the natives was not yet filled with 
shame of their country's past, as a consequence of the teaching of the missionaries, 
nor sophisticated and confused by the white man's theories. 

According to the legends which were then current among the aborigines, 
strangers from foreign lands had at different times landed on their shores, some 
of whom had remained in the country, whilst others had left. 

Among the former the most worthy of note was a priest named Paao. Of him 
Mr. Ellis gives the following account : 

"In the reign of Kahoukapu, a kahuna (priest) arrived at Hawaii from a foreign 
country; he was a white man, and brought with him two idols or gods, one large, 
and the other small; they were adopted by the people and placed among the Hawaiian 
gods; the temple of Mokini was erected for them, where they were worshipped accord- 
ing to the direction of Paao, who became a powerful man in the nation. The principal 
event of his life, however, respects a child of Kahoukapu, whose mother was a woman 
of humble rank, but which was spared at the solicitations of Paao. After his death, 
his son Opiri, officiated in his temple; and the only particular worthy of note in their 
account of his life, is his acting as interpreter between the king and a party of white 
men who arrived at the island .... We heard a similar account of this priest at 
two other places during our tour, viz. at Kairua, and at the first place we visited after 
setting out."i7 

17 Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii, 1828, p. 398. The first place the missionaries vis- 
ited after leaving Kailua, was either Luapua or Honuaula, both in North Kona, Pol. Re- 
searches IV, 392. 



8 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

This Paao was said to have built the temple Molokini at Puuepa, North 
Kohala, where he resided and officiated. 18 To him, adds the same author, "the 
priests of that neighborhood traced their genealogy until very recently." 19 

Afterwards other stray travelers came, the incidents of whose arrival throw 
some light on the race of Paao and his companion Pili (Opili or Opiri). 

"During the lifetime of Opiri, the son of Paao, a number of foreigners (white men) 
arrived at Hawaii, landed somewhere in the southwest part of the island, and repaired 
to the mountains, where they took up their abode. The natives regarded them with 
a superstitious curiosity and dread, and knew not whether to consider them as gods 
or men. Opiri was sent for by the king of that part of the island where they were 
residing and consulted as to the conduct to be observed towards them. According to 
his advice, a large present of provisions was cooked and carried to them. Opiri led 
the procession, accompanied by several men, each carrying a bamboo cane with a 
piece of white native cloth tied to the end of it. When the strangers saw them 
approaching their retreat, they came out to meet them. The natives placed the baked 
pigs and potatoes, etc., on the grass, fixed their white banners in the ground, and, then 
retreated a few paces. The foreigners approached. Opiri addressed them. They 
answered, received the presents, and afterwards conversed with the people through the 
medium of Opiri. The faculty with which they could communicate their thoughts by 
means of Opiri . . . was attributed to the supposed influence of Opiri with his gods. 
The foreigners, they imagined, were supernatural beings, and as such were treated 
with every possible mark of respect. After remaining some time on the island, they 
returned to their own country. No account is preserved of the kind of vessel in which 
they arrived or departed. The name of the principal person among them was 
Manahini . . . ."20 

"The third account," continues Ellis, "is much more recent and precise, though the 
period at which it took place is uncertain. It states that a number of years after the 
departure of Manahini-ma (Manahini and his party) . . . seven foreigners arrived at 
Kearakekua bay .... They came in a painted boat with an awning or canopy over 
the stern, but without mast or sails. They were all dressed; the color of their clothes 
was white or yellow, and one of them wore a pahi, long knife, the name by which 
they still call a sword, at his side, and had a feather in his hat. The natives received 
them kindly. They married native women, were made chiefs, proved themselves 
-warriors, and ultimately became very powerful in the Island of Hawaii, which, it is 
said, was for some time governed by them ... .21 

Having given these accounts of white men in Hawaii, Mr. Ellis winds up by 
saying : 

"The most unaccountable circumstance connected with the priest Paao, is his 
arriving alone, though he might be the only survivor of his party. If such a person 
ever did arrive, we should think he was a Roman Catholic priest, and the reported 
gods an image and a cruciflx."22 

Such was the tradition as Mr. Ellis was told it in 1823 by Governor Kuakini 
at Kailua, and by other natives at Honuaula and Puuepa; at this latter place the 
memory of the foreign priest is likely to have been kept more faithfully, as it is 
there that he and his successors in office resided. 

When years rolled by, and more white scholars began to show an interest in 
Paao, the native historians appear to have felt ashamed for knowing so little 
about one of the most important personages of their past. Perhaps some one has 
asked them where Paao hailed from, and in 1866, S. M. Kamakau, whilst relating 
the Paao-legend proper in but a few lines, spins out a long story of how and why 
the famous priest came to Hawaii. 

I translate from the Nupepa Kuokoa, No. 265. 

18 Op. et loc. cit. Pol. Res. IV, 392-393. 

19 Op. clt. p. 446, Pol. Researches IV, 437. 

20 Op. cit. pp. 446, 447. Polyn. Res. 437. 

21 Ibidem, pp. 447, 448, Pol. Res. IV, 438. 

22 Ibidem, p. 449. Pol. Res. IV, 439-40. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 9 

"Paao was a priest, Makuakaumana a prophet and Pili or Pilikaaiea a chief. 
This is the Pili who came after the chief Laau whose name is mentioned in the 
Hema-genealogy." 

.In the story of Paao and his party, it is said that their country was Wawau and 
Upolo and the lands further south; these are perhaps the countries which the 
foreigners call New Zealand. The steep hill near the shore is called Kaakoheo and 
the mountain is called Malaia; hence Namauuomalaia, the sister of Paao, is thus 
called after the grasses which Paao brought along, the grasses of Malaia. 

The reason why Paao left his country is that he quarreled with his elder brother, 
Lonopele, w,ho was a priest, a man of power, shrewd and cunning knowledge, who 
knew everything in the line of his priestly office. The two brothers were husband- 
men. Lonopele kept his lands well under cultivation, and had a garden planted with 
fruit trees. 

Once upon a time the fruits of his orchard were stolen, and suspecting Paao's son 
of the theft, he went to his brother to inform him of his suspicions. 

Are you sure, asked Paao, that my child has taken the fruits? 

No, replied Lonopele, I have seen the boy going into the orchard, but I did not 
see him taking any fruit. I think, however, that he is the culprit. 

If this is the case, said Paao, I will rip my child's stomach open. Suppose, how- 
ever, that the fruit is not found there? 

Answered Lonopele: That does not concern me; it is up to you. When did you 
ever see anybody's stomach ripped open? Such an idea could enter only in your mind. 

Well, replied Paao, I am going to open my boy's stomach; if the fruits are there, 
then you are right; if not so, then you are wrong. 

Holding fast to his idea, he murdered his child; and when he found no traces of 
the fruit, he sent for his brother that he might convince himself with his own eyes. 
But Lonopele refused to come. 

After a while, Paao returned, and in his grief over the loss of his child, he said 
to his brother: From now on, I shall endeavor to kill your own child, and thus take 
revenge for your treachery. Then I will depart from here. 

Paao then started building some canoes, which later on, when they were finished, 
proved to be very good ones. When the boats were sea-worthy, he forbade every- 
body to go near them, until they were blessed. 

This taboo lasted for quite a time. Whilst it was still on, Lonopele's boy happened 
to come near them, and amused himself with tapping on them. 

As Paao heard the noise, he asked: Where does that noise come from? Some 
one answered: It is Lonopele's son who is hammering on the canoes. 

Lonopele gave order to kill the child, which order was immediately executed. 

Now Paao consecrated the boats, and lifted the taboo. They left the corpse next 
to the hind block on which the canoes rested. 

After two or three days, Lonopele arrived at the place where the canoes were 
lying on the shore. He was searching for his child, whom he had missed. Looking 
at the canoes, Lonopele admired their neatness. He examined them from bow to 
stern, and seeing swarms of flies underneath the hindblock of the boats, he approached 
to see better, when he found the remains of his murdered child. At this sight, he 
was overpowered with sadness, and in an outburst of grief and anger, he said to 
Paao: O Paao! you have killed my child. Woe to you! Begone from here, for you 
are a wicked man. 

Then he took the corpse away and mourned his son with an intense love. Then 
they gave to the canoes the name: Kanaloaamuia.23 

Fearing his brother's resentment, Paao started at once to gather provisions for 
his intended ocean voyage. 

The number of people embarking on the canoes was 38: two cooks; the chief 
Pili and Hinaaukekele his wife, also known as Hinaauaku; Namauuomalaia, Paao's 
sister; and Paao himself who had been ordained a priest for this voyage of discovery. 

When all was ready for the voyage and all were seated in the canoes, a prophet 
arrived and standing upon the Kaahokeo hill, shouted down: "Paao, here is one who 
wants to go along with you." 

"Who are you?" asked Paao. 

"I am a prophet," quoth he. 

"What is your name?" 

"Lelekoae," came the answer. 

23 This is probably an allusion to the finding of the child. 



10 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Paao ordered him to leap, which the prophet did; but falling on the rocks below, 
he was killed.25 

Many other prophets were tried by Paao, as he recognized their power, but they 
all perished as had done the first. 

The canoes then sailed away, and when they were almost out of sight of land, 
behold, another prophet stood on the cliff of Kaahokeo, and shouted: "Paao, let me be 
one of your party." When he had repeated this twice or thrice, the seafarers heard 
him, notwithstanding the great distance; and looking they saw the man standing on 
the hill. 

This prophet gave his name as Makuakaumana. Paao answered him that there 
was no other place in the canoes but the abutment at the stern. The prophet declared 
to be satisfied with the place, whereupon Paao ordered him to leap. 

And soaring like a bird, Makuakaumana leaped till he sat on the abutment 
(momoa), and his hands grasped the bowsprit of the canoes. "Here I am," said he, 
"where is my place? They told him to sit upon the pola (the high seat between the 
canoes which is reserved for chiefs). 

Whilst Paao and his company were on the ocean, Lonopele did not cease to annoy 
him, causing terrific storms to be let loose against the frail vessels. But Paao gave 
proof of his seamanship, and covered the canoes entirely with matting. 

When the winds grew more impetuous, two kinds of fish, bonitos and mackerels, 
gathered in schools around the canoes; and protected the boats from capsizing, until 
finally the storm abated. 

For this reason the taboo on bonitos and mackerels became an observance of Paao 
and his descendants until the time of Hewahewa, the highpriest of Kamehameha. 

In Puna, on the south-west coast of Hawaii, Paao made his first landfall. There 
is yet found the heiau (temple) built by him in honor of his god, Ahaula. 

From Puna the party sailed northwards till they arrived at the northmost point 
of the Big Island; there they landed at a place by the name of Puuepa. Paao built 
here another temple to which the name Mookini (or Molokini) was given. 

It is thought that the arrival of Paao in Hawaii happened during the reign of the 
chief Laau, because after this chief's reign, Pili became chief of Hawaii. So it is 
stated in the genealogy of Hanalaanui and there you may look it up.20 

Fornander has got hold of this version of the Paao legend as a proof of his 
favorite theory that frequent communications took place between Samoa and 
Hawaii in the twelfth century; for that early he fixes the arrival of Paao. 

It was perhaps because of his being aware of the weakness of his contention 
that he tried to strengthen it by an alleged parallel New Zealand legend. Says he : 

"The cause of Paao's departure from Upolo to seek a new establishment in other 
lands, as narrated by Hawaiian tradition, bears so strong a resemblance to the 
Samoan legend brought by the first emigrants to New Zealand, and narrated by Sir 
George Grey in his 'Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New 
Zealand Race,' London, John Murray, 1855, page 202, etc., that it is easy to recognize 
that both legends are but different versions of the same event."27 

Unfortunately for the cogency of Fornander's arguments, it is impossible to 
discover any resemblance between the two legends which will warrant the con- 
clusion he arrives at. 

For me the Kamakau version is not even a legend, not even a deliberate theory. 
That father ripping up his child to find whether or not it has stolen fruit, those 
prophets flying from the top of a bluff to the mast of a distant vessel, the 
incidents of the canoes and of the schools of fishes, they have all such a thoroughly 
nightmarish look, that the whole story of Paao's adventures before coming to 
Hawaii, I hold to be nothing but a dream. This opinion, apart from the internal 
evidence, receives additional weight from the fact that Hawaiians were and are 
wont to take their dreams for stern reality. 28 

25 Paao's answer was a pun on the name of the prophet, which is that of a seabird that 
lives on the cliffs, and leaps, so to say, from the rocks to catch its prey. 

26 Kamakau, Moolelo o Kamehameha I, Nupepa Kuokoa, Dec. 29, 1866. 

27 Polynesian Race, II, p. 30. 

28 Cf. the Boki incident in Ch. V, and the Kahapuu story in Ch. VII of this history. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Haivaii 11 

Believing therefore that there are no grounds to believe that Paao hailed from 
Samoa, a difficulty remains in the second part of Kamakau's version, in as far as 
he makes the priest arrive in the time of the chief Laau. This opinion he avows 
to be based upon the fact that this chieftain reigned before Pili. 

Another witness to Hawaiian tradition, David Malo, declares the arrival of 
Paao to have taken place during the reign of Lonokawai, Laau's predecessor. 

As on the Ulu genealogy, first published in 1838 by the said David Malo in 
the Lahainaluna History of Hawaii 29 , Lonokawai and Laau occupy respectively 
the 30th and the 29th generation before Kamehameha I, whilst Kahoukapu comes 
fully twelve generations later (18th generation before Kamehameha) ; this would 
bring Paao's arrival some 180 years previous to Kahoukapu's time. But here 
again we stumble over one of the niceties of the genealogical lists. 

The same David Malo in his "Hawaiian Antiquities", makes Paao contem- 
porary not only with Lonokawai, whom as we have seen, he puts thirty genera- 
tions before Kamehameha, and with Kanipahu and Kalapana to whom he assigns 
the 23d and 22d generations, but with Kahoukapu as well, whose wife Laakapu 
is said by him to have obtained a child from the gods at the prayer of Paao. 30 

As it is impossible to admit that Paao lived over two centuries, we must con- 
clude that all these chieftains reigned simultaneously. After all it follows that 
both Kamakau and Malo agree with Mr. Ellis in making the foreign priest a con- 
temporary with Kahoukapu. 

Now Fornander shows 31 that this chief's reign ought to be assigned not to the 
18th, but to the 14th generation previous to Kamehameha I, which according to 
the average length of a generation we have fixed upon, will bring us 210 years 
earlier than 1780, i.e. 1570, or thereabouts. 

There is nothing in the traditions concerning Paao and Pili that indicates a 
Samoan origin. On the contrary the unanimous affirmation of all witnesses to 
Hawaiian tradition, by calling him a "haole" and a white man, expressly pre- 
cludes the hypothesis of a Sawaiori origin. 

Whatever may have been the relationship between Paao and Pili, nothing 
suggests that they did not belong to the same nationality. Now we have seen Pili 
conversing fluently, to the great astonishment of the Hawaiians, with a party of 
white men, who paid a passing visit to the islands about the middle of the XVI 
century or perhaps a decade or two later. That both Pili and the Manahini party 
were really white men, i. e. Europeans, receives an additional affirmation from the 
use of the white flag as an emblem of peace. Throughout Polynesia young 
banana trees and ti-plants were used for that purpose ; 32 they made use of white 
flags indeed, but only as signs of the taboo. 33 It is true King mentions the use of 
white pieces of cloth together with banana-leaves and green branches as symbols 
of truce by the Hawaiians ; 34 Dalrymple also reports instances of white flags used 
as peace signals by the inhabitants of New Zealand and Tonga-tabu in the year 
1642; 35 but in all these cases the natives used them in their relations with Euro- 
peans from whom probably they had learnt their meaning. 

As the English first entered the Pacific under Drake in September, 1578, when 
one of the Admiral's three vessels, the Marigold, parted company, in a gale of 
wind and was never heard of again, whilst the Dutch appeared in these seas later 

29 Moolelo Hawaii, edition of Jules Remy, 1862, pp. 64-69. 

30 Hawaiian Antiquities, pp. 25, 324, 328, 332, 333. 

31 Polynesian Race, vol. I, p. 192. 

32 Ellis' Narrative, p. 147 ; Jarves' History, p. 67. 

33 Corney, Early Northern Voyages, Honolulu, 1896, pp. 36, 86, 101. 

34 Troisleme Voyage de Cook, Paris, 1785, vol. Ill, p, 475. 

35 Voyages dans la Mer du Sud, Paris 1774, pp. 337, 344, 345. 



12 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

yet, to wit, in September, 1599 under Jacob Mahu, 86 no other Europeans crossed 
the Pacific at an earlier date than the Spaniards, from which it may be concluded 
that the Manahini party, and consequently Paao and Pili belonged to that 
nationality. 

Now we have historical documents, apart from the Hawaiian traditions which 
show that these islands were known to the Spaniards before the beginning of the 
XVII century (1600), and that moreover they had been on the islands. 

Prof. Alexander states 37 : "There is little doubt that these islands were dis- 
covered by the Spanish navigator, Juan Gaetano, in the year 1555." Although he 
does not give his authority, it can but be document No. 64 issued on February 21, 
1865 from the Colonial Office at Madrid and addressed to the Superior Civil 
Governor of the Philippines. From this document I make the following 
extracts : 

". . . . By all the documents that have been examined, It is demonstrated that 
the discovery dates from the year 1555 . . . and that the discoverer was Juan Gaetano 
or Gaytan. The Principal proof is an old manuscript chart, registered in these 
archives as anonymous, and in which the Sandwich Islands are laid down under that 
name, but which also contains a note declaring that he called them "Islas de Mesa 
(Table Islands)." There are besides other islands situated in the same latitude, but 
10 degrees farther east and respectively named "La Mesa," La Desgraciade, Olloa or 
Los Monges. The chart appears to be a copy of that called the chart of the Spanish 
Galleon, existing long before the time of Cook, and which is referred to by all the 
national and foreign authors that have been consulted, such as the following: Batavian 
Geography, 2nd vol. of the Geographical atlas of William Blaeu, Amsterdam, 1663. In 
the first map entitled 'America Nova Fabula,' the neighboring islands La Desgraciada, 
and those of Los Monges, are placed towards the 21st degree of northern latitude and 
120 west of the meridian passing through the island of Teneriff . . . James Burney 
. . . cites the atlas of Artelius entitled 'Theatrum Orbis' in which the same islands 
are found, and placed in nearly the same position .... 

"Foreign authors say that it (the discovery) took place in 1542 in the expedition 
commanded by General Rui Lopez dei Villalobo, while the Spanish chronicles denote 
1555. The latter date should be the more correct one, for Juan Gaytan wrote the 
narrative of the voyage of 1542, and mentions nothing respecting those islands, while 
he gives an account of Rocca partida, and Amblada, and all those he discovered on 
that expedition . . . ." 

Now, since the Spanish manuscript chart contained the Sandwich Islands, 
under that name, it was naturally posterior to the year 1778, when Cook visited 
them, and gave them that name. We have consequently the anonymous testimony 
of a man who lived over two centuries after the alleged events, and does not 
indicate his sources. In historical criticism such testimony cannot have the 
slightest weight, and must be discarded. The statement, indeed, may be true, but 
we have no reason to believe it, as the witness evidently could not have any 
personal knowledge about it, whilst we cannot check his sources. 

Perhaps he had not any authority for his statement ; perhaps it is a mere 
surmise; perhaps a wrong interpretation of Gaetano's logbook of the voyage 
across the Pacific in 1542, wherein he speaks of the discovery of a group of 
islands in the northern Pacific which he called the Los Reyes, Los Coralles and 
Los Jarclins, and stated to be situated 900 leagues from the Gulf of California ; 
900 leagues or 2700 miles is no doubt more or less the distance which separates 
Hawaii from Cape California, but as the Spanish pilot underestimates the entire 
distance between the American coast and Mindanao in the Philippines by 50 per 



36 The absolutely un-Dutch, but truly Hawaiian name of this navigator may perhaps be 
made a base of speculations; not that during this voyage he could have touched at the 
Hawaiian Islands, for he died on the passage out, but he may have landed on the group 
when serving on some Spanish galleon, at which occasion he may have received the nickname 

37 A Brief History of the Hawaiian People, p. 99. 



{ History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 13 



cent, it is evident that we have always to double his estimates of the course 
sailed over, which gives us 5400 miles from the Californian coast instead of 
2700, and brings us to the Marshall Islands instead of the Hawaiian archipelago. 
Moreover as our pilot puts his discovery at latitude 10 degrees north instead of 
latitude 20 degrees north and says that the Garden Island is 50 leagues to the 
south-southwest of the Coral Island, whereby no two islands of our group could 
possibly be identified, it follows that the islands discovered by Gaetano in 1542 
were not Hawaii, but the Marshall group. 

This the Spanish official had sense enough to discern, and he therefore hastens 
to say that the discovery was not made by Gaetano on that voyage, but in 1555. 
We have no description of this 1555 voyage, nor is there any reason why we 
should believe that he made any voyage across the Pacific in that year. Although 
searching several works wherein mention of that voyage ought to have been 
made, had it taken place, the writer failed to find any allusion to it, except in 
the answer of the chief of the Spanish Marine Department, whose only informa- 
tion probably came from his anonymous manuscript chart. 

However, although we do not know the name of the Spaniard who discovered 
the islands, there can be no doubt but that the group was known to and visited 
by the mariners of that nationality. Indeed, two island groups, called Los Monges 
and Los Bolcanos, which appear on a great many maps of the 16th, 17th and 18th 
centuries must be identified with the Hawaiian archipelago. 

The Los Bolcanos group, consisting of five islands, one of which is called 
La Far f ana (probably a misreading for La Tartana), appears for the first time 
in 1569 on Mercator's map: Nova et aucta orbis descriptio, at between 22 and 26 
north lat. and about 176 west long, of Greenwich. 

Los Monges are mapped for the first time by Abraham Ortelius on the map 
of America, made in 1587, and reproduced in the A. D. 1612 edition of his 
monumental atlas: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. There they are at between 20 
and 22 north lat. and 159 and 162 west long. Various cartographers during 
the^two following centuries have maintained the Los Monges group on their maps 
until Cook rediscovered and renamed them ; whilst Los Bolcanos are mapped for 
the last time by J. A. Maginus in 1617. 38 

A complete study of all these maps leaves no doubt as to the identity of these 
two groups with the Hawaiian Islands. 30 

Here then we have a clear indication that the Los Monges group or the 
Hawaiian Islands, were known to the Spaniards as early as 1569. 

We have yet another historical proof of the visits by Spaniards to these 
islands about the same period. 

On the island of Oahu a stone statue has been found which is said to have 
been there before Cook's visit. The original statue is now at Bremen, Germany, 
but a cast may be seen in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. It represents a 
European gentleman, whose circular ruff, pointed beard and standing mantelet 
collar are of the fashion which prevailed between 1580 and 1630. 

Whilst then from the one side, the traditions of the Hawaiians tell us that 
during the latter part of the XVI century white men landed at the islands, of 
whom some stayed, historical documents and monuments prove that about the 
the same period, Spaniards took cognizance of the group, and the statue at least 
suggests that they have resided there for some time. 

38 Geographic, 2d vol. 

^' t St V dy , Hawaiian Cartography by the author in 21st Annual Report of the Ha- 
Historical Society, pp. 23-32. 



14 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

It seems then that there can be but little doubt that the strangers of the 
Hawaiian legends are Spaniards, and that consequently Paao and Pili belonged to 
that nationality. 

Now since Paao introduced a new religion, it can hardly have been any other 
but the Roman Catholic religion. 

It must be acknowledged that not much had remained of the fruits of Paao's 
evangelical labors. Neither could we expect this, since after the priest's death or 
departure (Zepherino says that he returned to his country 41 ) fully two centuries 
rolled by before Christianity was again preached to the natives. It is natural 
that at his removal the old heathenism, so deeply rooted in the native mind, 
that even now after nearly a century of evangelization by hundreds of mis- 
sionaries, it is yet very generally practiced to a certain extent and under cover, 
should again shoot up luxuriously and overgrow the seedlings of Christianity. 

There are, however, in the rites and teachings of the old Hawaiian religion 
certain things, which, not improbably, are remnants of Catholic worship and 
teaching. 

Particularly striking is the belief in the Blessed Trinity, as we find it expressed 
in the Song of Creation. 

Although the Hawaiians worshipped a legion of deities, they recognized that 
at the head of this pantheon stood the triad, Ku, Kane, and Lono, to whom the 
creation of all that is was attributed, whilst the Triad itself existed from all 
eternity. 

Here follows a prayer which makes part of the Song of Creation : 

O Ku, O Kane, O Lono, 

O God, not less immense than space itself; 

Space above: Heaven, 

Space beneath: the earth; 

O God of the triple heaven, 

NO OTHER GOD EXISTS, 

But THOU alone, O Ku, Kane, and Lono; 

YOU are three, O God! 

THOU art the God of light 

And of the threefold heavens; 

The God of the muddy earth; 

THINE they are; to THEE alone do they belong: 

THOU art God; true God art THOU. 

E Ku, e Kane, e Lono, 

E Ke Akua i anai a paa ka lewa, 

O ka lewa iluna, ua lani; 

O ka lewa ilalo, ua honua; 

E ke Akua o na lani kaukolu, 

Eo e Akua e ae, 

O oe wale no, e Ku, e Kane, e Lono; 

O oukou kaukolu, ke Akua e! 

He 'Kua oe o malamalama, 

O lani kaukolu, 

O ke 'Kua o honua-kele; 

Nou-a, nou wale no e; 

He 'Kua, he 'Kua io oe.42 

In the mythologies of the other Sawaiori tribes, we also find some trinity of 
gods ; in fact Ku, Kane, and Lono are known all through Polynesia ; but, if I am 
correctly informed, nowhere is found the Hawaiian conception of the Trinity 

41 Moolelo Hawaii, pale I, kiko 3.1 : "A ma la hope iho hoi hou Paao ma 1 Tahiti." 

42 See the author's translation of the Mele Kumuhonua In the Paradise of the Pacific, 
Jan., 1909, pp. 17-21. See also how Ku, Kane and Lono are invoked as one God in the bap- 
tismal prayer hereafter. 



:i 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 15 

which bears such a striking resemblance to the fundamental mystery of 
Christianity. 

The circumcision rite, which probably was accompanied by baptism, reminds 
of many ceremonies of Catholic baptism; like Christian baptism it was evidently 
a dedication to the Trinity. 

Zepherino gives this account of the ceremonies which accompanied the 
circumcision of a child : 

"To have a child circumcised, the father with some relatives went to the priest, 
carrying for the sacrificial purposes, a live pig, a red fish, a coconut, a white bird, 
and a lighted torch. 

"On coming before the priest, he said: Priest, here are the offerings for my child. 
Whereupon the priest asked: What for are they? 

"The father then answered: They are the offerings for circumcision. 

"After this the priest went with his servants up to the altar, meanwhile praying 
mentally. The fire and the offerings were taken along. 

"The parents and family of the child went also with the priest, and at their 
arrival before the altar, the priest planted three little flags in honor of Ku, Kane and 
Lono, and he also lighted three torches in their honor. 

"Then the priest made holy water in which salt was mixed; he prayed to Ku, 
Kane and Lono, and thus the water became taboo-water and was called the taboo-water 
of Kane. 

"When all these things had been prepared, the priest proceeded to the ceremony 
of circumcision. And when the circumcision was performed, the priest put a piece of 
white cloth on the head of the child. 

"After these rites, the priest with his servants prayed mentally, and whilst praying 
he gave away the offerings which had been put on the altar. The prayer was as 
follows : 

'"O God, O Ku, Kane and Lono, behold the offerings of the child. O Kane, 
look upon, preserve and have mercy on thy worshipper, that he may live unto an 
advanced old age. Be it so. Amen.' 

"Then those that have assisted at the ceremony return home with great rejoicing, 
and partake of a festive dinner at the house of the person who has been circumcised, 
the entire family assisting."43 

The resemblance existing between these Hawaiian circumcision rites, and the 
ceremonies of a solemn baptism as administered in the Catholic Church, coupled 
with the popular Spanish and Portuguese customs, seem too striking than that 
they could be explained by mere coincidence. 

The centre of Catholic worship is the sacrifice of the Mass. But the celebra- 
tion of the Mass necessitates bread made from wheat, and wine, the juice of the 
grape. As these products were not to be found in Ancient Hawaii, and the 
Spaniards seem to have touched at the islands merely accidentally, Paao cannot 
have said Mass, and the worship he practiced and propagated was necessarily a 
mere shadow of the Catholic observances, and may have looked rather like the 
services of the Episcopal Church. 

We may expect him to have held a kind of service, which in his days was a 
common form of devotion used for funerals and marriages in the afternoon, 
when a real Mass could not be said, to wit : the Missa sicca or Dry Mass, which 
consisted of all the Mass except the Offertory, Consecration, and Communion. 44 

Now a remnant of such a Dry Mass is exactly what we find in the pagan 
rites of Old Hawaii. For here is a description of a heathen service by Wie 
Hawaiian scholar Kamakau: 

"When the high priest went to the altar, as soon as he approached it, he bowed 
down, stepped back somewhat, and then knelt down and prayed. After the prayer he 
stood above (on the altar-platform) and sprinkled the altar with salt-water mixed 



43 Kepelino, Moolelo Havaii, pale I, klko 9. 

44 Catholic Encyclopedia, IX, p. 797. 



16 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

with yellowish coloring; he then turned and, facing the gathering, sprinkled them with 
holy water, for the remission of the sins and impurities of the people.45 

This ceremony has much of the Asperges before High Mass, and of the 
preparatory prayers at the foot of the altar. Kamakau sees remnants of Catholic 
worship in the fact that on the altars and the kuapalas of the heiaus, as well as 
on the kahuas (platforms) were crosses; that the approach to the altar was 
forbidden to women, and in the use of flowers and other plants to adorn the altar. 
All these, like also the cruciform terraces which were used in the heiaus built by 
Umi, may well be mere coincidences. 

What with more probability may be considered a remnant of Catholic teaching 
is the belief in the resurrection of the body, which doctrine did not make part of 
the general beliefs of the Hawaiians, but was taught by the heathen priest Kapihe, 
who in the time of Kamehameha I, officiated in Puna, not far from the place 
where Paao built his first temple. Concerning this priest and his teaching on the 
resurrection, Mr. Ellis has this to say: 

"A very interesting conversation ensued, on the resurrection of the dead at the 
last day .... The people said they had heard of it by Kapihe, a native priest, who 
formerly resided in this village, and who, in the time of Tamehameha, told that 
prince, that at his death he would see his ancestors, and that hereafter all the kings, 
chiefs, and people of Hawaii, would live again .... 

"Kapihe . . . priest to the god, Kuahairo, . . . informed Tamehameha that when 
he should die, Kuahairo would take his spirit to the sky, and accompany it to the 
earth again, when his body would be reanimated and youthful; that he would have 
his wives, and resume his government in Hawaii; and that at the same time the 
existing generation would see and know their parents and ancestors, and all the 
people who had died would be restored to life . . . ."46 

I hold it then to be most probable, that Paao was a Catholic priest, or perhaps 
a friar not in Holy Orders. Pili, I presume to have been a friar, but not a 
priest, although after Paao's removal he replaced him in his ministry. 

About the year 1870 Fornander visited the heiau of Mookini which Paao built 
and where he officiated. He was accompanied by Naaipaakai, a circuit judge of 
that part of the Island who was well conversant with the ancient lore of the dis- 
trict. The latter showed Fornander a secret well or crypt in the south side of 
the walls, east of the main entrance several feet deep, but at that time filled up 
with stones and boulders of similar nature to those that composed the wall. 
Having climbed on the top of the wall and removed the stones of the well, they 
found at the bottom two maika stones of extraordinary size, which were said to 
be the particular Ulu which Paao brought with him from foreign lands, and with 
which he amused himself when playing the favorite game of Maika. These 
stones were as large as the crown of a common-sized hat, two inches thick at the 
edges and a little thicker in the middle. They were of a white, fine-grained, hard 
stone, that might or might not be of Hawaiian quarrying. Fornander, whose nar- 
rative we fairly transcribe, adds: I have seen many Maika stones from ancient 
times, of from two to three inches diameter, of a whitish straw color, but never 
seen or heard of any approaching these of Paao in size or whiteness. Though 
they are called the Maika stones of Paao na Ulu a Paao "yet their enormous 
size would apparently forbid their employment for that purpose. If Maika stones, 
and really intended for that purpose, there could be no conceivable necessity for 
hiding them in the bottom of this crypt or well in the wall of the Heiau. In this 
uncertainty the legend itself may throw some light on the subject when it says 
that 'Paao brought two idols with him from Upolo, which he added to those 

45 Ka Moolelo o na Kamehameha, Nupepa Kuokoa, Oct. 24, 1868. 

46 Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii, pp. 128, 129. Of. also p. 265. Polyn. Researches IV 
144. 145, 281. 




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16 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

with yellowish coloring; he then turned and, facing the gathering, sprinkled them with 
holy water, for the remission of the sins and impurities of the people.45 

This ceremony has much of the Asperges before High Mass, and of the 
preparatory pra)'ers at the foot of the altar. Kamakau sees remnants of Catholic 
worship in the fact that on the altars and the kuapalas of the heiaus, as well as 
on the kahuas (platforms) were crosses; that the approach to the altar was 
forbidden to women, and in the use of flowers and other plants to adorn the altar. 
All these, like also the cruciform terraces which were used in the heiaus built by 
Umi, may well be mere coincidences. 

What with more probability may be considered a remnant of Catholic teaching 
is the belief in the resurrection of the body, which doctrine did not make part of 
the general beliefs of the Hawaiians, but was taught by the heathen priest Kapihe, 
who in the time of Kamehameha I, officiated in Puna, not far from the place 
where Paao built his first temple. Concerning this priest and his teaching on the 
resurrection, Mr. Ellis has this to say: 

"A very interesting conversation ensued, on the resurrection of the dead at the 
last day .... The people said they had heard of it by Kapihe, a native priest, who 
formerly resided in this village, and who, in the time of Tamehameha, told that 
prince, that at his death he would see his ancestors, and that hereafter all the kings, 
chiefs, and people of Hawaii, would live again .... 

"Kapihe . . . priest to the god, Kuahairo, . . . informed Tamehameha that when 
he should die, Kuahairo would take his spirit to the sky, and accompany it to the 
earth again, when his body would be reanimated and youthful; that he would have 
his wives, and resume his government in Hawaii; and that at the same time the 
existing generation would see and know their parents and ancestors, and all the 
people who had died would be restored to life . . . ."40 

I hold it then to be most probable, that Paao was a Catholic priest, or perhaps 
a friar not in Holy Orders. Pili, I presume to have been a friar, but not a 
priest, although after Paao's removal he replaced him in his ministry. 

About the year 1870 Fornander visited the heiau of Mookini which Paao built 
and where he officiated. He was accompanied by Naaipaakai, a circuit judge of 
that part of the Island who was well conversant with the ancient lore of the dis- 
trict. The latter showed Fornander a secret well or crypt in the south side of 
the walls, east of the main entrance several feet deep, but at that time filled up 
with stones and boulders of similar nature to those that composed the wall. 
Having climbed on the top of the wall and removed the stones of the well, they 
found at the bottom two maika stones of extraordinary size, which were said to 
be the particular Ulu which Paao brought with him from foreign lands, and with 
which he amused himself when playing the favorite game of Maika. These 
stones were as large as the crown of a common-sized hat, two inches thick at the 
edges and a little thicker in the middle. They were of a white, fine-grained, hard 
stone, that might or might not be of Hawaiian quarrying. Fornander, whose nar- 
rative we fairly transcribe, adds : I have seen many Maika stones from ancient 
times, of from two to three inches diameter, of a whitish straw color, but never 
seen or heard of any approaching these of Paao in size or whiteness. Though 
they are called the Maika stones of Paao na Ulu a Paao "yet their enormous 
size would apparently forbid their employment for that purpose. If Maika stones, 
and really intended for that purpose, there could be no conceivable necessity for 
hiding them in the bottom of this crypt or well in the wall of the Heiau. In this 
uncertainty the legend itself may throw some light on the subject when it says 
that 'Paao brought two idols with him from Upolo, which he added to those 

45 Ka Moolclo o na Kamehameha, Nupepa Kuokoa, Oct. 2-1, 1SCS. 

46 Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii, pp. 128, 129. Cf. also p. 2G5. Polyn. Researches IV 
144, 145, 2S1. 




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History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 17 

already worshipped by the Hawaiians.' . . . May not then these so-called Maika 
stones of Paao, so carefully hidden in the walls of the Heiau, be those idols that 
Paao brought with him? Their presence there is a riddle; and the superstitious 
fear with which they are treated or spoken of by the elder inhabitants of the 
district evinces in a measure the consideration in which they were anciently held. 
. . ." Thus far Fornander. (Vol. II, pp. 36, 37.) 

These so-called Maika stones may have been the altar stones of Paao and Pili. 

And as the Spaniards were in the habit of naming their discoveries either 
from the Saint or mystery whose feast occurred on the day of discovery 
(instances: Los Reyes, Saint Thomas, Ascension), or from the physical appear- 
ance of the land (Los Bolcanos, Los Corales, Las Huertas), or again from some 
occurrence which happened during their stay at the place (Los Ladrones, Los 
Martyres), I would suggest that the finding on Hawaii of the two friars Paao _ and 
Pili has caused the discoverers to name the island Los Monges, i.e., The Friars. 

In view of this custom of the Spaniards in selecting names for their dis- 
coveries, this theory seems plausible. 47 

The discoverers would then have been the members of the Manahini party. 
The third body of white men who arrived in a boat without masts or sails, after 
some time probably continued their voyage till Oahu, and despairing to reach 
New Spain in their frail boat, established themselves there, leaving us the statue 
which we have spoken of before. 

Having re-discovered the three northernmost islands of the group in January, 
1778, Captain Cook left them for less agreeable fields of discovery. But when 
at the approach of the winter season, his explorations in the Arctic regions were 
arrested by the ice-fields, he determined to pass the winter in the sunny and 
hospitable islands he had recently discovered. He arrived off the northeast coast 
of Maui on the 26th of November and beating about for a considerable time, 
arrived finally at Kealakekua Bay on the Southwest coast of the Big Island, 
January 17, 1779. His adventures there have often been told; it hence suffices 
here to remark that on the 14th of February he received there the well deserved 
reward for his impiety, meanness, injustice and cruelty. He was killed by the 
natives in an attempt to capture their king. 

However, the news of the discovery spread rapidly, and soon the "Sandwich 
Islands" as Cook had named the Hawaiian Archipelago, became the rendezvous 
of the fur-traders who about that time began to cross the North-Pacific. 

About the end of 1789 an American vessel, the Eleanore, arrived in Hawaiian 
waters. In February of the following year, a boat of the vessel was stolen by 
the natives and a sailor who occupied it, was killed. In revenge, Captain Metcalf 
massacred wantonly over a hundred natives, of whom none perhaps had had 
a hand in either the theft or the murder. Then he went southwards and .lay 
off Kealakekua, where he was soon joined by his tender, the Fair American. 
The natives revenged the massacre of their countrymen by attacking the latter 
vessel and killing all the crew, except the mate Isaac Davis. They also captured 
John Young, the boatswain of the Eleanore. When this vessel had left, both 
men entered the service of Kamehameha, who was then king of North and West 
Hawaii ; this prince seeing the use he could make of these two foreigners for the 
furthering of his ambitious projects, raised them to the rank of chiefs. 

47 It must be remarked that two other island groups bear the name of Los Monges: one 
In South America to the east of Cape Coquiboca, and another in the neighborhood of Aca- 
pulco. All these islands have a white appearance on account of the excrements of seabirds 
with which they are covered. This is also the case of Laysan island and neighboring rocks 
to the west of Kauai. Cf. the above quoted Study in Hawaiian Cartography, p. 32. 



18 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

About this time all Hawaii was divided in four kingdoms: Kamehameha, as 
we have said, ruling over the greater part of the Big Island; Keoua, holding 
the windward side of the same island; Kahekili, originally king of Maui and 
Lanai, had recently also added Oahu and Molokai to his dominions, whilst his 
brother Kaeo swayed the scepter over the two northernmost islands of the group: 
Kauai and Niihau. 

Kahekili died in 1794, and his son Kalanikupule succeeded him as king of 
Oahu, whilst Kaeo extended his sovereignty over the remaining islands. Soon 
the uncle and the nephew were in arms against each other, and Kamehameha 
profited so well by their disputes that ere five years had fully elapsed, he was 
master of all the islands, except Kauai and Niihau. Shortly after the celebrated 
battle of the Nuuanu Pali, which made the Hawaiian conqueror master of Oahu, 
Kalanikupule was captured and offered in sacrifice to Kamehameha's war god. 

In 1810 Kaumualii, who had succeeded his father Kaeo as king of Kauai 
and Niihau, knowing that sooner or later he would have to succumb to the 
superior forces of Kamehameha, offered his islands to that prince, who told them 
to continue to hold them in fief during his lifetime, on condition that his son 
Liholiho should be heir to his sovereign rights. Thus the whole group became 
consolidated into one kingdom, and but for two short lived rebellions, an end 
was made to decades of continual warfare, which was rapidly depopulating the 
Islands. 

The great Conqueror died May 8th, 1819. He was succeeded by his son, 
Liholiho, who was far from possessing the many qualities of his sire. At the 
investiture of Liholiho, Kaahumanu, the conqueror's wife, but not the mother of 
the new king, said to him : "Heavenly one, I declare to you your father's will : 
behold your father's chiefs and subjects; behold your guns and your lands: 
however, let us both jointly govern the country." 47 

Whether Kamehameha really had appointed Kaahumanu as Liholiho's 
premier, or the queen-dowager perpetrated here a falsehood, none of the chiefs 
felt interest to dispute her claims; at least none gainsaid her, and as the king 
accepted the proposition, she became rightfully, though perhaps fraudulently, 
kuhina-nui or prime-minister to the king. 

The same day efforts were made by the queens to obtain the abolition of the 
taboo, but Liholiho refused his consent to this revolutionary measure, and even 
the people showed their disapproval. 

Exactly three months after Kamehameha's death, the French ship Uranie, 
Captain Freycinet, arrived at Kailua. After a stay of only four days, the vessel 
proceeded to Kawaihae, an anchorage in South-Kohala, where Liholiho had 
gone to consecrate a heiau. The day after her arrival several chiefs came on 
board, among whom were Kalanimoku and the Englishman, John Young. 47a 

Kalanimoku was a grandson of Kekaulike, the king of Maui, by his third wife, 
Haalou. By birth he was thus of the same rank as Kaahumanu, Kamehameha's 
wife, and Kuakini, the governor of Hawaii, who were his first cousins. When a 



47 Moolelo, Hawaii, Lahainaluna, Remy's edit. p. 132. The expression: "E ai pu no kaua 
i ka aina," meaning literally: Let us eat the country together, expresses well the political 
situation of a chief before the Declaration of Rights. It recalls curiously enough the 
Demoboros Basileus of the Iliad. 

47a Bishop H. Restarick has endeavored to prove that John Young was an American. 
See 22d Report of Hawaiian Historical Society, p. 25 ff. His arguments are weighty indeed, 
and almost convincing. But although we understand that Young, being an American, should 
try to pass himself off as an Englishman on Vancouver and other Britishers, it is hard to 
believe that he should have denied his nationality to the American missionaries, who, how- 
ever, always speak of him as an Englishman. Bingham says: "Though at first detained there 
(in Hawaii) against his will, he at length preferred to stay rather than to return to Eng- 
land." (A Residence, p. 51.) Later on the Bishop has himself reversed his opinion. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 19 

youth, he had fought in the army of Kiwalao against Kamehameha, but after- 
wards served under the Conqueror, finally becoming his generalissimo. And, 
although at the death of Kamehameha, his wife Kaahumanu shared the govern- 
ment with Liholiho, all visitors of that time agree that Kalanimoku was the 
all-powerful mayor of the palace of a do-naught king. 48 

During his visit on board the Uranie, the costume of the chaplain, the abbe 
de Quelen, having attracted his attention, he asked what were the functions of 
that dignitary. John Young told him that it was a priest of their countries and of 
the true God. 49 He then answered that for a considerable time he had entertained 
a desire to be a Christian, and that he wished to be baptized, as his mother, having 
received that sacrament on her deathbed, (perhaps from Marin or from "Padre" 
Ho well, an English Episcopal clergyman who lived for some time on Hawaii) 
she had recommended him to apply for the same privilege if an opportunity 
offered. 

The chaplain declared himself willing to administer this sacrament to the 
Hawaiian chief, and it was decided that the ceremony was to take place the 
following day, after a council of the king and his chiefs to which Captain 
Freycinet had been invited. The French commander gives this description of 
the proceedings: 

"When I was on the point of returning on board, Riorio told me that he and his 
court wanted to assist at the ceremonies which we were going to perform. I sent him 
my pinnace to this purpose, and soon we saw him appear, accompanied with the five 
queens, his wives, his six- or seven-year-old brother, Kauikeaouli, and the princess 
Kaahumanu; a long procession of pirogues with the ladies and gentlemen of his court 
followed in the wake. 

"The king had donned a blue with gold trimmed uniform of the hussars, furnished 
with thick colonel's epaulets; one of his officers carried his sword, another one his 
kahili (fly-flap), two others each an enormous arquebuse, and finally, a fifth one his 
pipe, which he had orders to keep alight. 

"I saluted the monarch on his arrival with eleven guns. The quarterdeck was 
decorated with flags, some of which had been put also on deck for the comfort of the 
princesses. The favorite queen and Kaahumanu were seated on chairs in front of the 
altar which had been erected on deck near the poop. 

"Finally the abb6 de Qu61en, with the usual ceremonies, baptized Kraimoku, who, 
during the whole proceedings showed a deep emotion."so This happened on the 14 
of August of 1819." 

Kalanimoku received in baptism the name of Louis, after M. de Freycinet 
who served him as godfather. Having exchanged some presents with the captain, 
the chief took leave "to go," if Arago could be believed, "and lie down in the midst 
of his five wives and to sacrifice to his gods." 51 We do not pretend to know what 
religious instruction Kalanimoku had received. From his conversations with 
Marin, Rives, Young, and "Padre" Howell, he may have gotten a sufficient 
knowledge of the principal truths of the Christian religion. His morals were 
beyond a doubt far superior to those of the blasphemous profligate who penned 
the "Promenade autour du Monde", and he was certainly a better believer. When 
the following year the Protestant missionaries arrived, he 'showed them favor 
from the very beginning. In December, 1826, they admitted him to church- 
membership, but did not rebaptize him, as they regarded the baptism imparted by 



48 Missionary Herald, 1826, p. 372; Stewart, Journal, p. 93; Arago, Promenade autour du 
Monde, le.ttre CXVIII. 

49 S. M. Kamakau, Nupepa Kuokoa, No. 309. 

50 Voyage autour du Monde, par. M. Louis de Freycinet, Historique, t. II, p. 538. (Edit. 
Paris, 1829.) 

51 Arago, Promenade autour du Monde, lettre CXIX. 



20 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the French chaplain a valid one. 52 He died of the dropsy on 8th of February, 
1827. 

From Kawaihae the Uranie sailed for Honolulu, there to complete her provi- 
sions. When on her arrival at that port Governor Boki, the younger brother of 
Kalanimoku, heard of the latter's baptism, he insisted that the same privilege 
should be extended to him. Accordingly M. de Quelen baptized him on board the 
Uranie, August the 27th, giving him the name of Paul. 53 In him the members of 
the Catholic Mission who were to arrive eight years later, were to find a somewhat 
wavering yet effective protector, who kept their adversaries at bay till he himself 
was removed .from the scenes of Hawaiian history by an ill-fated adventure. 

After the departure of the Uranie, Kaahumanu invited the king to come over 
to the district of Kona. On his arrival there, he found a splendid repast prepared, 
at which he sat down with a large company of chiefs of both sexes. Thus one of 
the most important taboos was broken, for hitherto it had been strictly forbidden 
for men and women to eat together. The abolition of this cumbersome taboo was 
proclaimed throughout the group, and was accompanied by a general overthrow 
of the whole religious system, the high priest Hewahewa himself setting the ex- 
ample of setting fire to the idols and their shrines. 

A young chief, Kekuaokalani, raised an army in defense of the old religion. 
A battle took place about the middle of December at Kuamoo in Kona, but the 
partizans of idolatry suffered a bloody defeat; their leader himself was killed in 
the action. 

Thus terminated the medieval period of Hawaii-nei, at a time when the mes- 
sengers of a new era soon to commence, left their distant shores. 54 



62 Missionary Herald, 1826, pp. 309, 310. 

53 Freycinet, op. cit. pp. 647, 548. 

54 For a more circumstantial account of Hawaiian History between Cook's visit and the 
arrival of the Protestant missionaries, as well as for a description of the religion and customs 
of the Hawaiians, see Prof. W. D. Alexander's excellent "Brief History of the Hawaiian 
People." 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 21 

CHAPTER II 
A Protestant Mission 

The American Board of Foreign Missions. First Mission to the Sandwich lalands. 
First School. Bibliopathy. Printing Press started. Ellis' first Visit. Reinforce- 
ment. Ellis' second Visit and Tour around Hawaii. Foundation of missions at 
Kailua and Lahaina. Death of Kaumualii. Rebellion on Kauai. Kaahumanu's interest 
in the mission. Incipient success. 

On June the 27th, 1810, in the town of Bradford, Mass., an "American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions" was instituted, the object of which was 
"to devise, adopt, and prosecute ways and means for propagating the gospel 
among those who are destitute of the knowledge of Christianity." 1 

The members of this organization belonged to the Congregational and Presby- 
terian Churches. 2 

On October the 23d, 1819, the first missionaries to the Sandwich Islands were 
sent out by this Board. They were : the Rev. Hiram Bingham ; Rev. Asa Thurs- 
ton; Mr. Daniel Chamberlain, farmer; Dr. Thomas Holman, physician; Mr. 
Samuel Whitney, mechanic; Mr. Samuel Ruggles, catechist; and Mr. Elisha 
Loomis, printer; all accompanied by their wives. With them were four young 
natives of the Sandwich Islands, who had been educated at the Foreign Mission 
school at Cornwall; one, a son of the King of Kauai, was named George Kau- 
mualii, the others were John Honolii, Thomas Hopu, and William Kanui. 8 

Having embarked on the brig Thaddeus, they sailed around Cape Horn, and 
arrived at Kailua, on the West Coast of the island of Hawaii, on the 4th of 
April, 1820. 

On the 30th of March, when they had just rounded the Northern point of that 
island, some of the native members of the mission went ashore, and were in- 
formed by their countrymen that Kamehameha I was dead, his son Liholiho 
king, the taboos abolished, the idols destroyed and the heiaus overthrown. 

In this the missionaries saw the Hand of God, who had thus providentially 
overturned paganism, and prepared an unencumbered field for the preaching of 
Christianity. 

As for us, we doubt that agnosticism, religious indifference and an unwilling- 
ness to bear any restraint, are dispositions of the soul favorable to the reception 
of the truths and commandments of the religion of Christ. 

Having found the King in his grass hut, the missionaries asked permission to 
settle in the country for the purpose of teaching the nation their religion, "litera- 
ture and arts." 

Liholiho promised that he would take their request under consideration. The 
next day the missionaries renewed their efforts, and knowing from the example 
of the patriarch Jacob, the power oi a gift, they presented the King with an ele- 
gant copy of the English Bible and a pair of spectacles. 

Considering that the savage princeling did not know any English apart perhaps 
from a few curse and slang words learned from the beachcombers who lived in 
his dominions, and that his eyesight most likely allowed him to distinguish clearly 
even small objects at considerable distance, as children of nature are wont, it is 

1 Tracy, History of the A. B. C. F. M., pp. 30, 32. 

2 Ibid, p. 38. 

3 Ibid,, pp. 79, 80. 



22 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

difficult to be of Rev. Mr. Bingham's opinion, that this present "to such a person- 
age and at this juncture .... was exceedingly felicitous." 4 

It did not hasten the King's assent, and when a few days later he was asked 
that a part of the mission might disembark at Kailua, and the rest at Honolulu, 
on Oahu, he proved not to be in need of any optical instrument to sharpen his 
political insight, for he replied : "White men all prefer Oahu. I think the Ameri- 
cans would like to have that island." Finally, however, permission was granted 
to reside and labor at the different islands for a year. 5 

Consequently Mr. and Mrs. Thurston were selected to remain at Kailua, while 
the rest of the party sailed for Honolulu, where they definitely disembarked on the 
19th of April. 

Three months later Messrs. Whitney and Ruggles and their wives took up 
their residences at Waimea on the island of Kauai, where George Kaumualii had 
preceded them and where they were kindly received by that young man's royal 
sire. 6 

Mr. Loomis was sent to Kawaihae on Hawaii, to instruct the prime-minister 
Kalanimoku and his household. 

In Honolulu, a school was started a month after the arrival of the missionary 
party, in which within a few months they had the satisfaction of instructing some 
forty regular pupils. 

The children were taught the fundamental truths of Christianity by repeatedly 
cantillating them, a method which later on was also adopted by the Catholic 
missionaries, and which has always proved very efficacious indeed. 

Here is one of the lessons the pupils of the Protestant missionaries were 
taught in the first three months of their activity in Honolulu. 

"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." 

"Jehovah is in heaven, and he is everywhere." 

"Jesus Christ, the good Son of God, died for our sins." 

"We must pray to Jehovah, and love his word." 

"God loves good men, and good men love God."7 

The Ten Commandments and a small catechism were soon added, before yet 
books in the Hawaiian language were prepared. 8 

In the early part of 1821, Liholiho and his chiefs removed to Honolulu. Mr. 
Loomis accompanied Kalanimoku. The missionary who had settled at Kailua 
also soon left his station. Previous to the King's removal, Mrs. Thurston had 
been insulted by a vile heathen priest, whilst her husband was occupied in 
his school. Instantly breaking away, she fled to her natural protector, who, "him- 
self a host" was not slow in teaching the assailant a practical lesson in Christian 
morals. After the departure of the chiefs they did not feel secure on the Big 
Island and joined the brethren on Oahu. 9 

About this time Mr. Bingham records the following: "About the middle of 
August, Holo, a chief of low rank, being very ill, was visited by Mr. Loomis and 
Hopu, to whom he gave some evidence that he believed the truth and loved it. 
Hopu, at one time, finding an English Bible, which, though unintelligible to the 
sick man, was lying on his bosom, asked him the reason for it. He replied, 'I 
love Jehovah, and wish to be with Him.' " 10 

4 Bingham, A Residence of Twenty-one Years in the Sandwich Islands, p. 87. 

6 Bingham, op. cit. p. 90. 

6 Bingham, op. cit. p. 99. 

7 Bingham, op. cit. p. 114. 

8 Bingham, op. cit. p. 118. 

9 Bingham, op. cit. p. 125. 

10 Bingham, op. cit. p. 147. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 23 

This is the first recorded case of bibliopathy in the Sandwich Islands. The 
practice of using the Holy Book for the purpose of curing and other superstitious 
ends still continues, and if this form of bibliolatry is a mark of piety, the native 
kahuna who in 1903 killed a sick man by hitting him on the head with a voluminous 
Bible, to drive out red devils, the originators of his disease, must have been very 
pious, indeed. 

On the 7th of January, 1822, the missionaries commenced printing in the 
Hawaiian language. 11 On this day the first sheet of a Hawaiian spellingbook was 
struck off. 

In March of the same year they also printed for the chiefs. some port-regula- 
tions, the purport of which was that any captain putting ashore strangers without 
authorization, was to be fined $30, and was moreover obliged to take them back 
on board his vessel. 12 

No other printing was done that year, besides a supply of approbation tickets 
to encourage the pupils, and the alphabet, which was a pamphlet of 16 pages. 

The number of regular attendants at school rapidly increased till they 
amounted (end of March, 1823) to about 200 at Honolulu, 60 at Kailua, and 
45 at Waimea. Besides these, numbers of individuals were acquiring the alphabet, 
and combining the letters by the aid of occasional instruction. 13 

Soon some of the chiefs were able to write to each other short billets. 14 

On account of the inability of the missionaries to speak the native tongue, 
little success was obtained during the first few years in the teaching of religion. 
They used to preach in English, and had their addresses interpreted by their 
Hawaiian catechists. Only in August, 1822, after a sojourn of over two years 
in the country, Mr. Bingham undertook to preach without the help of an inter- 
preter. 15 

In March 1822, an English missionary in the Society Islands, Rev. William 
Ellis, on an intended trip to the Marquesas, touched at Honolulu. He was accom- 
panied by two natives from Tahiti, whom it was his desire to establish as native 
teachers in the Marquesas. 16 

This missionary being detained in Oahu for four months by unforeseen cir- 
cumstances, soon noticed the great similarity existing between the language of the 
island of Tahiti, with which he was familiar, and the tongue of the Sandwich 
Islanders. 

In two months he was able to speak it with facility. Seeing the advantages 
they might hope for from his cooperation, the New England missionaries re- 
quested him to fix his residence among them. He consented, and having gone 
for his family, returned in February, 1823. 17 

Shortly afterwards a first reinforcement of American missionaries arrived, 
consisting of three ordained missionaries, two licensed preachers, one physician, all 
accompanied by their wives, a layman to act as superintendent of secular con- 
cerns, three Hawaiians, one Tahitian and a colored woman, qualified to be a 
teacher. 18 

Hereby u became possible to extend the efforts of the mission, which till then 



11 Bingham, op. clt. p. 156. 

12 Bachelot's Journal, p. 211. 

13 Report of A. B. C. F. M., 1823, p. 110. 

14 Same Report, p. 111. 

15 Bingham, A Residence, p. 168. 

16 Ellis, Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii, 1828, p. 32. 

17 Ellis, Narrative, p. 33. 

18 Report of the A. B. C. F. M. 1823, p. 115. 



24 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

had been confined principally to the islands of Oahu and Kauai, to the other 
islands of the group. 

In order that the arrangements for the establishment of missionary stations 
on Hawaii, the largest and most populous island, might be made with the 
advantages of local knowledge, it was agreed that three of the American mission- 
aries and Mr. Ellis should visit and explore the island. 

The party arrived at Kailua on the 26th of June; Mr. Ellis, who had been 
detained somewhat on account of his wife's indisposition, followed several days 
later. 

The missionaries proceeded on their journey on the 18th of July; some of 
them went in a canoe, the rest travelled on foot. Messrs. Ellis and Thurston 
were among the latter. 

Whenever they reached some hamlet or village, they took care to collect 
the people, and preached about the fundamental truths of the Christian religion; 
they frequently insisted on the doctrines of the resurrection of the body and the 
life everlasting. 

Mr. Ellis especially was careful to gather information anent the legends, 
customs, industries and the ancient religion, which, though officially abolished, had 
yet many devotees. The result of his researches is found with the recital of his 
journey in his "Narrative of a Tour through Hawaii", which work is substantially 
identical with the fourth volume of his "Polynesian Researches." 

The missionaries made also a census of the inhabitants by counting the houses, 
and allowing five persons to each house. Since each family had several huts 19 , 
the given numbers (they estimated the population of the Big Island at 85,000) 20 
are probably too high. 

During this tour the missionaries did much towards the introduction of Sunday 
observance ; they also flattered themselves with having checked the criminal custom 
of infanticide, which up till that time was alleged to prevail in the islands to a 
disquieting extent. 21 

The party returned to Oahu in the beginning of September. Soon after- 
ward Rev. Mr. Thurston again took charge of the Kailua mission, this time being 
assisted by the Rev. Artemas Bishop. Their services on Sundays were well 
attended, the average attendance during the year 1824 being 400; the chiefs 
Kuakini, Kapiolani and Kamakau took great interest in the mission and frequently 
exhorted their subjects to attend assiduously to the "palapala" (reading) and the 
"pule" (prayer). A station at Waiakea, Hilo, was commenced in the early part 
of 1824.; it was temporarily entrusted to the care of Mr. Ruggles. A mission 
at Lahaina, Maui, had been established in May, 1823, and was in charge of 
Messrs. Richards and Stewart. 

In November, 1823, King Liholiho, accompanied by one his queens and sev- 
eral attendants, embarked for London, as will be told with more detai! in the next 
chapter. He left his dominions in the care of Kalanimoku and Kaahumanu. 

It is well to notice here what Mr. Ellis says concerning the standing of the 
former of these two chieftains. 

Kalanimoku "had long been prime-minister, in rank second only to the king, 
and having in fact the actual government of the whole of the Sandwich Islands. 22 

Mr. Bingham says that Kaahumanu was superior, and Kalanimoku second, 23 

19 S. M. Kamakau in "Au Okoa." Jan. 13. 1870. 

20 Report of A. B. C. F. M. 1824, p. 98. 

21 Ellis, Narrative, pp. 324-330. Cf. Bingham, Residence, p. 368. 

22 Narrative, p. 420. 

23 Residence, p. 205, cf. also p. 212. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 25 

but his testimony is open to suspicion, whilst Mr. Ellis is impartial, and was at 
least as well informed as his colleague. 

On May the 2d, 1824, Mr. Bingham left for the island of Kauai temporarily 
to assist Mr. Whitney, who was then stationed at Waimea. When taking leave 
of the chiefs at Honolulu, he found Kaumualii, the Kauaian king, "seated at his 
desk, writing a letter of business." 24 

This chieftain had been kidnapped by Liholiho in October, 1821, and although 
he had left his queen Kapule behind him on Kauai, was given Kaahumanu, 
Kamehameha's widow, as a wife. 25 

On the 26th day of May, Kaumualii, whom less than three weeks before 
Mr. Bingham had left in good health, had departed this life. His death may have 
been a natural one; but it was not considered so by his son George. In a con- 
versation which Mr. Bingham had with him, he declared that "the old gentleman 
was poisoned, just the same as he had been himself after having eaten once or 
twice with Kaahumanu . . . When I was at Oahu," he said, "I never expected 
to see Kauai again. The old woman (Kaahumanu) gave me a dose; and I had 
the same sickness that my father had." 26 

A rebellion broke out on Kauai, but was soon suppressed by Kalanimoku. 
George Kaumualii was made a prisoner and taken to Honolulu, where he died in 
1826, perhaps of the same sickness as his father. 

The worthy lady who was thus suspected of applying to practical use her share 
of the poison-god, Kalaipahoa, 27 had hitherto not shown any great interest in 
the Protestant cause, although from the autumn of 1822 she had taken up read- 
ing and occasionally favored the missionaries. Perhaps on account of the loyalty 
shown by them to her party during the war on Kauai 28 , she now attributed the 
victory over her enemies to Jesus Christ, and publicly gave thanks to God for 
His preserving care. 29 

From that time on she remained a faithful disciple of the Protestant mission 
and used her influence to further its interests. 

Thanks to the zealous endeavors of the missionaries and the active coopera- 
tion of the chiefs, the mission continued widening its influence for the moral, 
intellectual and social improvement of the natives. 

Towards the end of 1826 it began to experience much opposition from the 
resident and visiting foreigners, who feared that a proposed promulgation of the 
Ten Commandments as the law of the country, might interfere with their 
pleasure. 30 

In a circular letter, printed at the mission press, dated October 3, 1826, the 
missionaries announced that "nearly all the chiefs and leading persons on the 
islands and many others too, had been taught to read and write so correctly as to 
correspond by letter," that "the vices of drunkenness and gambling with which the 
land was formerly almost overrun, were now limited to a comparatively small 
number;" and that "schools were established in every part of the islands, 
attended by 25,000 scholars in the whole." 31 

24 Op. cit. p. 216. 

25 Ibidem, p. 148. 

26 Residence, p. 230. 

27 The image was divided in several parts on the death of Kamehameha and distributed 
among the principal chiefs. The wood of which it was made was so poisonous that if a 
small piece of it was chipped into a dish of poi, or steeped in water, whoever ate the poi 
or drank the water, the natives reported, would certainly die in less than twenty-four hours 
afterwards. Ellis, Narrative, p. 76. 

28 Cf . A Residence, Chapter IX. 

29 Ibid. pp. 248, 249. 

30 Cf . Report of A. B. C. F. M. 1827. p. 76 et seq. 

31 Report of A. B. C. F. M. 1827, p. 95. 



26 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER III 
A Royal Adventure and Its Consequences 

Missionaries and Liberals. Liholiho's Voyage to England. The Frenchman John 
Rives and his Negotiations. The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts. A new Prefect 
Apostolic. Around the Horn. Arrival in Honolulu Harbor. 

The American missionaries in the short space of three years had gained 
considerable ascendency over both the chiefs and the people of Hawaii. 

How great the influence of the Protestant missionaries over the chiefs was, and in 
how far they may be held responsible for all the important anti-Catholic moves from 1827 
till about 1850, may be seen from the following two quotations: 

"It is a fact well known to me that since I came to the Islands (1828) the Government 
has depended on individuals of the Mission for advice on all important measures and for aid 
in carrying them into execution. I will not go into details in illustration of this, but will 
state that for the last three or four years, an increased share of this labor has fallen upon 
me, and' I have done it with the approbation of my brethren, using great caution, however, 
lest I should appear to the world too conspicuous an actor. This I was the better enabled 
to do by reason of my being a medical man, often called about the persons of the chiefs. 
To my brethren I made no secret of the course I had fallen into, and they advised me 
not by any formal vote, but individually to persevere." (Letter of G. P. Judd, March 20, 
1843, to Rev. R. Anderson, preserved in the Archives of the A. B. C. P. M., vol. 137, Letter 
88.) 

"There are many things I might say which could relieve your minds, but those are the 
very things which ought not to be known, e. g., the measure of influence possessed by Mr. 
Richards and myself in the councils of the nation and over all the other foreign officers, 
and the plans we have for the future, first to preserve the preponderance of the Hawaiian 
race; 2d, that of those who owe allegiance to the present Dynasty; and 3d, to keep off all 
aliens or crush them by wholesome laws impartially administered." (Letter of Dr. G. P. 
Judd, Dec. 16, 1846, to Rev. R. Anderson, preserved in the Archives of the A. B. C. F. M., 
vol. 173, letter 103.) 

The islands were not Christianized, it is true, nor had any radical change in 
the morals of the people taken place. 1 But the missionaries were recognized as 
the official teachers of the nation; their word was of great weight in the councils 
of the chiefs; old and young flocked to their schools; their prospects of ultimate 
success were bright, indeed. Confident of their strength they had been perhaps 
somewhat precipitate in their laudable efforts to make the people live up to teach- 
ings as yet far from generally accepted and but imperfectly understood. 

The natives, used to the rigid taboos of heathenism and to slavish obedience 
to their chiefs, at least outwardly submitted to the inconvenience of the Puritan 
Sabbath and the other rightly imposed moral restrictions. But the greater part 
of the foreign residents and many a chieftain and commoner as well, bore 
impatiently with the new order of affairs. In the instruction of the people, they 
saw a danger to their industry; in the introduction of a code of morals a bar to 
the full enjoyment of their pleasures. 

Thus, whilst the missionaries acquired preponderance and became with their 
adherents what we might call the government party, a strong party of opposition 
came also into existence. Two years later this latter party was to receive an able 
leader in the person of the British Consul-General, Mr. Richard Charlton, whose 
pet idea it was to introduce a rival religion to neutralize the influence of the 
American missionaries. 2 

Perhaps he was not the father of this scheme; possibly some of the liberals 
had already pondered over its feasibility as early as 1823. This might explain 
a quixotic undertaking of which we must make mention, and which, if not 

1 of. Jarves, History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, 1843, p. 299. 

2 Cf. Jarves, op. cit. p. 269-275. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 27 

intended by the originator for such a purpose, actually led to the establishment 
of a Catholic mission in Hawaii. 

About the middle of November 1823, King L,iholiho, coming from Kailua on 
the brig Arab, surprised his faithful subjects at Lahaina by disclosing his design 
of speedily embarking for Great Britain. A council of chiefs was called on the 
subject. Messrs. Bingham and Ellis attended this meeting. 3 

It does not appear that the King communicated his motives to the illustrious 
gathering. The missionaries did not like the undertaking; Bingham calls it "a 
voyage prematurely and injudiciously undertaken, . . . hastily resolved on." 4 

They seemed to have had forebodings that no good for their mission would 
come out of this voyage; they likely foresaw either a Roman Catholic or an 
Anglican clergy, as promised by Vancouver 5 follow in the wake of the returning 
party. 

Unable to hinder the execution of the plan, they thought of preventing its 
possible loathed consequences, by giving to the young monarch "a competent and 
trustworthy interpreter and instructor" and "interested themselves to secure the 
services of Mr. Ellis, who being desirous to remove Mrs. Ellis to England on 
account of her severe and protracted illness, made known his readiness to accept 
the service." 6 

It had been decided that His Majesty should embark in an English whaleship, 
"1'Aigle", the master of which, Capt. Starbuck, had offered to the King and his 
suite a free passage to England. But the captain could not be prevailed upon to 
take the Reverend Mr. Ellis on board, although a large sum was offered for their 
passage, and the ship's surgeon "offered to give up his stateroom for their accom- 
modation." The chiefs then thought of fitting out the King's own vessel, the 
"Haaheo o Hawaii", but the King showed that he cared not as much for Mr. Ellis' 
company as he pretended, and concluded to forego the "benefit of so wise and in 
every respect competent a counsellor." 7 

The royal party embarked from Honolulu the 27th of November, 1823. It 
was made up of the King with Kamamalu, one of his queens, of the chief Bold 
and his wife, Liliha, and a few other chiefs, amongst whom were James Young, 
a son of John Young, and the King's secretary and bosom friend, Jean Rives. 
According to Bingham (Res. p. 204), whom all others have copied in this matter, 
Rives took passage secretly. Notwithstanding this, he was appointed interpreter 
of the party and must have been far more acceptable to the King, whose "aikane 
punahele" he was, than the Rev. Mr. Ellis, whose views on the philosophy of 
life were diametrically opposed to those of his temporary sovereign. 

For Liholiho's character, Ellis' Polynesian Researches, vol. IV, pp. 446 et seq., 
and Stewart, A Journal, p. 72, may be consulted. As for Rives, I doubt whether 
justice has been done him by the several authors who have taken him in hand. It is 
noteworthy that those who blacken his reputation are persons whom he had contraried, 
not unjustly. Arago was the first to ridicule him. The delineator of the "Uranie" 
avows himself that the reason for his animosity was that Rives had prevented him 
from satisfying his vile lust.s Bingham also had good reasons to pour out the phials of 
his wrath over the little Frenchman. Rives had introduced the Catholic priests. 
Could he have wounded Mr. Bingham more sensibly? 

After touching at Rio de Janeiro, where they were well received by Don 



3 Stewart, Journal of a Residence in the Sandwich Islands, 1828, p. 174. 

4 A Residence, p. 202. 

5 Alexander, A Brief History, p. 139. 

6 Bingham, A residence, p. 202. 

7 Stewart, A Journal, 1828, p. 174. 

8 Arago, Promenade autour du Monde, II, pp. 145, 152, 157. 



28 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Pedro I, the Brazilian emperor, Liholiho and his train landed at Portsmouth, 
May 22d, 1824. 

On hearing of their arrival, the English government appointed the Hon. F. 
Byng as their guide and protector, and had them treated with the utmost 
hospitality. For a couple of weeks these children of nature were lionized by 
London society, but soon the comedy was to be transformed into a tragedy. 
About the middle of June, before there had been an opportunity of introducing 
them at St. James, the whole party was attacked by measles; their systems, 
weakened by the long voyage and the continual feasting, were unable to resist 
the virulence of the disease. The members of the retinue, it is true, soon 
recovered; but the Queen, notwithstanding prompt and able medical attendance, 
grew rapidly worse and succumbed on July the 8th; her royal consort did not 
survive long; he breathed his last on the 14th following. 

Captain Lord Byron was commissioned to convey the remains of the King and 
Queen of Hawaii to their native soil in the frigate "Blonde." Before sailing, 
the surviving chiefs were granted an interview with King George. They left 
England on the 28th of September. 

Jean Rives was not with them. A letter addressed to him by his father 
seven years before, had reached him about the year 1820 in a somewhat curious 
manner, and caused him to grow homesick. 9 

From that time on he resolved to look for an opportunity to meet his family. 
We have seen how he succeeded in his design. After the departure of his fellow 
travelers from London, Rives went to France. Lord Byron states that he was 
dismissed from the royal train for drunkenness; 10 Alexander and Jarves say on 
account of gross misconduct and repeated ill behavior. 11 The latter two make 
their statement probably on the authority of the former. 

It appears extremely improbable that habitual drunkards like the second 
Kamehameha 12 or Boki should have discarded in disgrace an old companion for 
having indulged in too copious libations. After the King's death, Rives yet 
exercised the office of secretary in notifying Kalanimoku of his sovereign's 
demise. He does not seem to have been aware of having incurred the displeasure 
of the old Queen-dowager, before he was informed of it by Captain Sumner in 
September, 1827, on his intended return to Hawaii. 13 

Wyllie (14th annotation to Perrin's Historical Memorandum) alleges theft to have 
been the cause of Rives' disgrace. Kekuanaoa and James Young are his witnesses. 
His allusion to the existence of the watch as the corpus delicti is rather ludicrous. 
If Bingham had believed the story of Rives' accusers, he would not have failed to 
publish it. But in his memorandum to Anderson, secretary of the American Board 
of Foreign Missions, written in 1839, he states that Rives was discarded probably 
through fear of French influence over the king. 

After having visited his family, Mr. Rives entered into negotiations with both 
the French Government and private parties for the establishment of a French 
settlement in the Hawaiian Islands. In these different transactions he was 
probably animated by good faith; neither may we say that he acted under false 
pretenses. Previous to the King's death, Mr. Rives was a taboo-chief (he 
enjoyed the kapu puloulou) 13a the bosom friend (aikane) and secretary of the 
monarch; he had extensive domains in the different islands. 

9 Anon. Letter, dated Dec. 3, 1825. 

10 Narrative of the Voyage of H. M.'s Ship Blonde, p. 61. 

11 Alexander, Brief History, p. 185; Jarves, History, 1843, p. 253. 

12 Cf. Ellis, Polyn. Researches, IV, p. 44. 

13 Cf. 4th Annual Report of the Haw. Hist. Society for 1896, p. 26; and Duhaut-Cilly, Voy- 
age autour du Monde, vol. II, ch. XIV. 

13a Kamakau, Nupepa Kuokoa, No. 370, 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 29 

Mrs. Kekaaniau Pratt states that the following lands were held by her grand- 
father, John Rives: 

One "ahupuaa" named Halekii, and one of the "kahaluu" in Kona, Hawaii. 

One "ahupuaa" in Kohala, Hawaii. 

The "ahupuaa" of Waiohuli on East Maui, extending from the sea up to the forest. 

Kopili, in the district of Lahaina, Maui. 

The land of Moakea on Molokai. 

The old Rives' homestead at Honolulu, situated where is now the empty lot op- 
posite the Young Hotel. 

Pokele, at the corner of Queen and Nuuanu streets. 

The land of Puunui, Nuuanu valley, which was Rives' Honolulu residence. 

The land of Lelepane and its "lele" at Kalihi-waena, Honolulu. 

The land Kuhiawaho at Ewa, Oahu. 

A piece of land in Koolau, Oahu. 

Father Bachelot was also told on his arrival at Honolulu, that Rives had possessed 
extensive though uncultivated lands on hoth the islands of Oahu and Hawaii ;14 but 
like all others, foreigners as natives, Rives held those lands at the pleasure of the 
king, who could give and take according to the whim of the moment. 

When after his departure Rives had incurred the displeasure of Kaahumanu, she 
redistributed his lands, whilst she adopted his children. 

Rives then was not acting under false pretenses when he tried to form a com- 
pany for the exploitment of his uncultivated lands. But having lived among 
Hawaiians from his boyhood on, he had contracted native-Hawaiian business 
methods and the native irresponsible way of squandering money. To sharp 
business men his incapacity could not remain long hidden. Hence he failed in 
his efforts of establishing a joint-stock company in London; in Paris he succeeded, 
it is true, but the bankers, Javal, Martin Laffitte and Jacques Laffitte, who were 
induced to furnish the capital, in the hope of opening a new outlet for French 
commerce, withdrew from him the management of this enterprise and entrusted 
therewith Captain Duhaut-Cilly. 

Whilst thus engaged in negotiations with these bankers, Rives induced also 
Baron de Damas, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to found in the Hawaiian Islands 
an extensive agricultural establishment. 

Under the auspices of the French government a ship "La Comete" was fitted 
out at Bordeaux, whilst at Havre, Captain Duhaut-Cilly was busy equipping and 
loading the good ship "Le Heros" for his employers. 15 

In the meantime Rives had applied to the Seminary for Foreign Missions at 
Paris, for Catholic missionaries. The superior, Rev. Mr. Langlois, being unable 
himself to grant the request, at the instance of Mr. Rives transmitted the pro- 
position to the Congregation of Propaganda at Rome. Here the request met with 
a favorable reception. 16 

On December 25, 1800, a new religious congregation had been founded at 
Poitiers, France, by the Abbe Marie Joseph Coudrin. The name of the new 
institute was "The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and 
of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Blessed Sacrament." 

A female branch of the society had been established shortly before. The 
associates were to devote themselves to the perpetual adoration of the Blessed 
Sacrament as a protest against the prevailing unbelief, and to the education of 
the young by the opening of colleges and gratuitous schools. The priests were 
moreover to prepare candidates for the priesthood and for service in the foreign 
mission. A white habit was adopted as the distinctive garb of the institute, the 

14 Journal, p. 189; cf. S. M. Kamakau, in Nupepa Kuokoa, No. 370. 

15 Cf. Duhaut-Cilly, Voyage autour du Monde, 1834. 

16 Vie du T. R. Pere Marie -Joseph Coudrin, ch. XXXII. 



30 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

scapular having embroidered the emblems of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and 
Mary, surrounded by a crown of thorns. As a motto the Order adopted the 
words : "Vivat Cor Jesu Sacratissimum", thereby emphasizing that the aim of all 
the associates was to enkindle the love of the Divine Saviour in the hearts of 
men. 

Both branches, of the new congregation spread rapidly over France. In 1805 
some buildings were acquired by the Founder, in Paris, on a street called Picpus. 
Hence the associates have been popularly known as the Picpus Fathers. 

It has been frequently said and written that the priests who had undertaken to 
gain the Hawaiian Islands over to the Catholic Faith, belonged to the -Order of 
St. Ignatius. "It has been denied," writes Jarves (17) "that the French priests who 
of late years have been sent upon missions throughout Polynesia were of the Order of 
Jesuits. But on this point I have the testimony of one of their nation, who was on 
intimate relations with them and had frequently seen their diplomas in which it was 
stated that they were subject to the rules of that body." 

The Fathers of the Sacred Hearts highly venerate the holy, learned and zealous 
sons of St. Ignatius of Loyola, and are far from resenting as an insult the name of 
Jesuit. But truth obliges them to state that never the slightest connection existed 
between their own humble congregation and the glorious vanguard of the Church. 

Seeing the members of his institute increase little by little, the venerable 
Father Coudrin thought that the time had come for the realization of a long 
cherished desire; the evangelization of some distant foreign countries. 

When therefore in 1825 he went to Rome to obtain of the Holy See the 
approbation of the Acts of the General Chapter of the Congregation which had 
been held the preceding year, he profited by the occasion to put himself and his 
disciples at the disposal of Mgr. Caprano, secretary to the Propaganda. Having 
successfully accomplished his mission, Father Coudrin left Rome for France on 
July 21. About this time Rives' request for missionaries reached the Propaganda. 
Mgr. Caprano at once asked of Cardinal della Somaglia to entrust the children 
of the Sacred Hearts with this new mission. His Eminence was pleased with the 
project and wrote almost immediately to Father Coudrin on the subject. 

Simultaneously with the reception of this letter, the Founder was informed 
that a vessel destined for the Hawaiian Islands was being fitted out and was 
intended to leave towards the beginning of December; a chance to have several 
priests transported gratuitously was held out to him. The Association for the 
Propagation of the Faith was then only in its infancy, and missionaries had still 
to find for themselves the means to defray the expenses of their distant travels, 
(cf. Vie du Pere Coudrin, p. 506.) 

The offer therefore appeared quite providential. Father Coudrin consequently 
informed the Cardinal-prefect of his acceptance and asked for the necessary 
faculties for three missionaries. 

Having to return to Troyes for the affairs of the Congregation, he directed 
Father Cummins, prior of the house at Paris, to enter into negotiations with the 
civil authorities. The French government, by its minister of Foreign Affairs, 
Baron de Damas, seemed well disposed to the project of sending missionaries to 
the islands of the Pacific. Therein it saw a means of extending French influence 
and of promoting its business interests. However, out of fear of the Liberal 
Opposition in the legislature, the minister dared not to promise open protection; 
only free passage to the missionaries and the most necessary objects were to be 
granted. 18 

On December 18th the Papal Nuncio let Father Coudrin know that the facul- 

18 Stanislas Perron, Vie du T. R. P. M-J. Coudrin, ch. XXXII. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 31 

ties for the Sandwich Islands missionaries had arrived, but seeing the hesitations 
of the government, he thought of writing to Rome for new instructions. 

The Founder answered that when accepting the mission offered by the Propa- 
ganda, he had well foreseen that it could not be realized without much trouble and 
contradiction; that if he had sought the protection of men, it had been out of 
prudence, but that after all he counted but little on it ; that having pondered it all 
maturely he was decided to let the missionaries embark as soon as the Holy See 
would have conferred the necessary faculties upon them. 

Rome was not long in granting its definitive approval. On the 1st day of 
February, 1826, Father Coudrin received from the Nuncio all papers relative to 
the Hawaiian mission, to wit: Extensive faculties, for three missionaries; the 
decree of the Propaganda establishing Father Alexis Bachelot Apostolic Prefect 
and Father Abraham Armand and Patrick Short apostolic missionaries in the 
Sandwich Islands; and other papers of minor importance. 

In the following extracts we have a summary of the faculties bestowed upon the 
missionaries by the Holy See. "Their faculties are very large; they embrace every- 
thing except those things which require the episcopal character; to ordain prie'sts 
and consecrate the Holy Chrism. They may administer the Sacrament of Confirma- 
tion, consecrate altar stones, and the holy vases, celebrate Mass with or without 
server, grant indulgences, even plenary ones, &c, &c."i9 

They could furthermore dispense with the ecclesiastical impediments of marriage, 

with irregularities, absolve from all reserved cases, attach indulgences to 

medals and rosaries. These faculties could be exercised indiscriminately by the three 
missionaries, under the control and with the approbation of the Prefect apostolic.ao 

Mr. Rives, whom the venerable Founder had frequently met whilst at Paris, 
ceased not to manifest his ardent desire to take the priests with him. ' "He 
would take good care of them, and they might load on board the vessel all they 
wanted." 21 

Unfortunately, Mr. Rives sailed from Havre on "Le Heros" April the 10th, 
1826. It seems to have been his intention first to transact some profitable busi- 
ness in California, and then to return to Hawaii, where he would be in time to 
prepare for the reception of the French mission. 

Our missionary party embarked at Bordeaux in the ship "La Comete" Novem- 
ber the 20th of the same year. It consisted of the three priests aforesaid, of one 
choir and two laybrothers, to wit: Bros. Theodore Boissier, Melchior Bondu and 
Leonore Portal, and -of several mechanics under the leadership of Mr. Ph. A. de 
Morineau, a French lawyer, who had been instructed by the Government "to 
establish missionaries and French mechanics in the Sandwich Islands." 22 

On the same day our travelers passed out of the estuary of the Gironde and 
lost sight of the lighthouse of Cordouan, not to sight any more land, except a 
distant view of the mountains of Staten Island, before their arrival at Valparaiso. 
They had sailed midway between Madeira and the Canary Islands, left the 
Cape Verde Islands to their right, and then, after having crossed the line, passed 
at night time by the island Fernando Noronha, off the Brazilian coast ; the dark- 
ness prevented them from seeing it. On January the 13th, 1827, La Comete was 
off the Straits of Magellan. The sight of even the snowclad peaks of Mount 
Darwin, which loomed in the South, filled the passengers with delight after 
having seen but water and sky for over six weeks. But the captain, wishing to 
keep clear of the land, steered towards the East, sailed around Staten Island, 

19 Letter of an An. religious of the SS. HH., Dec. 3, 1825. 

20 Fol. Facult. Nov. 27, 1825. 

21 S. Perron, Op. Cit. p. 502. 

22 Affidavit by Ph. A. de Morineau, Arch. C. M. Honolulu. 



32 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

and having cleared Cape Horn by a wide sweep as far south as latitude 60, 
they reached the 80th degree of longitude (West from Paris) whereafter the ship 
held to a steady Northward course until off Valparaiso. It was February the 8th 
when this port was made. The voyage thus far had been prosperous but for a 
sad accident when five days before arrival one of the crew was lost over board. 
The party did not suffer much from sea-sickness ; only Father Short proved a bad 
sailor, and could not celebrate Mass a single time during the entire passage. 
Fathers Alexis and Abraham said Mass on all Sundays and Holydays in their 
cabin, in the presence of only the laybrothers and two other passengers, the 
captain not judging it expedient that services should be held on deck, on account 
of the irreligious dispositions of the majority of the passengers. 

The room was so limited that the assistants had to remain standing all the time, 
whilst the celebrant himself could not make the genuflexions. It hardly needs to 
be added that the pious worshipers greatly suffered from the heat, perspiration not 
unfrequently literally drenching even their outer garments. 

On the morning following their arrival, the party went ashore to pay their 
respects to the local clergy. They found besides a Franciscan convent with a few 
Cordelier Fathers, three churches badly damaged by an earthquake which four 
years before had destroyed nearly the whole town. They were cordially wel- 
comed by the good friars, and it is to their convent they daily went for the 
celebration of the Holy Mysteries. 23 

Coming from a country which, then perhaps even more than now, was swayed 
by irreligion and impiety, our travelers were not a little edified when they wit- 
nessed the fervor and intense faith of the Chileans. The churches were crowded 
during all the services, and the faithful assisted with evident devotion. However, 
there was an urgent want of priests. When in 1818 the independence of Chile 
had been proclaimed, the Spanish Padres went back to the mother country. By 
order of the Holy See the religious orders had taken charge of the vacant 
parishes, but they were by far not numerous enough fully to provide for the 
spiritual wants of the population. The children of the Sacred Hearts might have 
liked to stay there; but another field had been allotted to them by the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ ; thither they had to carry, there to implant, the mustard seed of the 
Gospel. 

Being informed whilst in Valparaiso, that a British consul and not a few other 
subjects of the Island Kingdom had their residence in Honolulu, the French 
members of the party applied themselves arduously to the study of the English 
tongue. 

On February the 25th, "La Comete" set sail for Quilca, the harbor of Are- 
quipa. On Ash Wednesday, which happened to be three days later, Father 
Bachelot celebrated Mass in his cabin and distributed the ashes to the other mem- 
bers of the party. Having arrived at Quilca on March the 8th, they remained 
there at anchor until the 25th. The next port, Callao, was reached on the 30th. 
Although the fathers stayed on board most of the time, their presence acted on the 
nerves of the officials of the young republic, the existence of which they feared to 
be in jeopardy by the presence of these three "Jesuits" in Peruvian waters. 

Bolivar had left Lima in disgust only the year before ; and his faithful Col- 
umbian legions had followed him a few months later. Would not these three 
priests, aided by the laybrothers, overthrow the republic established at the cost 
of so much blood, and restore the power of Spain? 

Fortunately it was learned that the "Jesuit Army" would cross over to 

23 P. Bachelot's Journal, p. 59. 




p 
p 
o 

o 

W 

5 

HH 

GQ 



W 
u 



CO 

H 

W 
O 

tf 



a 



H 



H 



O 

K 

O3 

hH 

PQ 



32 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

and having cleared Cape Horn by a wide sweep as far south as latitude 60, 
they reached the 80th degree of longitude (West from Paris) whereafter the ship 
held to a steady Northward course until off Valparaiso. It was February the 8th 
when this port was made. The voyage thus far had been prosperous but for a 
sad accident when five clays before arrival one of the crew was lost over board. 
The party did not suffer much from sea-sickness ; only Father Short proved a bad 
sailor, and could not celebrate Mass a single time during the entire passage. 
Fathers Alexis and Abraham said Mass on all Sundays and Holydays in their 
cabin, in the presence of only the laybrothers and two other passengers, the 
captain not judging it expedient that services should be held on deck, on account 
of the irreligious dispositions of the majority of the passengers. 

The room was so limited that the assistants had to remain standing all the time, 
whilst the celebrant himself could not make the genuflexions. It hardly needs to 
be added that the pious worshipers greatly suffered from the heat, perspiration not 
tin frequently literally drenching even their outer garments. 

On the morning following their arrival, the party went ashore to pay their 
respects to the local clergy. They found besides a Franciscan convent with a few 
Cordelier Fathers, three churches badly damaged by an earthquake which four 
years before had destroyed nearly the whole town. They were cordially wel- 
comed by the good friars, and it is to their convent they daily went for the 
celebration of the Holy Mysteries. 28 

Coming from a country which, then perhaps even more than now, was swayed 
by irreligion and impiety, our travelers were not a little edified when they wit- 
nessed the fervor and intense faith of the Chileans. The churches were crowded 
during all the services, and the faithful assisted with evident devotion. However, 
there was an urgent want of priests. When in 1818 the independence of Chile 
had been proclaimed, the Spanish Padres went back to the mother country. By 
order of the Holy See the religious orders had taken charge of the vacant 
parishes, but they were by far not numerous enough fully to provide for the 
spiritual wants of the population. The children of the Sacred Hearts might have 
liked to stay there; but another field had been allotted to them by the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ; thither they had to carry, there to implant, the mustard seed of the 
Gospel. 

Being informed whilst in Valparaiso, that a British consul and not a few other 
subjects of the Island Kingdom had their residence in Honolulu, the French 
members of the party applied themselves arduously to the study of the Fnglish 
tongue. 

On February the 25th, "I,a Comete" set sriil for Ouilca, the harbor of Are- 
quipa. On Ash Wednesday, which happened to be three days later, Father 
Bachelot celebrated Mass in his cabin and distributed the ashes to the other mem- 
bers of the party. Having arrived at Ouilca on March the 8th, they remained 
there at anchor until the 25th. The next port. Callao, was reached on the 30th. 
Although the fathers stayed on board most of the time, their presence acted on the 
nerves of the officials of the young republic, the existence of which they feared to 
be in jeopardy by the presence of these three "Jesuits" in Peruvian waters. 

Bolivar had left Lima in disgust only the year before; and his faithful Col- 
umbian legions had followed him a few months later. Would not these three 
priests, aided by the laybrothers, overthrow the republic established at the cost 
of so much blood, and restore the power of Spain? 

Fortunately it was learned that the "Jesuit Army" would cross over to 

2;i F. Bsu-.helot's Journal, yi. 50. 




o 
^ 

o 



O! 

X 




BOKI AND LILIHA 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 33 

Hawaii. Peru was safe; But the Peruvian government was not egoistic; not 
they. The brotherhood of man compelled them to take the opportunity of the 
departure of a Dutch vessel for Oahu, to apprize the chiefs of the oncoming 
danger. 24 

The Holy Week and Easter were cefebrated by the religious on board. On 
Holy Thursday Father Alexis said Mass and gave Holy Communion to the 
others; on the two Easterdays, the three Fathers celebrated as usual on Sundays 
and feastdays. 

After a stay of four weeks at Callao, La Comete weighed her anchor and set 
out for Mazatlan in Mexico. They cast anchor off this port on May the 27th. 
On Pentecost Sunday, the first of June, their boat, manned by fourteen men, went 
out fishing in the harbor. The boat capsized whilst riding the heavy surf and the 
entire crew were thrown into the water. Luckily the accident had been witnessed 
from a nearby vessel ; a boat was sent to the rescue, and eleven men were saved. 
Of the three who were drowned, one belonged the the mechanics sent by the 
French government, but not to the missionary party. 25 

The laybrothers thanked Divine Providence for their escape; two of them 
were wont to engage in the fishing; but on this occasion they had remained on 
board, wishing to hear Mass on account of the feast. 

On the 16th, "La Comete" left Mazatlan and arrived after a prosperous and 
uneventful voyage of twenty days in Hawaiian waters. On July the 6th about 
noon, they sighted the snow-capped summit of Mauna Kea piercing the clouds 
which kept the rest of the island hidden from their eyes. Having left Maui and 
Molokai to the Southwest, they were near Oahu early in the morning of the 7th. 
Father Bachelot said Mass at 7 o'clock to ask God's blessings over the mission 
they were about to establish. Soon Diamond Head was cleared, and about 
10 o'clock "La Comete" cast anchor in Honolulu harbor, the missionaries, from 
what they had heard on the Peruvian coast, being fully prepared for an unfavor- 
able reception. 26 



24 Bachelot's Journal, pp. 92-96, 183. 

25 P. Bachelot's Journal, p. 170 et seq. This accident is probably the cause that Bingham 
(A Residence, p. 311) and Alexander (A Brief History, p. 201) have stated that Father 

Armand died during the voyage. Father Armand arrived in Honolulu with the other members 
of the mission. He left for France on Nov. 1, 1829. 

26 Bachelot's Journal, pp. 182, 183. 




BOKI AND LILIHA 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 33 

Hawaii. Peru was safe; But the Peruvian government was not egoistic; not 
they. The brotherhood of man compelled them to take the opportunity of the 
departure of a Dutch vessel for Oahu, to apprize the chiefs of the oncoming 
danger. 24 

The Holy Week and Easter were cefebrated by the religious on board. On 
Holy Thursday Father Alexis said Mass and gave Holy Communion to the 
others; on the two Easterdays, the three Fathers celebrated as usual on Sundays 
and feastdays. 

After a stay of four weeks at Callao, La Comete weighed her anchor and set 
out for Mazatlan in Mexico. They cast anchor off this port on May the 27th. 
On Pentecost Sunday, the first of June, their boat, manned by fourteen men, went 
out fishing in the harbor. The boat capsized whilst riding the heavy surf and the 
entire crew were thrown into the water. Luckily the accident had been witnessed 
from a nearby vessel ; a boat was sent to the rescue, and eleven men were saved. 
Of the three who were drowned, one belonged the the mechanics sent by the 
French government, but not to the missionary party. 25 

The laybrothers thanked Divine Providence for their escape; two of them 
were wont to engage in the fishing; but on this occasion they had remained on 
board, wishing to hear Mass on account of the feast. 

On the 16th, "La Comete" left Mazatlan and arrived after a prosperous and 
uneventful voyage of twenty days in Hawaiian waters. On July the 6th about 
noon, they sighted the snow-capped summit of Mauna Kea piercing the clouds 
which kept the rest of the island hidden from their eyes. Having left Maui and 
Molokai to the Southwest, they were near Oahu early in the morning of the 7th. 
Father Bachelot said Mass at 7 o'clock to ask God's blessings over the mission 
they were about to establish. Soon Diamond Head was cleared, and about 
10 o'clock "La Comete" cast anchor in Honolulu harbor, the missionaries, from 
what they had heard on the Peruvian coast, being fully prepared for an unfavor- 
able reception. 26 



24 Bachelot's Journal, pp. 92-96, 183. 

25 P. Bachelot's Journal, p. 170 et seq. This accident is probably the cause that Bingham 
(A Residence, p. 311) and Alexander (A Brief History, p. 201) have stated that Father 

Armand died during the voyage. Father Armand arrived in Honolulu with the other members 
of the mission. He left for France on Nov. 1, 1829. 

26 Bachelot's Journal, pp. 182, 183. 



34 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER IV. 



Establishment of the Catholic Mission 

Rives not arrived. F. Bachelot sees Boki. Difficulties with Capt. Plassard. Meet- 
ing of the Chiefs. The First Catholic Mission Settlement. First Experiences. Study 
of the Hawaiian Language. Sailing of La Comete. The King's grant of land. D. 
Francisco Marin. Opening of the chapel to the public. First Fruits. 

Had Mr. Rives gone straight back to Hawaii, he might have been able to 
save his own property, and to prepare for the Catholic priests a foothold and a 
less unfavorable reception. But Mr. Rives had not arrived, nor did he ever 
thereafter tread the Hawaiian shores. He was traveling hither and thither on 
the Pacific Coast in the Hawaiian schooner Waverley, Capt. Sumner, with a part 
of Le Hero's cargo. When in August, 1828, the Waverley returned to Monterey 
there to meet Captain Duhaut-Cilly, Rives was not aboard, having wasted and 
dissipated all the property entrusted to him, in consequence of his imprudent con- 
duct and incapacity. 1 He died in Mexico, August the 18th, 1833, aged 40 years. 

If the absence of Rives put the priests in an awkward position, for the cap- 
tain of La Comete and the intended agricultural establishment it meant complete 
failure. 

The day after their arrival Fathers Bachelot and Short went ashore to visit 
a Spaniard by name of Don Francisco de Paula Marin, who was consul for sev- 
eral South American republics, and lived in the islands from the days of Kame- 
hameha I, and had been made a chief. They hoped to be allowed to live on his 
lands, in order to excite less suspicion, but the Don told them that he could 
not be of any use to them; he advised them however to call on the American 
consul, Mr. Jones, whom he described as a man of the greatest influence. 

Reluctantly they followed this advice; against their expectations they were 
most cordially welcomed. The consul invited them to dinner, saying that as 
Boki, the governor, was also to come, they would have an opportunity to make 
.his acquaintance, and ask him for a dwelling place and a piece of land. 

Boki came indeed. Mr. Jones introduced the newcomers and presented their 
request, which,' the governor said, he would take under consideration. 

Next day they were told that there would be no difficulty in granting them 
their request, that orders had been given to prepare a hut for them, but that, to 
avoid trouble, the matter had been referred to the chiefs. 2 

Whilst they remained for some days in painful suspense,' Captain La Plas- 
sard's temper had been greatly aroused when he realized the failure of his expe- 
dition. His clerical passengers were made to suffer for his ill luck. Their pas- 
sage to Hawaii had been guaranteed to the missionaries by the French govern- 
ment. They themselves had not made any arrangements either with the captain 
or with his employers. La Plassard knew this very well. But Rives not being 
there to receive the cargo and pay for the same, the captain had to get money 
in some way or other, and he tried to extort it, however unjustly, from Father 
Bachelot. But neither the Prefect Apostolic nor his companions had come loaded 
with treasure; they tried in vain to show the captain the unfairness of his de- 

1 For Rives' experience on the Pacific coast, see Duhaut-Cilly, Voyage autour du Monde, 
Paris, 1834. 

2 Bachelot's Journal, pp. 184-190. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 35 

mands; the tormentor wanted money, and on Father Bachelot's refusal to give 
drafts on either the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts or his own property, La 
Plassard threatened to keep in pay their baggage, well knowing that the tools the 
lay brothers had brought along would be their only means of subsistence in these 
far away islands. 

On July the 12th the chiefs gathered in council to deliberate on the admission 
of the French priests. The proceedings of the meetings were kept secret. A 
rumor, however, spread purporting that the brothers would be allowed to stay, 
but that the priests were only to be permitted to rest ashore from the voyage, 
then to leave for other strands. The priests thought that, under the circum- 
stances, the best thing to be done was boldly to go ahead. The following day, 
Brother Melchior, one of the lay brothers, went to look after a shelter. He 
found an enclosure containing three grass huts, which he rented at $8 a month. 3 
The same day the party, six men strong, removed their baggage from 1 the vessel 
to their new dwelling place, and here they passed their first night on shore. Next 
morning, July the 14th, 1827, at 10 o'clock, the first Holy Mass was offered on 
the terra firma of the Hawaiian group, 4 at least if two or three centuries earlier 
the Spanish discoverers had not celebrated the Holy Mysteries here. 

From the unpublished letters of Fathers Abraham Armand and Alexis 
Bachelot, as well as from the latter's journal, we gather the following description 
of the first Catholic mission establishment in this archipelago. 

The enclosure covered an area of 40 yards square, or about a third of an 
acre. It contained three grass houses, and a well was situated in the middle of 
the yard. "One of these huts," writes Father Armand to his sister, "is our 
parlor during the day and our sleeping room for the night. Fine mats, stretched 
on the ground, take the place of chairs, beds, table, tablecloths and all the rest. 
The second hut is our cellar, garret, storeroom, laboratory, workshop, etc. The 
third, finally, the floor of which is covered with cornstalks and cane leaves instead 
of mats, does service as chapel in the morning and evening hours, and during 
the day it is used for a study room. The kitchen is in a corner of the yard; 
it consists of four posts driven in the ground, surrounded by earth and covered 
with grass. In the middle of the enclosure is a well, the water of which is 
excellent. All the ornament of our premises consists in some sugar cane, a few 
banana trees and a bit of vine that has not borne fruit as yet." 5 

This enclosure with its three huts bore perhaps more resemblance to a small 
Egyptian cenobium of the 4th century than to a modern convent. However, the 
members of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts showed that their fervor was 
not a mere product of place and time. Although they scarcely could have been 
placed in more unfavorable circumstances, they at once commenced the regular 
community life. Rising before daybreak from their hard couches, they devoted 
the early hours to prayer, meditation and the offering of the Holy Sacrifice; 
breakfast was taken between 7 and 8 ; lunch about noontime, and supper at sunset, 
after which the beads and night prayers were said. In the beginning they very 
seldom left their dwelling, confident that if they kept out of the public eye for 
some time, the chiefs and people would become familiar with the idea of seeing 
the French priests around, and, their animosity having cooled down, would tolerate 
their presence. They were not forgotten withal. Frequently their huts were 
thronged with visitors, as we learn from a letter of Father Bachelot dated July 
26, 1827. 

3 Father Bachelot's Journal, pp. 197-201, and Letter of F. Short to F. Cummings, Arch. 
C. M. Honolulu, M. 26, p. 31. 

4 Bachelot's Journal, p. 201. 

5 Arch. Catholic Mission, Honolulu, M. 2G, p. 3G et seq. 



36 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

He writes : "Although we do not go out, there are but few days that we have 
not some importune visits, sometimes of foreigners, sometimes of chiefs, the 
latter never coming without a train. They come in, squat down, speak partly by 
signs, partly in their language, look at us and contemplate us at ease, and finally 
leave as they have come. Often they ask that we sell them the objects lying 
around; once one wanted a blanket. This would be all right, were it not that 
these 'sales' must be understood as presents." 6 

Speaking of these visitors, Father Short says: "Among the Americans that 
came to visit us were some spies, as we soon found out by their questions. One 
of them was the printer of the Protestant missionaries. They all make great 
professions of friendship and invite us to their houses, indicating the place and 
the means to find them. If they only could talk French, I would have to carry 
but a part of the burden. Anyhow by not returning their visits I hope to get 
rid of them entirely." 7 

With all their poverty and notwithstanding their precarious circumstances, 
the missionaries felt happy. "Be well convinced," writes Father Bachelot, "that 
they do not eat nor kill the people here; we shall not suffer here but what we 
should be exposed to in any other place. As long as we have money, we shall 
have no trouble ; if we only could get a little piece of land, we would be the most 
happy of men. As for our kitchen, in France our cook would get a patent of 
invention. With a few potatoes and some native roots (taro) cooked in water 
only, he prepares an excellent dinner, giving us besides, a melon and some bananas 
for dessert. Judging from the appetite with which we take our meals, they 
come never too early. However, everybody moderates his appetite somewhat, 
since we are not yet used to think of the expense of eight reals as of the loss 
of so many sous, but as that of five francs ; in this way our meals do not expose 
us to indigestion." 8 

The missionaries perfectly understood that on their ability to speak the native 
tongue, depended greatly their success in preaching the Gospel, and they applied 
themselves to its study without delay. This was no easy task, as helpful books 
were not available. Says Father Short: "There is neither grammar nor dic- 
tionary of the Hawaiian language; one finds, it is true, some small tracts con- 
taining the alphabet, the rudiments of orthography and some extracts from Holy 
Writ, but there is nothing on the declensions of the nouns or on the conjugation 
of the verbs. I have found a little manuscript Hawaiian-English vocabulary 
which I have copied and the greater part of which I have already translated into 
French." 9 

After having been suffered to remain quietly at home for a fortnight, the 
priests were summoned to appear before the regent, Kaahumanu. Fairly guessing 
the old dowager's intentions and not wishing to expose themselves to a formal 
order to depart, they prudently neglected to answer this call. Captain La Plas- 
sard in his turn was ordered before the queen ; he went and was told to reembark 
the priests. This he resolutely refused to do, "saying that they might take pas- 
sage in another vessel after a while, or that she might put them into a cask and 
ship them aboard a whaler." But this alternative did neither satisfy nor comfort 
her, and when the departure of the vessel drew near, she sent for Boki that he 
might forcibly put them on board; but La Comete sailed two hours before the 



6 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, M. 26, p. 25. 

7 Letter of July 27, 1827; Arch. C. M. Honolulu, M. 2G, p. 33. 

8 Letter July 26, 1827, Arch. C. M. Honolulu, M. 26, p. 26. 

9 Letter July 26, 1827; Arch. C. M. Honolulu. M. 26, p. 26. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 37 

governor arrived from a distance of thirty miles, and thus they (the priests) 
were left behind." 10 

La Comete weighed her anchor on the 27th day of July. The members of the 
mission felt relieved when the ship that had brought them disappeared at the 
horizon. For the solution of further difficulties they counted much on the indif- 
ference of the chiefs and the influence of the consuls and other foreigners who 
were friendly disposed. That it would be possible to find means of subsistence 
they did not doubt, for work had been offered to the lay brothers at $2 a day, 
and the needs of the little community were few and moderate. 

A few days after the departure of the vessel the priests received a visit from 
Don Francisco. He informed them that three days before, one of the Protestant 
ministers had requested him to be introduced to the members of the Catholic 
mission. This the Spaniard declined to do, engaging the minister to go by him- 
self, and assuring him that he would be well received. The Protestant clergymen 
had expected a call from the newcomers. Before the latter's arrival they had 
repeatedly stated that they would be pleased to receive them, saying that there 
v/as work enough for all. However, it was Father Bachelot's opinion that no 
good either for their undertaking or for themselves would come from such 
friendly intercourse, and he thought it prudent to remain at home. 11 

In a letter to his Superior-General, Father Bachelot thus relates the visit of 
the Protestant missionary: "Anyhow, one of these gentlemen, not finding Mr. 
Marin to introduce him, addressed himself to some one else, who himself having 
never entered here, paid us a preparatory visit, and after two days introduced the 
missionary. As we did not wish to consider this call as made to us all, Mr. 
Patrick, being a Britisher, received it alone. From the beginning till the end it 
was an exculpation of their alleged bad intentions, and hostile behavior at the 
time of our arrival, and so on. . . Mention was made of religion, and the 
minister was kind enough to admit that there are honest people in all religions, 
and especially among Catholics; he invited Mr. Patrick to call on the Protestant 
missionaries and wanted to take him along for that purpose. Father Patrick. . . . 
did go two days later, but simply to return the call of the minister. The latter 
received him very amiably, and introduced his colleagues. They conversed on 
the subject of marriage. . . . and showed some coolness when taking leave. He 
received a call of another minister two days later, but did not think it necessary 
to repay the visit." 12 

Somewhat later the Protestant missionaries offered Brother Melchior work in 
their printing office, which he declined from reasons of conscience. 13 

The 15th of August, feast of the Assumption, and then the national holiday 
of France, was celebrated by the members of the Catholic mission with all the 
solemnity which their humble circumstances permitted them. 

Says Father Bachelot : "The altar which Br. Athanasius had made, inclosed for 
twenty-four hours the Blessed Sacrament, to wit, from 6 o'clock in the morning 
of the 15th till 7 o'clock of the following day. We divided the hours. Our 
friends desired to make the adoration, dressed in their religious habit; but we 
believed that to do this during the day would be an imprudence; so we revested 
it only during the night. . . . We conserve yet our lay clothing, and we have 
resolved not to leave them before assuming our holy habit, which will appear 
more distinguished than that which the Protestant ministers wear during their 

.lOBingham, Report to the A. B. C. F. M. 

11 P. Bachelot's Journal, p. 221. 

12 Letter of May 19th, 1828. 

13 F. Bachelot's Journal, p. 227. 



38 History of the Catholic Mission in Hatvaii 

meetings, and the color of which is black. To have less resemblance with them, 
our black cassocks will be used for other purposes; ... as tricorns could be 
gotten here only at great cost, we shall order from Lima straw hats with large 
borders. . . . Thus, with the exception of our shoes, our entire habit will be 
white. . . . We intend to show ourselves in this habit, when knowing somewhat 
the language, we shall be able to draw advantage from the little excitement which 
our appearance will produce." 14 

The white habit was used by the Catholic missionaries as late as 1845. It 
was abandoned in order to conform with the members of the Congregation in 
Chile, who, for local reasons, had adopted a black habit on October 21, 1843. 15 

A young French lawyer, Philippe August de Morineau, had unofficially been 
charged by the French government to establish missionaries and mechanics in the 
Hawaiian Islands. He had remained after the departure of La Comete and 
passed as the leader of the French colony. In this quality he obtained from the 
king the cession of a piece of land. 

In an affidavit made by him on June 25, 1840, he relates this grant as follows: 
"I obtained the concession of a piece of land in the neighborhood of the port of 
Hannaroora, where the French mechanics are established at present. This land 
was granted to me at the royal residence of Woaola (Hauula?) on August 30, 
1827, by a letter written in my presence by Kaouikeouri to Manuia, commander 
of the town and district of Hannaroora. In this letter which I transmitted 
myself to Manuia on September the 1st, I alone was mentioned, and the King 
designated me therein by the name of Honolulu Palani. I hired at once natives 
for the more difficult work, and we busied ourselves assiduously in clearing, 
cultivating and otherwise improving our little property. Somewhat later we also 
built thereupon." 16 

This land is a part of the premises now occupied by the Catholic Mission, 
according to the testimony of John S. Mitchener and Richard Charlton in 1841. 
We copy the latter's affidavit as being the more explicit of the two. 

"I, Richard Charlton, Her British Majesty's Consul at the Sandwich Islands, do 
hereby certify that a certain piece or parcel of land situated in the town of Honolulu 
and now occupied by the French mission was given by Boki, at that time governor 
of Oahu, to Mess. Bachelot and Short, but whether for their own private use or for the 
use of the mission I do not know. And I do further certify that the king, Kamehameha 
the 3d, was present when it was given and that Manuia (at that time captain of the 
fort) was directed by Boki in presence of the king to measure the aforesaid land." 

Given under my hand and seal of office at Woahoo this 24th day of June, 1841. 

R. CHARLTON. 

Father Bachelot thus narrates the grant of this land by the king: 

"Mr. Morineau, always intent on obtaining the concession of the promised lot, and 
annoyed by the absence of Boki, went to the King's country house, in another part 
of the island; the governor was also there. The young prince received him with his 
usual cordiality. . . . (Mr. Morineau) asked him a piece of land at Anaroura, where 
his workmen might construct a hut for themselves. The King seemed pleased with 
this request, and granted it without any reflexion. He ordered at once to write to 
the commander of the fort, who acted as governor in the absence of Boki, commanding 
him to put the Palani immediately in possession. The land is about an acre (un 
arpent) in extension. It is in town. We had it fenced in in native style. . . . We 
caused a well to be dug, and are now building a hut. . . . We have started clearing 



14 Journal, p. 225. 

15 D. Vicente Martin y Manero, Historia Ecclesiastica de Valparaiso, II vol., pp. 210, 211. 

16 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 90. This de Morineau left Honolulu in the beginning of 
December, 1827. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 39 

it. . . ."17 It is thus different from the first enclosure the missionaries leased at the 
time of their landing, as that already contained a well. 

THE ALGAROBA. In his Journal Father Bachelot further writes : "We have 
cultivated our garden in the French style; we have made a regular garden of it 
which together with some plants which are unknown here, make an object of 
curiosity of it for both the foreigners and the natives. But the heat and the 
insects have destroyed everything." Among the seeds planted were "some seeds 
brought from France" which Father Bachelot showed to Governor Kuakini when, 
toward the end of November, 1827, that Chief called on the priests. That the 
historic algaroba tree which stood on the north-east corner of the Mission lot 
on Fort street is the product of one of those seeds brought from France, and the 
only survival of the general destruction caused "by the heat and the insects" 
follows from the following data : 

On a lithographed picture of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace at Hono- 
lulu, made between 1842 and 1846, on the identical spot where stood the afore- 
said tree, a large tree is shown which in height surpasses the roof of the church. 
A note is attached stating that this is "the tree sowed by Mr. Bachelot in 1828, 
being a magnificent acacia, the seed of which had been brought from the King's 
Garden at Paris." 

In Brother Melchior's daybook we read further under date of January 12, 
1832, "The old chief ess passed by our house to go and see the governess; she 
sent her husband to ask me for some branches of our tree at the end of the yard." 

On August 15, 1832, he writes: "The tree at the end of oui* yard bears 
fruit. Mr. Pablo (a Spaniard then living at the Mission), calls it in Spanish 
'Algarroba.' He knows it; the fruit is principally eaten in times of famine. They 
grow in the provinces of Malaga and Valence, but this one is of a more delicate 
and less sweet species." 

This algaroba tree, the parent of all the algaroba trees in the Islands, was 
cut down on October 23, 1919, to make room for the Knights of Columbus 
building. Shortly afterward the tree was erected on the Ewa side of the Bere- 
tania street entrance of the Mission. A detailed discussion on the introduction 
of this tree may be found in the 18th Annual Report of the Hawaiian Historical 
Society, pp. 29-34, where also may be seen the view of the Cathedral above 
referred to. Cf. also Rock, The Ornamental Trees of Hawaii, pp. 87 f f . 

It must be said that the above mentioned grant was in favor, not of the 
priests, but of the three Brothers, whom de Morineau said to be his mechanics. 18 

On this and other occasions Mr. Morineau endeavored to obtain a written title 
to the land ; this was constantly refused. 19 

Of the two chiefs, Kalanimoku and Boki, who had been baptized Catholics, 
the former had died in March, 1827; the latter showed at least his attachment 
to the religion which he had embraced without knowing much about it, by 
treating its ministers with friendship and protecting them. But even before the 
arrival of the little missionary band there existed in the very town of Honolulu 
a small community of Catholic worshipers, consisting of foreigners as well as 
Hawaiians. Among the former we must mention first of all that strange speci- 
men of a Catholic spoken of by nearly all the explorers who have written about 

17 Journal, pp. 227-229. Cf. De Morineau, Precis Historique, p. 318. 

18 Letter of Bachelot, 9 Oct. 1827. 

19 Journal, passim. De Morineau says however: "Notwithstanding all their efforts to 
excite Kauikeaouli against a pretension, till then without precedent, I succeeded in obtaining 
a letter whereby the property of a lot by myself designated, was assured me." Precis His- 
torique, p. 318. 



40 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

these islands in the first half of the XlXth century, Don Francisco de Paula 
Marin, a native of Andalusia. 

He had come to this group in 1791 on the Princesa Real, and to quote 
Prof. A. Koebel's Report on the Agricultural Resources and Capabilities of 
Hawaii, "appears to have served the King in many capacities. His early journal 
(now unhappily lost) shows that he cultivated pineapples, oranges, beans, 
cabbages, potatoes, peaches, cherimoyas, horse-radish, melons, tobacco, carrots, 
asparagus, maize, fig trees, lemons, lettuce, and had made kukui-oil, coconut-oil, 
candles, tiles, hay, cigars, beer and brandy. Later he records that he planted 
coffee, cotton, cloves, tomatoes, turnips, pepper, and chilis, wheat and barley, and 
manufactured castor oil, soap, molasses, lime, pickles, sirup of lemon-juice, and 
sugar He seems to have conducted a real experiment station, combin- 
ing both agriculture and manufacture." 

Arago says that he had herds of cattle, and attributes to him much influence 
with the King. 20 

Not unfrequently he served the King as interpreter. On December the 10th, 
1819, he was appointed a captain in the Hawaiian army "on account of his 
Merits and manifold Services to these Islands." 21 

This man of many attainments was a queer mixture of religious zeal and 
human respect, of piety and disregard of Christian morals. Before the overthrow 
of idolatry, Don Marin was so timid that "although he held the worship of the 
islanders in the utmost contempt, he had frequently been obliged to assist at 
their ceremonies, and even in his own house he dared not expose the image of 
Christ or any other sign of our religion. His two wives were subject to the rites 
of the country, and Marin, whilst teaching them our mysteries, did not attempt 
to forbid them to obey their heathen priests. 22 

To find zeal for the salvation of souls in such a pusillanimous Christian is 
certainly remarkable. This appears, however, from the continuation of Arago's 
quotation: "He told me also that as soon as he knew a person in danger of 
death, he went to the house, and under pretext of administering some medicine, 
he baptized the person. He added that he had thus saved over three hundred 
souls from eternal punishment." 23 

Bingham also makes such mention of him as to show him solicitous about the 
Christianisation of the natives. "Calling on the interpreter, Mr. Marin, a Spanish 
settler, we learned that Boki, the younger brother of Kalanimoku, was at a distant 
part of the island. We stated our wish to see him in respect to our landing and 
our prominent design to teach the people Christianity. Admitting that "the salva- 
tion of the soul was an important object," (the quotation marks are Bingham's) 
the interpreter soon dispatched two Hawaiian messengers to make speed and 
apprise the governor of our arrival and our design." 24 

The abolition of the taboo and the introduction of Christianity by the Pro- 
testant missionaries seems to have encouraged Don Marin to practice his religion 
with less restriction, although he appears to have been as much in dread of the 
missionaries as formerly of the chiefs. At least this is what we may conclude 
from his description by Father Short : 

"There lives in this town an old Spaniard who has been in Sandwich for over 
twenty years. He possesses great properties and his wives and children occupy a 



20 Promenade autour du Monde, II, pp. 196-197. 

21 Lydecker in Paper No. 13 of Hawaiian Hist. Soc. p. 21. 

22 Arago, op. cit. p. 230. 

23 Loc. cit. 

24 A Residence, p. 92. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 41 

small village by themselves. I have not been informed yet how great their number is." 
(Bingham states that the number of Marin's children was thirty. )25 "Withal he 
sticks firmly to the old religion. He baptizes all his children and teaches them their 
prayers in Spanish and does not allow them to communicate with the pseudo- 
missionaries. Morning and night he makes them say their prayers and the beads; 
on Sundays he reads the greater part of the mass, his family gathering around him, 

and he gives them ;an exhortation in Spanish If polygamy were allowed, 

he could pass for a patriarch. He seems glad that we are here, but he 

tells us at the same time that he dares not to manifest either the satisfaction he 
feels nor his good intentions; this is why he never comes to see us; but once in 
a while he sends one of his men also an old and very devout Spaniard to ask how 
we are. This man makes us sick with his questions about the cordon of St. Francis, 
indulgences, &c."20 

Whatever may be the truth concerning the three hundred baptisms Don Marin 
told Arago he had performed, the first thirteen baptisms registered in the 
Baptism-Records of the Catholic Mission at Honolulu, were performed at Marin's 
by a Mexican merchant from Sonora on April the 2d, 1827, four months before 
the arrival of the Fathers. Don Thomas Melendrez was the name of this man, 
who is perhaps the devout soul Father Short mentions. Here fallow the names 
of these thirteen neophytes : 

MARIA 1 AKONIA KAHUELUA, 28 years, and MARIA HUAKALUPE 
KAHIKOLOA, 24 years ; these were Don Marin's two wives. MARIA ANNA, 
age 15 years, a daughter of a Portuguese, Antonio Ferry (Ferreira ?) by name, 
and Maria Marin. This Maria and the hereafter mentioned George, are probably 
Marin's children by some former wife. The fourth is one AKELA KUELUA, 
10 years old, born of another Portuguese, Jose Ragles, and Kahuilaaha. The 
seven following are the offspring of Marin by his two wives : 

MARIA KULUIKI, 9 years of age; MARIA JOANA, 8 years; MARIA 
ANA, 7 years; MARIA KAMEA, 4 years; PELANIKO A PAULA of 4 
years ; (by Kahuelua) ; another PELANIKO A PAULA of 4 years (by Kahi- 
koloa), and one MANUELA, aged 2 years. 

The twelfth on the list is another MARIA KAMELA, 8 months old at the 
time of her baptism and having George Marin and Kuewahi, both natives, for 
parents. The thirteenth, MIKAELA, is also a little native girl of three years, 
the parents being Keohani and Kaula. 

A native woman, Louisa Rika, had been baptized in the Ladrone Islands. 27 
There were moreover several other Catholics of different nationalities. 

Thanks to the causes aforementioned and perhaps not less to the marked 
hostility existing between Kaahumanu, the staunch protectress of the Protestants, 
and Bold, with whom was the young King Kauikeaouli, then about 14 years of 
age, the Catholics were suffered to go their way unmolested. Partly out of prud- 
ence, and partly because they did not know the language, they abstained from 
proselytism. Towards the end of 1827, they constructed a new house on the 
land granted them by the governor, and there, about the middle of January, 1828, 
they opened the chapel to the public. 29 It was also thought that they could now 
show themselves on the street without inconvenience. Bold frequently attended 
the services, and according to Bingham, tried to induce the King to follow the 
Catholic priests and advised some of the people to learn their system. 30 Many 

25 Report to the A. B. C. F. M. 

26 Letter to Father Cummins, July 27, 1827; Arch. C. M. Honolulu, M. 26, p. 33. 

27 She was perhaps one of the Hawaiian girls, Arago says to have met at Guam. Cf. his 
Promenade autour du Monde, II, pp. 38 et seq. 

29 Suppliment to the Sandwich Island Mirror, 1840, p. 10. Letter of Bachelot to Coudrin 
14 April, 1828. Short to Cummins, Apr. 15, 1828. 

30 Report to A. B. C. F. M. 



42 , History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

natives responded to the invitations of the governor. "Once, on the occasion of 
the baptism of a child in our chapel" (March 8th), writes Father Bachelot, 
"several Hawaiians being present, I addressed them through an interpreter. They 
seemed to follow my little speech with great interest. Whilst I was speaking, 
their eyes were attracted by the crucifix and images that adorned the altar. I 
explained to them what they represented. I did not forget the Blessed Virgin, 
St. John and Mary Magdalene, whose disorders and conversion I recalled. This 
part of the instruction interested them particularly. The sight of the crucifix 
awakened in them sentiments of respect mingled with fear; they pointed out the 
wounds and disfigured face. Notwithstanding the poverty of our oratory, their 
faces bear, whenever they enter it, a marked expression of reverence and recollec- 
tion; during the sermons of their Protestant ministers they do not experience 
anything similar. How much more would they be impressed if they could witness 
our solemn ceremonies, principally if -they understood our Holy Mysteries ! We 
endeavor to nourish their good dispositions and we have many reasons to believe 
that we shall have in them a docile people." 31 

The baptism by Father Bachelot mentioned above, is not the first one the 
Catholic missionaries performed in the Islands. Their first baptism had been 
that of a child of Don Marin, Maria Urbano, and was administered at that 
Spaniard's residence on the 30th of November, 1827. The Apostolic Prefect had 
donned his white habit for the occasion. 32 Up to the end of 1828 twelve children 
and five adults had been baptized, besides the thirteen mentioned before. Among 
the former were the two infants of the American consul Jones, who by giving 
his children to the Catholic Church, wanted to show his antipathy to the Protest- 
1 ant missionaries. 33 

On September the 17th, 1828, the French ship "Le Heros" entered Honolulu 
harbor. Her captain, Duhaut-Cilly, paid a visit to his countrymen of the Catholic 
mission. He found them "poorly lodged, but supporting their situation with 
alacrity and courage" . . . He adds : "When I visited them in their solitude, 
they were assiduously occupied with the study of the native tongue, later to be 
able to exert resources far superior to those of their rivals." 34 

Towards the end of the same year the priests had made sufficient progress in 
the native language to give catechetical instruction, but they could not speak it 
fluently enough to deliver continuous sermons. In a relation addressed to the 
Society for the Propagation of the Faith, dated December, 1828, Father Bachelot 
summarizes as follows their activity up till that day : 

"Up to the present day we have not baptized any adults. We want them first 
to be sufficiently instructed ; our catechumens show good will ; and it is a consoling 
thought for us that soon we shall be able to baptize not only children but also the 
dying, after having taught them what is necessary to salvation. For the moment 
we confine our ambition to the formation of a small nucleus of fervent Christ- 
ians. The Lord will do the rest. We are employed in instructing a few natives 
who have been baptized in the Spanish colonies, or by a Spaniard who has lived 
in these Islands for a great many years. In the beginning we counted but some 
ten infidels that followed our catechism class; lately however the invectives of 
the Protestant ministers have awakened their curiosity; and because the Lord 
knows how to change evil into good, a great number of natives ask now that the 
bread of the Word be distributed to them. 



31 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, t. IY, p. 273. 

32 Bachelot Journal, pp. 256-256. 

33 Annales de la Prop, de la Foi, t. IV, p. 271. 

34 Duhaut-Cilly, Voyage autour du Monde, vol. II, p. 282. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii . 43 

"A recent event has moreover contributed to increase the number of 1 our 
proselytes. On the 8th of this month, feast of the Conception of the Blessed 
Virgin, Mr. Armand was taking a stroll in the country, about a mile from here 
(Kapalama). Passing in front of a hut, he heard cries, or rather yells, such as 
savages are in the habit of uttering at the death of their relatives. The thought 
crossed his mind that the unfortunate whose imminent decease these wails an- 
nounced, might perchance be breathing yet, and that God's merciful Providence 
had perhaps directed his steps to this spot. He promptly entered the grass house 
and seeing that the moribund did actually give some signs of life, he explained to 
him in a few words the truths necessary to salvation, and having asked for water, 
baptized him. The bystanders behaved very respectfully, although perhaps not 
knowing what was going on. Mr. Armand left rejoicing and giving praise to 
God. Somewhat further he was attracted by the dull meanings of a child and 
the lamentations of some natives. He entered the house from where these sounds 
of pain came, and found a baby in a dying condition. Having knelt down in 
prayer for a few moments he baptized the infant. The parents overwhelmed the 
missionary with thanksgivings. After Mr. Armand had explored the country 
somewhat further up, he returned home by the same way and again entered the 
two huts. The poor natives did not know how to express their gratitude: the 
child was much improved and the dying woman had come back to her senses. 
She cast on the missionary glances of tenderness and pressed his hands affection- 
ately. 35 This event was much talked of ; the father of the child and several other 
natives asked to be instructed." 30 

The progress of the mission during the next year is attested by the Baptism- 
Records which show the following gains : 

In January 1 child; 

In February 10 adults and 2 children 

In March 4 " 

In April 30 adults and 3 

In May 2 " 

In June 24 adults and 3 

In July 1 adult and 2 



Totaling 65 adults and 17 children. 

Thus silently and without ostentation the priests sowed the good seed and re- 
joiced at the sight of the slowly but steadily growing harvest. Well might they 
begin to breathe freely and confidently repeat after Samuel: "Eben-Ezer; Thus 
far the Lord hath helped us." 



36 This person does not seem to have recovered; the baptism records give her name as 
Joana Kiewa and her age as sixty; the child, however, whose name was Aliikanakaole, re- 
covered. 

36 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, IV; pp. 292 et seq. 



44 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER V 
Persecution 

A Committee to Investigate the "Jesuits." Its Investigation. It Reports. 
Resolutions Adopted by the Protestant Missionaries. How they were executed. Anti- 
Papist Geography. A Dissenting Minister. Other Anti-Catholic Forces. The Rival 
Chiefs. Their Reconciliation. Natives are Prohibited from Attending the Catholic 
Services. Visit of the Vincennes. A Prophecy. Boki's Fatal Expedition. A False 
Alarm. Beginning of Persecution: Louisa. Invasion of Chapel. Priests are forbidden 
to Preach. Renegades. Akeroniko. Kaahumanu's Coup-d'Etat. A Cowardly Don. 
Valeriano and Kimeone. Alokia, a Martyr for the Faith. An Abortive Revolution. 

Had the freedom of the Catholic priests to pursue their missionary work 
merely depended on the inclinations and good will of the native chieftains, it is 
not likely that obstacles would have been put in their way. The Hawaiians were 
then, much as they are now, of a disposition similar to that of the Athenians of 
old, to whom Saint Paul first broke the Good Tidings: "always fond of hearing 
some new thing." After having listened to the instructions of the Bostonians, 
they would fain have strolled over to where the missionaries of Rome had erected 
their humble sanctuary, with the request: "May we know what this new doctrine 
is which you speak of ; for you bring certain new things to our ears. We would 
know therefore what these things mean." This is what many of them did, in 
fact, and which many more would have done, had it not been that, just then, in 
the Protestant temple, the 

" pulpit, drum ecclesiastic, 

Was beat with fist instead of a stick." (Hudibras) 

As early as April 28, 1828, after the arrival of the second reinforcement of 
the Protestant Mission, Messrs. Bingham, Clark, and Chamberlain had been ap- 
pointed a committee to inquire into the plans and operations of the Jesuits, settled 
at Honolulu. 

Reverend Mr. Bingham, in a manuscript on file in the archives of the 
A. B. C. F. M., enters into some details concerning his investigations as to 1 the 
teachings of the "Jesuits." Since we have here the premises from which was 
drawn the conclusion that the Jesuits had to go, because their teachings were 
immoral and dangerous to the State, I will quote freely from said report. 

"Take," he writes, "the following specimen of what they (the Catholic priests) 
would teach. 

"Bapekema. Baptism is a sacrament, it is the regeneration or new birth by which 
we become children of God and of the Church. It is the working away of original sin 
and of all sin. 

"Eopriematio. Confirmation is a sacrament; it is the giving of the Holy Spirit 
to them that are baptized and remain steadfast in the right belief."i 

"Eukrestia. The Eucharist is a sacrament in which is the real body and the real 
blood of Christ, and His soul and His divinity. 

"This is an exact translation into English of the pages of a manuscript in native 
which they taught and which has been handed to us. No one thing perhaps more 
thoroughly evolves their, sentiments than this manuscript manual in the native 
language, which I found at the house of a native under their instructions, teaching 
the religious view of the use of images, the invocation of the Saints, prayers to Mary, 



1 The translation of the latter sentence Is not correct. The native text reads: "I hoopa- 
aia mai lakou i ka manao pololei ana," which translated means: "That they may be con- 
firmed in the true faith." 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 45 

the Mother of God; aa it appears to the natives and to me, in violation of the prohibi- 
tion of the second commandments which was wholly omitted in that manual, while 
the last was divided into two. In examining this manual, I objected to the worship 
of saints and images as forbidden by the first and second commandments of the 
decalogue. 

"The pupils, like true Catholics, admitted that it is forbidden to worship such 
images or false deities as Dagon and Diana, but not wrong to worship the images of 
Christ and Mary and the Apostles and to pray to them all." 

The answer which Mr. Bingham puts here in the mouth of the Catholic 
natives is somewhat ambiguous: he wants to make them admit that they have 
been taught to pray to the images of Christ, of the Blessed Virgin, and the other 
Saints. But this was not the case. We do not possess the manuscript which 
Bingham speaks of, but the first printed catechism, which is almost certainly its 
identical reproduction, has the following. 

"Q: Does one break the first commandment who makes an image of Jesus 
Christ, or of the Cross, or of the things which remind us of Jesus Christ, or of the 
Cross, or of the people in Heaven? 

"Answ. He who makes those things which remind us of Jesus Christ, of Mary, 
and of the Saints, and does not pray to these memorials, he does not break the 
first commandment." 

Catholics never pray TO, but often pray BEFORE images. As far as the 
grammar is concerned, it is only a difference of prepositions; but in theology 
grammatical blunders are far reaching. Many readers will have to look twice 
at the Greek words homoousios and homoiousios, to see that any difference exists 
between them; however on account of the narrowest of all letters which differ- 
entiates them, the Church has been rent asunder for over four centuries, and 
martyrs have shed their blood. 

Rev. Mr. Bingham continues : 

"I asked permission to carry this manual to my house and to examine it more 
thoroughly, promising if I found it to conform to the word of God and to contain 
the truth to embrace it myself, and to endeavor to interest others in it; and if I 
found it to contain error, I would endeavor to point out the errors. But such permis- 
sion was not granted. The objection was: 'You don't believe it.' Probably I was 
regarded as a heretic. I turned to the passage that presents the Roman Catholic 
doctrine respecting heretics, and inquired of one of the pupils what they understood 
to be a heretic. The reply of one of them was very prompt: 'It is those who take 
one part of the word of God and reject another.' Whether this interpretation was 
intended to include all who do not receive the apocryphal books as inspired, as well 
as all those who do not take the inspired books of Scripture, was uncertain. But 
having observed in the manual the omission of the second commandment, I turned 
back to the mutilated decalogue and pointed out the omission of the special prohibition 
forbidding the making of and bowing down to any image or likeness; and asked them 
in reference to their definition of the term 'heretics,' 'What do you think of those who 
leave out the second commandment of Jehova?' They were silent." 

Silence was indeed the best answer the natives could give the reverend gentle- 
man; objections of the kind, coming from a theologian did not deserve of any 
answer. 

This conversation is reported by Bingham in his "A Residence" 3 under the 
events of the year 1830 ; it is however suggested by the context that he places the 
discussion with Louisa here, inserting it between events of the 16th and 17th of 
June, not because it took place at that moment, but because Kaahumanu's visit 
to Don Francisco Marin offered him an opportunity to speak of the Catholics. 

2 Protestants divide the first commandment into two, and to avoid having eleven of them, 
contract the ninth and tenth into a single commandment. 

3 Bingham, A Residence, p. 373. 



46 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Father Bachelot alludes to the same conversation 4 and seems to suggest that it 
happened during the year 1829. 

At the General Meeting of the Sandwich Islands Mission, held at Honolulu, 
January 1830, the committee previously appointed, reported as follows: 

"The committee appointed to inquire into the object of the Jesuits now at this 
island, and ma,ke out a communication for the information of the Board, beg leave to 
state that they have attended diligently to the business assigned to them. They have 
made inquiries respecting the number, the operations and the prospects of the Jesuits; 
and have made out and forwarded a communication to the Board, stating the time 
and manner of their arrival, their number, their occupations, their efforts to teach 
the people, their prospects, &c., together with their own solicitude respecting them. 

"Your committee have beheld with no small anxiety the increasing efforts of 
these Jesuits to proselyte the people, and regret to state, that they have drawn 
away a few who have been under the special instruction of the Mission, and have 
admitted a considerable number to baptism. The Jesuits have been, however, steadily 
frowned upon by the Chiefs, and have recently been forbidden to proselyte, and the 
people have been forbidden to attend upon their instructions. 

"The committee would earnestly recommend to the meeting to determine upon 
a course, which the Mission as a body and aa individuals should pursue in relation 
to this dangerous sect. 

"All which is respectfully submitted. 

H. BINGHAM, 
E. W. CLARK, 
LEVI CHAMBERLIN, 

Committee. 

The minutes of January 21st have this : 

"The report of the committee on subject No. 10, (which had been laid upon the 
table) was taken up, and after a full consideration was accepted, and is as follows: 

"The committee appointed to draw resolutions respecting the course proper to 
be pursued by us with regard to the Jesuits present the following: 

"Whereas, in the sovereign and merciful dispensations of God's Providence, we 
have been sent to these islands of the sea for the purpose of making known the 
Religion of the Bible in ita fullest extent; the character of God; the ruined condition 
of man by nature; the plan of salvation through Jesus Christ; and the necessity 
of holiness of heart to the enjoyment of happiness here or hereafter; we thus 
constituted, by the Great Head of the Church, builders of Zion's walls, view with 
holy jealousy the approach of any, for the purpose of tearing down what God has 
enabled us to build, or of erecting a superstructure on a foundation not authorized 
by the King of Zion; and that as watchmen on the walls, we are bound to give 
alarm to our fellow laborers, and stand ready ourselves with spiritual weapons to meet 
the aggression; Wherefore, 

1, Resolved, from what we know of the Jesuits from the manner in which 
they came to these islands from the manner in which they have attempted to 
inculcate their peculiar tenets from the nature .of these teneta themselves, and 
the influence which they are exerting upon this ignorant people; that we consider 
them dangerous to the civil government of these islands, that we consider them exert- 
ing a deadly influence in drawing away the souls from God's word; as hinderers of 
the progress of the people in civilization and literature; as enemies of sound morality, 
a.nd as enemies of the Religion of Jesus Christ. 

"2. Resolved, that we recognize in its fullest extent the grand truth that every 
man for his religious opinions and practices, when not leading to open immorality, is 
accountable only to God and his own conscience, and therefore all coercive measures 
of the civil authority to control religious opinions and practices, except as above 
mentioned, are improper and injurious. 

"3. Resolved, that we fully recognize the right of the civil government of these 
islands to say what foreigners may or may not reside among them, so the rulers of 



4 Annales de la Prop, de la Foi, VI, p. 96. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 47 

this people have a perfect right to send any foreign resident from the islands, even 
without assigning the reason.c 

"4. Resolved, that we fully recognize the right of the civil government of these 
Islands to punish all who transgress the laws of the land, foreigners as well as native 
subjects; and hence, should any individual be induced to violate the laws of these 
Islands, through the instruction of any foreign residents of any class, that both the 
person so offending and the person communicating such instruction be liable to the 
penalty of the law. 

"5. Wherefore, Resolved, that we do not consider it persecution in the least 
degree, when the Chiefs ask our advice or opinion on the subject, fairly to tell them 
that in our estimation the Jesuits as a body are dangerous to the civil, moral and 
religious prosperity of the Islands. But that we advise the Chiefs not to inflict any 
punishment upon them, or upon those that follow them, on account of any part of 
their religion; but if they break the laws of the land, that they may be punished for 
that alone. 

"6. Resolved, that it is our duty as missionaries of the Cross, and as teachers of 
this people, to make known to the Chiefs historical facts respecting the principles and 
practices of the Jesuits, and that we urge them to compare these principles and 
practices with what they know of God's word, that thus they may be judges them- 
selves of what is proper. 

"7. Resolved, that if it should be thought necessary we consider it highly proper 
to teach the people from the pulpit on this subject at Honolulu, but would recom- 
mend generally that the subject be treated as not to point out the Jesuits except by 
fair inference; and that at the other stations we say nothing respecting them, except 
in private. 

"8. Resolved, that we tell the Chiefs when consulted, that if they design to send 
the Jesuits away, as they have said, or that they do by no means consent to their 
staying here, they cannot in the proper exercise of civil authority prohibit their 
preaching or proselyting, if they persist in doing so, without taking away the right of 
conscience from them, and thus subjecting religious opinions to the law of the land. 

"9. Resolved, that the consideration we have such enemies in our midst, should 
lead us to make greater exertions to teach this people to read, think, reflect, and 
compare with each other the different parts of the grand system of religion contained 
in the Bible, that they themselves, guided by the Spirit of God, may be able to judge 
between truth and error; and that we pray fervently that the Great Head of the 
Church will bless our instructions, and overrule all opposition and cause it to redound 
to his own glory. 

"Respectfully submitted, 

L. ANDREWS, } 

S. WHITNEY, i Committee. 

J. S. GREEN, j 

Rev. Mr. Bingham in his Report to the A. B. C. F. M. gives a general idea 
of the manner in which this program was executed. 

"The missionaries of the Board," says he, "occasionally preached on the evils 
of idolatry and the great defection of the churches planted in the early days of 
Christianity, once sound, pious and faithful, and especially that of Rome, and the 
decline of vital religion and the revival of a species of idolatry has been treated 
as a matter of deep regret and lamentation, as proving, too, the deceitfulness and 
depravity of the human heart, and carefully to be guarded against here." 

In conjunction with the resolutions taken in the General Meeting of the mis- 
ssionaries of the above quoted declaration of Rev. Mr. Bingham, it is curious to 
transcribe here the 24th annotation made by Mr. Wyllie on Mr. Perrin's Historical 
Memorandum. 

Mr. Perrin stated : "Be this as it may, a Committee of Protestant missionaries 

5 This is perfectly concordant with actual jurisprudence. Cf. for instance, the action of 
the Belgian government in regard to Baroness Vaughan in 1909. However, when in the same 
year the Portuguese government wished to expel foreign Catholic priests from its colonies, 
they were prevented from doing so by the energetic protests of Germany, Austria and Italy. 

6 See p. 235 of Annual Reports read before His Majesty to the Hawaiian Legislature, 
Honolulu, 1851. 



48 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

was constituted in April, 1828 to direct the war against the newcomers, and the 
pulpit resounded with the comparisons between Catholicism and paganism." 
Hereby Mr. Wyllie makes the following annotation: "The above account seems 
to have been taken from page 11 of the Supplement to the Sandwich Mirror of 
the 15th Jan., 1840, attributed to John Coffin Jones, Esq. who had been consul of 
the United States, but was suspended from his functions in consequence of his 
interference in the internal affairs of the kingdom. In a manuscript in which 
explanations are given upon all these charges embodied in that supplement, the 
following appears in the handwriting of the late Mr. Richards: 

'A committee was appointed, not literally according to the statement, but the 
particulars Mr. Chamberlain can give you. It is not possible to state a more 
barefaced falsehood, than what is stated on the llth page respecting the denunci- 
ations from the pulpit, &c. I do not believe there is a native on the Islands who 
can mention one single thing ever said in public by any missionary whatever. But 
you had better inquire of the brethren at Oahu.' " 

This statement pours a strange light on Mr. Richard's veracity. However, this 
reverend gentleman lived on Maui, and no Catholic priest being there for the 
moment, it was not necessary to inveigh against them from the pulpit. The 
natives outside of Honolulu were, however, not entirely to 1 be left in ignorance as 
to the wickedness of the Pope and his messengers. 

"We have not been entirely silent," (in informing the natives about the Roman 
Catholic religion) says Rev. Mr. Bingham, "The mission published a small but general 
geography for the use of the people, in which a brief outline of history was included, 
as usually following chiefly the plan and matter of Woodbridge's Geography; in this 
the wakeful inquirer would not fail to see that different results followed from a 
religion which labors to bring the whole population acquainted with the Bible and that 
which not only does not encourage the universal reading of the Bible in the vernacular 
tongue, but discourages and prohibits it to a great extent under heavy censures and 
penalties. Besides this and all the various means the people had of forming some 
judgment of the character of Romanism and of comparing its doctrines and ceremonies 
and policies with the Bible, it was deemed advisable to translate the principal parts 
of the Rev. Jonas King's letter to his Roman Catholic friends in Syria, stating in a 
style well adapted to convince its teachers, but to persist in their rejection."? 

The principal point Woodbridge's Geography endeavors to bring home to the 
students (at least in the Hawaiian translation 8 ), is that all Catholic nations are 
lazy, ignorant, pleasure-loving and poor; France being the only exception, care 
being taken never to mention the existence of any schools, whereas the Protestant 
countries all abound in schools and universities, and are inhabited by thrifty, 
skillful, learned people, all faithfully serving God. 

The geography being very concise, the translators had to be extremely solici- 
tous to select only the most striking details. In Catholic Austria nothing was 
thought more characteristic of the country and the people than the existence of "a 
beggarly people called gypsies ; a dreadful people without shame or knowledge or 
industry, begging and stealing being all they know." 

Heathen Japan is remarkable chiefly for its contempt of Catholic priests. 
"They once had a law there, to trample upon the Cross ; and those who did not 
want to trample on the Cross, were put to death. They did this to show their 
contempt for the missionaries of the Pope.". 

Of thirteen lines allotted to Japan, five lines are devoted to the above quoted 
"geographical" information. 



7 Bingham, Report to the A. B. C. F. M. 

8 The Hawaiian edition "He Hoikehonua" was prepared by the Rev. Messrs. Gulick and 
Whitney. 



48 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

was constituted in April, 1828 to direct the war against the newcomers, and the 
pulpit resounded with the comparisons between Catholicism and paganism." 
Hereby Mr. Wyllie makes the following annotation: "The above account seems 
to have been taken from page 11 of the Supplement to the Sandwich Mirror of 
the 15th Jan., 1840, attributed to John Coffin Jones, Esq. who had been consul oi 
the United States, but was suspended from his functions in consequence of his 
interference in the internal affairs of the kingdom. In a manuscript in which 
explanations are given upon all these charges embodied in that supplement, the 
following appears in the handwriting of the late Mr. Richards: 

'A committee was appointed, not literally according to the statement, but the 
particulars Mr. Chamberlain can give you. It is not possible to state a more 
barefaced falsehood, than what is stated on the llth page respecting the denunci- 
ations from the pulpit, &c. I do not believe there is a native on the Islands who 
can mention one single thing ever said in public by any missionary whatever. But 
you had better inquire of the brethren at Oahu.' " 

This statement pours a strange light on Mr. Richard's veracity. However, this 
reverend gentleman lived on Maui, and no Catholic priest being there for the 
moment, it was not necessary to inveigh against them from the pulpit. The 
natives outside of Honolulu were, however, not entirely to 1 be left in ignorance as 
to the wickedness of the Pope and his messengers. 

"We have not been entirely silent," (in informing the natives about the Roman 
Catholic religion) says Rev. Mr. Bingham, "The mission published a small but general 
geography for the use of the people, in which a brief outline of history was included, 
as usually following chiefly the plan and matter of Woodbridge's Geography; in this 
the wakeful inquirer would not fail to see that different results followed from a 
religion which labors to bring the whole population acquainted with the Bible and that 
which not only does not encourage the universal reading of the Bible in the vernacular 
tongue, but discourages and prohibits it to a great extent under heavy censures and 
penalties. Besides this and all the various means the people had of forming some 
judgment of the character of Romanism and of comparing its doctrines and ceremonies 
and policies with the Bible, it was deemed advisable to translate the principal parts 
of the Rev. Jonas King's letter to his Roman Catholic friends in Syria, stating in a 
style well adapted to convince its teachers, but to persist in their rejection."" 

The principal point Woodbridge's Geography endeavors to bring home to the 
students (at least in the Hawaiian translation 8 ), is that all Catholic nations are 
lazy, ignorant, pleasure-loving and poor ; France being the only exception, care 
being taken never to mention the existence of any schools, whereas the Protestant 
countries all abound in schools and universities, and are inhabited by thrifty, 
skillful, learned people, all faithfully serving God. 

The geography being very concise, the translators had to be extremely solici- 
tous to select only the most striking details. In Catholic Austria nothing was 
thought more characteristic of the country and the people than the existence of "a 
beggarly people called gypsies ; a dreadful people without shame or knowledge or 
industry, begging and stealing being all they know." 

Heathen Japan is remarkable chiefly for its contempt of Catholic priests. 
"They once had a law there, to trample upon the Cross ; and those who did not 
want to trample on the Cross, were put to death. They did this to show their 
contempt for the missionaries of the Pope.". 

Of thirteen lines allotted to Japan, five lines are devoted to the above quoted 
"geographical" information. 



7 Bingham, Report to the A. B. C. F. M. 

8 The Hawaiian edition "He Hoikehonua" was prepared by the Rev. Messrs. Gulick and 
Whitney. 




KALANIMOKU 



History of. the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 49 

Of course, Woodbridge's Geography was but a textbook ; it was the duty, of 
the teacher further to explain and to draw suitable conclusions. We may not 
forget that the principal teachers were the missionaries, and the principal pupils 
the chieftains and chiefesses. 

Although a resolution which practically meant to encourage and induce the 
chiefs to expel the Catholic priests, had been passed in the General Meeting 
of the missionaries, not all of them were in favor of this course. As Bingham 
has it I again quote his interesting report "About this time Governor 
Adams (Kuakini) was encouraged by one of our missionaries to believe that 
no efforts ought to be made by the government to restrain or to send away 
the Catholic missionaries, but just to leave them to the disposal of Providence, 
to go or to stay, to preach and proselyte or to refrain. When Adams men- 
tioned this to another missionary, he objected and said he thought the sovereign 
had a right to deny them a residence in the kingdom, as they were unwelcome 
or dangerous to the state. Of course he was, on the 'disagreement of the 
doctors' or novices, left to decide for himself on the merits of the question." 

This was very likely one of the missionaries residing at Honolulu, perhaps 
the same who wanted to enter into friendly relations with the priests when 
they arrived in 1827. 

If we remark further that the greater part of the missionaries were stationed 
on the other islands and only came to Honolulu once a year for the General 
Assembly, we may perhaps safely infer that all active opposition against the 
Catholic priests was concentrated in the sturdy and unbending Mr. Bingham, 
to whose influence the majority of the ministers had yielded in the general 
meeting of January, 1830. 

The Bostonian missionaries were, however, not alone in their efforts to 
prejudice the chiefs against the Catholic religion. "Several gentlemen in no 
way connected with us," writes Bingham, 9 "gave them hints of the oppressive 
and sanguinary character of Romanism wherever it had the ascendency, and 
they could not but see from such accounts that its prevalence here (in Hawaii) 
would be a national evil." . . . "The declaration of Captain Dale of the Fawn 
that in a great slaughter in England by the Catholics his ancestors perished, 
affected the mind of the King deeply and when Captain Dale said to him: 'If 
the Roman Catholics gain much influence here, you may expect your islands 
to be filled with blood,' or to this effect, he fully resolved to throw the weight 
of his influence against the propagation and prevalence of that system, and it 
is believed he has never for an hour been willing that it should prevail in 
opposition to our system, though he has not been at heart attached to the 
self-denying doctrines of the Bible." 10 

Other American traders and mechanics, not caring whether the Catholic 
religion was introduced or not, but afraid of the French competition, may 
likewise have told the chiefs about the sanguinary ( !) character of the 
"Romanists." 11 

All this preaching and falsification of history would have proved ineffectual 
on account of the indolence of the native mind, had not a sudden thirst for 
adventure come over Governor Boki. 

It is easy to convince a Hawaiian's mind; but on the contrary it is very 



9 Bingham, Report to the A. B. C. F. M. 

10 Ibidem. 

11 Cf. Bachelot's Journal, pp. 196 and 208. 



50 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

hard to make him act in accordance with his convictions, especially when acts 
of violence or strenuous efforts are called for. 

Kaahumanu, notwithstanding the 350 pounds of matter wherewith her will 
had to struggle, but thanks perhaps to the oft repeated infusions of energy by 
Rev. Mr. Bingham, was alone, among all the chiefs, ready to take action against 
the Palani. But her hands were tied by Boki, who fain would have snatched 
the regency from her. In the beginning of 1829 the relations between the two 
antagonists became strained to the breaking point. Boki was said to encourage 
his subalterns to destroy Kaahumanu, 12 whilst the Queen-Regent laid under 
strong suspicions of being busy in mixing the poisonous cup for her hostile 
relative, 13 if we judge from the rumors that then circulated in Honolulu. 14 
The governor seems to have contemplated striking a decisive blow and 
gathered armed men at Waikiki to overthrow Kaahumanu. He might have 
dethroned the young king as well, and thereby but have entered into his own, 
for Boki was the rightful heir to the scepter of Oahu. 15 But he seems not to 
have been very serious about it, if we may judge from the ease with which he 
was dissuaded. "Kekuanaoa, a firm friend of the Queen, went boldly to the 
governor, who would gladly have avoided this interview, and rebuked him for 
his ignoble and mad design to put down Kaahumanu by war. 'No, no,' the con- 
fused governor replied. 'If you wish to kill her, continued Kekuanaoa, there she 
is in such a house, unattended by armed guard, go and despatch her at once, 
if it is that what you want; but do not set the nation in arms to destroy one 
another in war. 'Aole! not so,' he replied." 10 

On the 9th of April a kind of reconciliation between the rival chiefs took 
place at Bingham's residence. 17 Having thus entered into more friendly rela- 
tions with Boki, Kaahumanu prevailed upon him after some time to take steps 
in order to arrest the progress of the Catholic religion. Consequently on the 
8th of August, Boki not daring to refuse her pressing solicitations, caused to 
be published in the streets of Honolulu a proclamation prohibiting all the 
natives from attending the services of the Catholic priests, on pain of being 
exiled or even of being thrown into a canoe and abandoned to the waves. In 
a letter F. Bachelot says : "On pain of being deprived of their belongings, hav- 
ing their house burnt, being put in prison, and chastised with rods." This 
prohibition did not dishearten the neophytes, who then, as later on, showed 
much attachment to the faith. One woman, principally, who had been baptized 
by the Spaniards in the Marianna Islands where she was reared, distinguished 
herself by her invincible firmness. The Queen ordered her to appear before 
her and urged her to frequent the Protestant services. Louisa refused unwaver- 
ingly and was not to be moved either by promises or by threats. On August 
23, she was met by the towncrier who asked her whither she was bound. She 
merely answered : "For the Catholic service," and was left alone. 18 

The priests had not officially been notified of Boki's prohibition; they only 
heard of it by common report. However, to prevent difficulties, they deemed 
it advisable to check the zeal of their neophytes and discourage their attendance 

12 Bingham, A Residence, p. 341. 

13 They were first cousins, Cf. Alexander, Brief History, Appendix E. 

14 Bachelot's Journal, p. 195; cf. also Bingham, A Residence, p. 230. 

15 Arago says that Boki's brother, Kalanimoku, was a son of Oahu's last king, Kalani- 
kupule; (vol. II, pp. 171-2) whilst according to the genealogy given by Alexander, Brief His- 
tory, p. 330, Boki and Kalanikupule were first cousins. In view of the punaluan practices 
of the Hawaiian chiefs, both authors may be correct. 

16 Bingham, A Residence, p. 342. 

17 Bingham, A Residence, pp. 342, 343. 

18 Annals de la Propagation de la Foi, VI, pp. 94, 95. Letter of Bachelot to Coudrin, 
Aug. 10, 1829. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 51 

at the chapel. The natives unwillingly absented themselves for a time from 
the services ; but having been told that Boki would not annoy them, they soon 
began again to seek instruction privately. But, although the priests still 
endeavored to repress their ardor, they gradually became more bold in their 
attendance and ultimately came to the chapel without fear. The priests now 
hoping that the storm had blown over, no longer refused instruction, but again 
commenced their labors publicly and continued them till the latter part of the 
same year without hindrance. 10 

In fact, when Kaahumanu gave orders that the penalties enacted by law 
against idolaters were to be applied to the natives who attended the Roman 
Catholic services, Boki openly refused to comply with these unjust orders, and 
often he was heard publicly to remark that he could see no just reason why 
the ministers of the Catholic Church had not as much right to teach the 
doctrine they professed as the missionaries from the United States. 20 

But soon Boki was to be removed from the scene of Hawaiian politics, and 
with him the barrier that had kept the enemies of the Palani at bay. 

On October 13, 1829, the U. S. ship of war Vincennes dropped anchor in 
Honolulu Harbor. Her captain, W. C. B. Finch, was bearer of a letter from 
the U. S. Secretary of the Navy, written by direction of the President, and 
directed to Kamehameha III, congratulating the King on "the rapid progress 
which had been made by his people in acquiring the knowledge of letters and 
of the true religion the religion of the Christian's Bible." 21 

The chief aim of this visit seems to have been to strengthen the hands of 
the American missionaries, which effect was fully attained. The chiefs were ex- 
ultant, and one of them, chief ess Kapiolani, exclaimed: "O, Mr. Stewart, 22 
greatly, indeed, are we favored in the visit of this captain of a man of war, and 
greatly are we blest in such a communication from the high chief of America; 
great indeed, is the joy of my heart, for I have thought that the CAPTIVITY 
OF HAWAII IS NOW NIGH TO AN END." 2S The italics in this sen- 
tence are Mr. Stewart's. 

Since Hawaii up till that time had never been in captivity, it was rather a 
strange expression, but probably meant that Hawaii was soon to be delivered 
of the dreadful Prefect Apostolic who was sent by the Pope to subdue and 
tyrannize the poor Hawaiians. 

On Saturday, the 31st, Captain Finch went on shore with Rev. Mr. Bing- 
ham as interpreter, to meet the King and governor Boki in a private confer- 
ence, respecting the claims of the American merchants upon the native govern- 
ment, to secure payment of which he had tendered his services through the 
American consul to the respective houses interested. 

The next day an investigation of accounts took place which resulted in the 
acknowledgment of about $50,000 due to different American merchants and 
shipmasters, with the pledge on the part of the chiefs to liquidate the whole 
within the ensuing nine months. The debts were principally those contracted 
by the late king, Liholiho, and by Kaumualii of Kauai previous to his death. 
Sandalwood for the payment of the same claims had been collected after the 

19 Supplement to the Sandwich Island Mirror, 1840, pp. 11, 12. 

20 Ibidem, p. 12. 

21 See the letter as reported by Bingham, A Residence, pp. 355, 356. 

22 This Mr. Stewart had been a missionary on the Hawaiian group between 1823 and 
1825 and was now chaplain on the Vincennes. 

23 Stewart, A Visit to the South Seas, 1832, p. 336. 



52 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

visit of Captain Jones, but appropriated by Boki to new purchases without the 
knowledge of the regent and king. 24 

The governor of Oahu, although very enterprising he kept a hotel and a 
store, 248 - wherein he personally served the customers seems to have been like 
his friend, Mr. Rives, abler in making debts than gains; and, says Mr. Bing- 
ham, "found it difficult to meet the demand of Oahu's share of the national 
debt, and what was due from himself. . . . Being told that sandalwood was 
abundant at the New Hebrides, he hastily formed a project which was to repair 
his fortunes and to restore him to fame, or consummate his ruin. . . . He 
fitted out two vessels, the Kamehameha and the Becket. . . . The King ob- 
jected to Boki's going in person even after he had gone on board to sail . . . 
But Boki answered that he would never go ashore till a great chief was dead. 
. . . The expedition sailed Dec. 2d, 1829. The Kamehameha, commanded by 
Boki, had on board about two hundred and fifty men; the Becket, commanded 
by Manuia, had on board ten foreigners, one hundred soldiers, twenty native 
seamen, forty other men attached to governor Boki, the captain's wife and 
seven attendants; in all 179, total 429. . . . 

"The two vessels touched and refreshed at Rutuma, (the northmost of the 
Fiji Islands) an island within ten days' sail of the New Hebrides, their destina- 
tion. The Kamehameha remained four days and proceeded first. The Becket 
remained some ten days and taking on board 47 Rutumans followed and 
reached Eremango (one of the New Hebrides), but Boki and his company could 
not be found. A mast was seen, which was conjectured to have belonged to 
the Kamehameha. From the quantity of powder on board her, the frequent 
and careless use of fire in smoking tobacco, the crowded and confused state of 
the vessel, she may have been blown up and foundered, and the whole com- 
pany of 250 men perished together in the ocean. . . ," 25 

Perhaps they did perish in the ocean. However, considering the determina- 
tion of Boki not to come back to Hawaii, his precaution not to take any white 
men on his vessel, whilst he put ten of them on the Becket, his haste to leave 
Rotuma long before the sister ship could be ready to sail; all this may 
indicate that the Hawaiian chief intended to emigrate and that the getting of 
sandalwood was but a pretext. 

One of the numerous Sawaiori settlements among the Papuans may yet be 
proven to have descended from the enterprising crew of the Kamehameha. 

The Becket returned to Honolulu, where she arrived August 3d, 1830, with 
only twelve natives and eight foreigners, the rest having been carried off by a 
mortal sickness. 

The Reverend Mr. Bingham seems to have been rather satisfied with the 
total failure of the expedition, "for," says he, "the successful return of that 
whole company might have made a strong and dangerous faction." 20 

An episode which throws a strong light on certain Hawaiian characteristics, is 
narrated by Father Bachelot in a relation dated December 18, 1834. 

"In 1831, after the overthrow of the faction of Liliha, a native from a district 
situated some six miles from Honolulu, arrived in great haste, and went straight to 
Liliha's place. He informed her that several vessels well armed with cannons had 
come at anchor in a little bay. A man with a strong escort had come ashore in a 
boat, and going to the house of the chief had asked for provisions for himself and for 



24 Stewart, op. cit. pp. 363, 364. 

24a Hotel Blonde, according to Gorham D. Oilman, in Haw. Annual, 1904, p. 76, on ewa- 
mauka corner of Nuuanu and King streets. 

25 Bingham, A Eesidence, pp. 361, 362. 

26 Loco citato. 



1 

I 

;| History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 53 

i 

;| his companions. This man was Boki. He ordered that a profound silence should be 

I kept about his return till his partizans could be informed. 

I "The messenger was questioned by Liliha and many others; all remained 

;j persuaded of the truth of this story, which created an immense emotion in town. The 

| king forgot his dignity out of joy. Messengers and schooners were sent at once to 

| verify the statements of the native. They returned disappointed: nobody on the spot 

] knew anything about the arrival of Boki and the foreign man-of-war. The messenger 

:j of this startling report had simply taken a dream for the reality, a thing very common 

; ; j to Hawaiians. 

if The man who had been the cause of this commotion was publicly whipped at the 

"' carttail for his trouble."27 

At the time of Boki's departure, Kaahumanu was on Kauai. When she 
returned from her trip, she rejoiced in realizing that Kapiolani's prophecy had 
materialized: "THE CAPTIVITY OF HAWAII WAS AT AN END." There 
was no Boki any longer to restrain her persecuting proclivities. At once 
orders were given to prevent the natives from attending the Catholic services; 
the chapel was invaded and the neophytes driven away. 

Louisa, (Luika Kaunaka) whom we have previously mentioned, was one of 
the principal victims of the persecution. She was thrown into prison, but a 
chief of Boki's party obtained her release. Probably by the orders of 
Kaahumanu, she was immediately afterwards again arrested in company with 
her uncle, Valeriano Hinapapa, and Kimeone Pale. They were conducted 
before the assembly of the chiefs and asked many questions, whilst blows were 
made to rain upon them during trie entire interrogatory. Very likely no 
determined course of persecution had been decided upon yet by the good 
Queen Kaahumanu, and so, when the bastinado proved ineffective to make 
these confessors perceive the ' connection between the Bible and Protestantism, 
they were allowed to go free. 

Rev. Mr. Bingham thought of gaining Luika by more peaceful proceedings 
and paid her a visit in her grass hut. After some discussion she asked him 
repeatedly if his own ancestors had not been Catholics. He prudently abstained 
from answering this question, but having gotten sight of a crucifix, he began to 
discuss the worship of images, and wound up by promising Luika a selected 
spot in the place where brimstone and fire abound. 28 

The second day of January, 1830, the persecution revived with greater 
vehemence. A Catholic woman, Pulcheria by name, had been put into the fort, 
where she remained two days, without getting anything to eat. The third 
day, tired of the importunities and threats of the chiefs and Protestant 
catechists, who did not cease terrifying her, and moreover fearing that she 
would be forcibly dragged to the Calvinist prayer-meeting, she succeeded in 
making her escape. It was on a Sunday morning, very early. When the 
flight was detected, the guards expected to find her in the priest's house. And 
there, indeed, she had been together with her husband, to hear an early Mass 
at 4 o'clock; but when the pursuers arrived, she had gone. However, other 
worshipers were then at prayer in the chapel, assisting at Father Bachelot's 
Mass. Seeing them, the agents of Kaahumanu became greatly excited and 
violently drove them out of the chapel from the premises. 20 

Father Bachelot thought that these violent proceedings, especially within 
the precincts of a foreigner and in a place consecrated to divine worship, 
would not be approved of by the Queen-Regent, however much opposed she 

27 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 76. 

T i 2 5^ n . nales de la Pr Pag. de la Foi, VI, pp. 95 et seq., and Supplement to the Sandwich 
Island Mirror, 1840, pp. 13 et seq. 

29 Annales de la Prop, de la Foi. VI, pp. 96 et seq. ; and Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 454. 



54 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

might be to the Catholic religion. He consequently called on her the ensuing 
day and complained about the violation of his domicile. But far from giving 
him satisfaction, Kaahumanu forbade him any more to teach the Catholic 
religion, to which the Prefect Apostolic firmly answered that he could not 
refuse instruction in the only true religion to those who asked for it. 80 

In a letter written by Father Bachelot on board the Clementine, June 14, 1837, to 
the English consul, Richard Charlton, he states that in December, 1830, Kaahumanu 
ratified the permission given by Boki to reside in the Islands, but restricting it to 
the extent that the priests should exercise their ministry in their own house, with 
liberty to foreigners but prohibition to natives to assist.si He must be mistaken as to 
the date, for in December, 1830, Kaahumanu was on her tour of Hawaii and Maui, from 
which she returned to Honolulu only about the end of March, 1831.32 

The same day (Jan. 3, 1830) an order was promulgated that all Catholics 
had to appear before the king on January the 5th. A great many of them 
refused to comply with the order; others obeyed. The principal chiefs sur- 
rounded the young King and the regent at the appointed time. They first 
questioned a woman who was considered to be one of the leading Catholics. 
She held out for some time, notwithstanding the importunities of the Queen 
and the chiefs. But when the King who had been silent till then, declared 
himself opposed to the Catholic faith, the unfortunate woman gave way and 
promised all they wanted. Four other women and one man also apostatized, 
promising henceforth to attend the meetings of the Calvinists. The rest of the 
faithfull remained silent, although a few more women fell away on that occasion. 
The first one who had given the example of apostasy, fell into a kind of despair, 
which almost culminated in insanity. Execrated by the faithful she became an 
object of contempt to the rest of the natives as well. 34 It does not appear that 
these renegades ever came back to the fold, except for the man, Keawahine, 
who soon repented and expiated his faith by a severe penance and an unshaken 
firmness. 

He was then about 40 years of age and had been instructed in the Catholic 
religion by Luika. He had been baptized receiving the name of Akeroniko, on 
the 5th of April of the preceding year, together with 28 other catechumens. 35 
Endowed with a sound judgment and good memory, he proved an excellent 
catechist. A momentary fear made him commit an act of apostasy which in 
his heart he detested. He never went to the prayer meetings of the Protestants, 
nor communicated with their teachers. 

Kimeone Paele, to whom Akeroniko had served as godfather after having 
instructed him, remonstrated with him after the assembly saying; "If you have 
fallen, you who are my father and the father of many others, what shall your 
children do? Listen! It is your duty to teach me, but since you have failed, 
the son will now instruct the father, and this I say to you: Go back to the 
truth and abandon error!" 

This reproach added to the remorse which already filled his soul with anguish 
and threw him into an utter dejection. Most of the time he roamed through the 
fields, always fearing that they would come and force him to attend the services 
of the heretics. Principally on Sundays he fled from society for this reason. 
Shame withheld him from visiting the priests who would fain have reanimated his 

30 Notes of F. Bachelot, 22 Aug., 1831, AM. H. 

31 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 35, p. 2, Cf. notes of F. Bachelot, Aug. 22, 1831. 

32 Bingham, A Residence, pp. 372, 396. 

33 From his notes, dated Aug. 22, 1831, it appears that the conversation in question took 
place at 'the occasion above mentioned, in the beginning of January, 1830. 

34 Annales Prop. Foi, VI, pp. 97, 98. Notes, Bachelot, Aug. 22, 1831. 

35 Baptism Records, Honolulu, Book 1st. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 55 

spirits. He condemned himself to silence in order to expiate the fault his tongue 
had committed. For over a year he did not speak unless to impart religious 
instruction to those who applied for it, and to say his prayers in common with 
his relatives. Although persevering in his self-imposed penance, his natural 
tranquillity and cheerfulness gradually returned. His persecutors well knew 
that only out of fear he had yielded to their importunities. They therefore urged 
him to fulfill his promise and to attend their meetings. At his emphatic refusal 
he was sent to jail, but soon released on the remark of a chief that he had done 
nothing deserving punishment. But in the year of Our Lord 1830, justice and 
common sense did not rule in Hawaii, but Kaahumanu. Akeronikq was again 
arrested and ironed like a malefactor. Joyfully he showed his shackles, saying: 
"Thus Our Lord Jesus Christ has been fettered for us." He thus endeavored 
to encourage other Catholics that were in prison with him. Prohibition was 
made against passing them any victuals which outsiders might bring for them. 
The chief in charge of the prisoners took care to furnish their meals, but Ake- 
roniko absolutely refused to partake of the food sent by him, only drinking 
water from the well that was in the prison enclosure. It was said that he re- 
mained eight days without eating anything. At that time some of the guards 
pitied him, and allowed him after darkness secretly to leave the fort, without 
taking off the chains with which his hands and feet were fettered. 

Luika's house was opposite the prison ; there he went to take a frugal meal 
and immediately went back to his place of imprisonment. Since the chiefs and 
the public had no knowledge of these nightly escapes, the rumor went abroad 
that he had passed a month without eating. Later on he explained to the Prefect 
Apostolic why he thus refused to accept the food offered him. "Had I taken 
the food offered me in the name of the chief, I would thereby have become a 
member of his household. Being his, he could have done with me according to 
his pleasure, and he might have made me abjure my faith. I would rather die 
than to expose myself to this danger." 

Akeroniko remained in prison until April, 1831, when, profiting by the anarchy 
then prevailing on account of Liliha's sedition, he regained his liberty, only to be 
again condemned to hard labor for the crime of Popery a few months later. 36 

At the beginning of Lent (Febr. 24) the majority of the faithful espied some 
favorable occasion to visit the Fathers in order to fulfill their Easter duties. They 
thus got over their first dismay and gathered strength for new trials which 
Kaahumanu had in store for them. 37 

This worthy lady had all the energy and ambition of the First Kamehameha, 
the greatest of her numerous "husbands." Like him she would suffer neither 
master nor equal. As long as Boki was governor of Oahu, she felt continually 
handicapped. However, as month after month passed since his departure, she 
felt more and more relieved and thought that henceforward she could have every- 
thing her own way. Consequently she told Boki's followers that they were no 
longer needed. But Boki's wife, Liliha, who had remained governess in his 
place, refused to be deposed, and kept her partizans in the offices they had been 
entrusted with by her husband, protesting that they would not resign their 
charges, except to him from whom they had received them. 

Kaahumanu then resolved to convoke a council of her own adherents for the 
purpose of deciding on a scheme to crush the party of opposition. Oahu was 

36 Relation by Father Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 46 et seq. 

37 Annales Prop. Foi, VI, p. 99. 



56. History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

not judged a proper place for such a gathering, since Liliha's faction was power- 
ful. With this end in view, she undertook a tour of the windward islands. 38 
A public meeting was called at Honolulu and one of the late king's wives, 
Kinau, whom Father Bachelot calls "our greatest enemy," associated with Liliha 
in the government of the island of Oahu. "Though yet inexperienced as a 
ruler," says Bingham, ". . . . for her attachment both to the regent and her 
royal son, she was deemed a suitable and able coadjutor, of great importance." 39 
If was of course, of great importance to watch, annoy and check Liliha as much 
as possible. 

"Previous to the departure of Kaahumanu, she went into the precincts of her 
old friend, Don Francisco de Paulo Marin, who had in the days of heathenism, 
united with her in wickedness and idolatry, one of the rites of which was the 
procession of the 'Akua Makahiki/ and finding a number of people called 'palani' 
who had little 'kii' (images of the Cross), asked_ them to give them up to her 
and not worship such things. She talked to them kindly, as if they had been 
their children. They gave her their trinkets, and she took a sort of pledge, that 
they would abandon the use of images, and the interview terminated pleasantly." 40 

Marin was not composed of the material out of which martyrs and confessors 
are made ; he was attached to the faith of his ancestors, indeed, but he had never 
found the courage to bring a sacrifice to his conscience. 

The "kind" old Queen probably also 1 visited in a similar way Luika's humble 
cabin near the fort ; but that poor native woman showed that she better appre- 
ciated the "Pearl of great price" than the degenerate Don. Hence, says Bingham, 
"Kaahumanu took her into her family, hoping to make her comfortable in her 
train ; but finding her haughty and disrespectful, treated her with some severity, 
and after a little time dismissed her." 41 

Father Bachelot relates the incident in a somewhat different way. "They 
improved this occasion to send into banishment the virtuous Louisa, who had 
already before shown so much firmness. The Protestant minister, Bingham, 
could not forgive her her invincible perseverance in the Faith. He threatened her 
with the most severe punishments and even with death. Louisa was prepared for 
everything. She was sick when they forcibly embarked her, and she was left 
for five days without food." (An odd way, forsooth, ta make a sick person 
.comfortable.) "The vessel touched at Maui, where Louisa, unable to continue the 
voyage, was put ashore and entrusted to a bigoted Calvinist who left nothing 
untried to pervert her. Always faithful to God, she remained over nine month:, 
in this place of exile, from where she returned only the following year." 42 

The removal of the court to Hawaii afforded no respite to the Catholics of 
Oahu. Intoxicated with the recently acquired authority, Kinau at once ordered 
the imprisonment of eight neophytes. The chief who then was in charge of the 
fort, sympathizing with the prisoners, immediately set them at liberty, but they 
were again arrested and bound with fetters. 43 

Among the little flock that then professed the Catholic Faith, two men excelled 
in their zeal for the truth, Valeriano and Kimeone. The former, who was rather 
advanced in age, was a staunch supporter of the kingly house which had ruled 
over Oahu and Maui, the battles of which he had fought under four kings. 
Perhaps on account of this attachment he never joined the Protestant religion, the 

38 Annales Prop, de la Foi, VI, p. 99. 

39 Bingham, A Residence, p. 372. 

40 Op. cit. p. 373. 

41 A Residence, p. 373. 

42 Annales de la Propagation de la Poi, VI, pp. 99, 100. 

43 Ibidem. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 57 

ministers of which had so intimately identified themselves with the usurping 
Kamehameha dynasty. But as soon as he became acquainted with a little manu- 
script booklet, "Exposition of the Christian Doctrine," composed by Father 
Bachelot, he learned it by heart with a facility which was really remarkable in 
a man of his age. On June the 6th, 1829, he received baptism. 

Kimeone Paele, a native of Waipio, Hawaii, and about 35 years of age, had, 
like Valeriano, never been friendly to the Boston missionaries, whose schools 
he refused to attend. Although he lived some twelve miles away from Honolulu, 
his avidity to learn the Catholic teaching was so great, that he frequently came 
to town to be instructed by the priests. What he had learnt by heart, he taught 
in his turn to his fellow villagers, and through his efforts a dozen among them 
soon knew as much as he himself. A few days after the arrest of the eight 
Christians above alluded to, a native whose wife was a Catholic, became seriously 
sick. Previously he had been instructed in the mysteries of the Faith by Kimeone, 
who now seeing him in danger of death, administered to him the Sacrament of 
Baptism. The neophyte died shortly afterwards. The catechist accompanied by 
some other Catholics went to the house of the deceased to pray over his body 
and conduct the funeral. Whilst they were praying, the Protestant teacher of 
the place came with the same intent. Kimeone claimed that the body of the 
defunct belonged to the Catholics, since he had died in their communion, and 
that consequently the teacher had no right to interfere with the interment. The 
latter, however, insisted, pretending that he had come by order of the chiefs. 
Hereupon Kimeone replied that in all that pertains to religion, we must obey 
God rather than the chiefs. He kept firm and the teacher was obliged to retire. 44 
This incident added to the irritation of the persecutors. 

Alokia, the 21 year old widow of the deceased, who even then had a child 
at the breast, Kimeone, Valeriano and seven other Catholics were seized upon 
and put into irons. They were made to appear before Kinau, who in vain tried 
to shake their constancy. Five natives who were not baptized and who were 
even unknown to the priests, asked to share their fetters. It was prohibited to 
give any food to the prisoners. The first three days vain efforts were made to 
send them some victuals; only on the fourth day Brother Melchior, who was 
working in the fort, succeeded in secretly handing them a taro. Although hunger- 
bitten themselves, they did not eat of it, but generously yielded the root to 
Alokia, who on account of her child was in more urgent need of food. The 
Brother tried to pass them more eatables, but without success, for he dared not 
give anything in presence of the guards, for fear of jeopardizing the whole 
mission. The next day, however, the chiefs winked at the smuggling of victuals 
into the fort ; the confessors took great care to hide them and to eat them secretly. 

Finally an end was put to their fast; they were next applied to 1 hard labor; 
the men having to cut stones on the reef, the women to make a certain number 
of mats. 

Alokia grew ill, as a consequence doubtless of the strain put upon her by the 
sickness and subsequent death of her husband, as well as of the ill treatment she 
had to endure. She was nevertheless compelled to go to the place designated for 
the performance of the work. She usually arrived there exhausted by fatigue 
and privations, but withal was given the appointed task, which, however, her 
companions charitably performed for her. Her health became more and more 
precarious, and one day her fellow prisoners had to carry her back to jail on 
their shoulders. They were met by some Catholics who had heard of their 



44 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, VI, pp. 100, 101. 



58 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

coming and took over their burdens and the sick woman. Once back in Hono- 
lulu, they were again confined to the fort. 45 

The commandant of the fort belonged to the deposed dynasty, and, writes 
Father Bachelot, "was in secret friendly to us. Our Christians were well treated 
by him; however, Alokia declined visibly; they well saw that she would not live 
long. During the night one of our neophytes came to apprise me of her situation, 
and I betook me to the fort. The chief's followers had been notified of my 
coming and received me as affectionately as our Christians could have done. As 
a fact, many of them were then being instructed in our religion, and the chief 
was cognizant of the fact. Later they used to perform the same devotional 
exercises as our Christians. They did not attend either the Protestant schools 
or prayer-meetings. Aia, the chief, always defended them from the evil treat- 
ment which they exposed themselves to on this account. 

"As soon as I entered Alokia's hut, everybody went outside. I heard her 
confession and having recalled the Catholics, gave her Extreme Unction. After 
this I allowed the others to come in. I improved the occasion by giving them a 
short instruction, which I terminated with some prayer in which all joined. A 
few days afterwards it pleased Our Lord to call Alokia to her reward. Her 
baby was adopted by a Catholic woman." 46 

May this Holy Martyr who laid down her life for the Faith, obtain for all 
her countrymen the grace to embrace it and to practice it with the same generosity 
and firmness! 

The other prisoners remained yet for about four or five months in confinement. 

On the 3d of August, the Becket, with the handful of survivors of the fatal 
expedition, arrived at Honolulu. Great was the grief of the population on realiz- 
ing the extent of the disaster, which deprived them of a beloved chief and 
carried mourning into almost every family. 

Boki's widow, Liliha, fearing that she now would lose her position as gov- 
erness of Oahu, made warlike preparations, purchased arms and ammunition, put 
about a thousand men under arms, and placed the men of Waianae in the fort 
at Honolulu, choosing for her service those least friendly to Kaahumanu's policy, 
for the purpose, as was supposed, of resisting the authority of the Queen-regent, 
as Bold, her husband, had before attempted to do. 

Kinau at once sent word to the chiefs of Lahaina: "He olelo kaua koonei. Ua 
paa ka pa i na kanaka o Waianae." (The people here are talking of war. The 
fort is occupied by the men of Waianae.) On hearing this news the chiefs 
dispatched Liliha's parent, Hoapili, to use his influence with his daughter, in order 
to prevent a civil war. Having arrived at Honolulu, Hoapili required his daughter 
to give up the fort to him. The governess yielded to her sire's demand ; where- 
upon the chief took command of the fort, established a new garrison and quietly 
waited the arrival of the regent and the other chiefs, who arrived at Honolulu 
about the end of March, 1831. 47 

In the month of January of the same year a rumor had already spread around 
town that one of the principal measures adopted by the council at Lahaina, was 
the spoliation of the partizans of Bold and the expulsion of the Catholic mis- 
sionaries, 48 The subsequent events showed that the report was well founded. 
At an assembly held April the 1st, 1831, all of Boki's and Liliha's adherents were 
discharged from their offices and their lands were confiscated. Kuakini, the then 



45 Lithogr. Letters, I, pp. 60 et seq. Ann. Prop. Foi. VI, pp. 101, 102. 

46 Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 61, 62. 

47 Bingham, A Residence, pp. 405, 406. 

48 Annales de la Prop, de la Foi, VI, p. 103. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 59 

governor of Hawaii, was appointed to the same dignity for Oahu, and the regency 
was confirmed to Kaahumanu. 49 

Having thus crushed the opposition, the good queen was now at leisure to 
take the proper measures for the realization of the second part of her program : 
the expulsion of the "Palani." 

The progress realized by the mission during the year 1830 had been insig- 
nificant on account of the acute persecution. Only two young men : Paulo Kapa- 
hoanui, 32 years of age, and Kimeone Kalahipo, 28 years, had had the courage 
to embrace the Faith; whilst a dozen infants had also received the grace of 
baptism during that period. 50 

The priests, however, do not appear to have despaired of the future; for, 
during Kaahumanu's absence, they were, according to Bingham, "erecting or 
enlarging their buildings." 51 



49Annales de la Prop. Foi, VI, pp. 103, 106; Bingham, A Residence, p. 407. 
60 Baptism Records, Honolulu. 
51 A Residence, p. 405. 



60 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER VI. 
The Expulsion 

Before the Council of the Chiefs. Decree of Banishment. The Prefect's Speech. 
Whether Permission to Reside Ever Had Been Granted or Not. Visits of Kaikeoewa 
and Kuakini. The Prinzessin Luiza. Doings of Hill. F. Bachelot's Apology. The 
Brig Waverley. Kalola. The Waikiki Wall Confessors. Captain Sumner. Bingham, 
the Hawaiian Nathanael. The Manifesto: "This Is Our Reason." Consular Protests. 
Religion, the Cause of Deportation. Declarations of the Consuls. The Forcible 
Bmbarkment. 

On the 2d day of April, 1831, Fathers Bachelot and Short were summoned 
to the fort, there to appear before the assembly of the chiefs. The King being 
yet a minor and moreover absent, Kaahumanu presided. With her were the 
chiefs, both men and women, the kumus, or native teachers, and a multitude of 
foreigners and natives. A tent had been erected on the twenty feet thick walls 
of the fort, and there_ the nobles were squatting or lying down on mats, only 
Kaahumanu and her brother, Kuakini, having chairs. 

When the priests entered, the Queen and her brother rose from their seats 
and graciously offered them to the newcomers. As soon as the Fathers were 
seated, Kaikeoewa, governor of the Island of Kauai, came forward and in a 
solemn manner but without uttering a word, delivered to the Prefect Apostolic a 
letter, which was dated January the 8th, 1831, x and must therefore have been 
composed at Kaawaloa in Kona, where by some sort of a revival, the rulers had 
been brought to a suitable pitch of religious frenzy. 2 

The content of this document was as follows : 

"Where are you, priests who have come from France? 

"This is our decree for your banishment. Begone from this land. Dwell not upon 
these Hawaiian Islands, for your doctrine is at variance with the religion which we 
profess. And because of your teaching your religion to the people of this land, some 
of us have turned to your sentiments. We are endeavoring to spread among the 
people the religion which we profess this religion we plainly know to be the true. 
This is what we earnestly desire. 

"When you arrived here, we did not invite you. But you came of your own 
accord. Therefore we send you away. Begone. 

"We allow three months to prepare for your departure, and if within that time 
you shall not have gone, your effects will be confiscated, and you will go destitute; 
and if you wait until the fourth month, and we see you delaying, then, you will be 
imprisoned, and we shall do unto you, as do the Governments of all nations to those 
who disregard their commands. So will we constantly do to you." 

(Signed) 

KAUIKEAOULI, 

KAAHUMANU, 

KAIKEOEWA, 

HOAPILI, 

NAIHE, 

KUAKINI.3 

"I opened this letter," writes Father Bachelot, "and perused it slowly, thereby 
to gain time for reflection, that I might speak without excitement. All remained 

1 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 9. 

2 Cf. Bingham, A Residence, Ch. XVI. 

3 Wyllie's Translation, Historical Summary, p. 273. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 61 

silent and held their eyes steadily on us, waiting till I should open my mouth to 
defend myself. I confess that although having been prepared for this, I felt the 
need of God's help, and prayed that according to His promise He might deign 
to inspire me what to say. We could not consent to abandon our mission. Prom- 
ising to leave the Islands would have been equivalent to renouncing it. With our 
natives, one "Yes" is equal to the deed, and has more force than all other 
equivalent acts. We had never obtained a formal permission to remain in the 
Islands. Although the young prince and the chiefs had shown us much kindness, 
the King even having expressed his desire to learn the French language, the 
permission to remain had always been wanting. It had not even entered my 
mind to ask for it, until it had become impossible to obtain it. ... In my answer 
I did not think it proper to assume the tone of an accused, but rather of an 
accuser. Therefore showing myself indignant, and glancing over the assembly, I 
asked the King's governor (Kaikeoewa) if he were not ashamed to make use of 
the term "kipaku," which corresponds to the French word "Canaille." 4 

" . . . . You would not thus speak to a fornicator, a thief, or a murderer. 
Have I deserved any of these reproaches? Where is your urbanity? People 
say you are enlightened men. Are these the expressions of enlightened men? I 
noticed that they keenly felt these reproaches, for they like very much to pass 
for well-bred people. Hence I urged my point, till they should offer me an 
opportunity of entering into a discussion on matters of Faith. All the time I 
kept in my hand the letter from the King they had given me. The chief of 
Hawaii, the old Queen's brother, cleverly stole near unto me and snatched the 
letter away. I was very sorry that they had taken the letter from me, for it 
could serve against our persecutors. The chiefs well understood this, and they 
seemed to be ashamed of having given it. I tried therefore in vain to get it 
back. Why, I asked of Kuakini, why do not you give me this letter back? The 
King sends it to me; you have no right to keep it. 'Give me your word,' he 
coolly answered, 'that you will leave the islands, and I shall give it to you.' 

"Being unwilling to do that much, I abstained from further mentioning the 
matter, and again began upbraiding them on account of their having used the 
term 'kipaku.' 'Do not speak of that any more/ said one of the chiefs, 'all we 
ask you is to leave the islands amicably.' What? I replied, you wish me to 
depart as a friend and you drive me away against my will? What are your 
reasons? You say that my religion is not good. But not knowing it, how can 
you condemn it? Here I took occasion to reproach them for their ignorance 
and their obstinacy, because they had never been willing to listen to us. Then 
taking up the threat of pillage and imprisonment the letter contained, I said to 
the principal chief : 'Do you not know then that I am not of this world ? I belong 
to God and all I have is His. I have come here possessing only my body and 
the Word of God which I wished to give you. You would not accept it. For 
all the rest I do not fear depredation ; if you wish to take my goods from my 
house, go and get them; these things are of the world. . . . Neither do I fear 
your gyves. Put me into jail. God who sees and hears us, will be there with 
me. Moreover, what is the use of taking so much care of the body? Do you not 
know that it is but a heap of earth which tomorrow will be reduced into dust? 
Perhaps you and I will die before tomorrow. How then should I fear you ?' " 

4 Lettres Lithographiees, I. p. 10. This upbraiding was unjust, for "kipaku" never has 
the ^ meaning Father Bachelot is made here to attach to it. It is a verb meaning "to expel," 
.C <to turn out of a P lac e." However, it appears to be a gloss of a copyist, for in his 
Notes," which are but another redaction of the same letter, P. Bachelot says that they 
used "the offensive words, which they make use of to expel somebody," and does not men- 
tion the term "canaille." AMH. No. 19. 



62 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Kuakini then said that the priests had established themselves in the Islands 
without leave, and at Father Bachelot's reply that they had been authorized by 
Governor Boki, the new governor rejoined that Boki was dead and that all he 
had done, was considered null and void. 6 

It is perhaps impossible to settle the question whether or not the Catholic priests, 
had obtained permission to reside in Hawaii. The question has been discussed by 
Messrs. Perrin and Wyllie in the former's Historical Memorandum, where he aaks: 
"What was the state of Hawaiian legislation in regard to foreigners at the moment 
when the Catholic Mission presented itself? And he answers: "Usage required that 
strangers to remain in the country, should obtain the authorization of the Government 
or governing chiefs, of the Islands, then almost sovereign." 

Mr. Wyllie hereby annotates: 20 A very correct answer to that question will be 
found in the words of Mr. Bachelot, pages 266 and 288, vol. IV, Annals of the Faith. 
At page 286 he records how the natives understood the gifts of lands and the inde- 
feasible rights of the King. 

This is what Father Bachelot says on p. 286: "They (the Hawaiians) look on the 
King as on their father; alao the will of the Prince is the only and sovereign law. 
The King alone is owner. He has to provide the needs of the family, either by him- 
self or through the chiefs, or by giving them lands for cultivation. The chiefs them- 
selves receive land from him. He is the exclusive heir of every one: however, he 
never makes use of this right, unless he has reasons for being dissatisfied either with 
the deceased or his family. The one who receives lands from the King becomes as 
their lord. The houses standing thereupon as well as the people who dwell therein 
become his, at least as long as they remain there, for they are free to go and estab- 
lish themselves on some other land, and then they come under the dependence of 
the new landlord. . . . The lord had a right to exact certain fines from those that 
live on his land, to put certain conditions to their residence, and to subject them to 
certain contributions in forced labor. His right is much restricted by usage." 

On p. 288: "One word of a chief has more effect than all possible codes of law. 
Till now it ia the only law the Hawaiians like and understand." 

Rev. C. S. Stewart (Journal of a Residence in the Sandwich Islands, New York, 
1828, p. 98), has the following: 

"The governors of islands and chiefs of districts are entitled by their office to 
an exercise of all the prerogatives of royalty in their respective limits. They each, 
like the King, have their annual tribute from the people; and like him, hold the lives 
and the property of all under them at caprice." 

And Blackman, p. 157, of "The Making of Hawaii": "The principal of reversion of 
lands to the King at the death of the tenant being replaced by that of succession 
in hia family, though without ownership a principle affirmed by Kamehameha I, un- 
successfully opposed by Kamehameha II (died June 14, 1824) and reaffirmed by the 
chiefs after his death at the suggestion of the Regent Kalanimoku and Lord Byron." 
(June 6, 1825.) 

No formal authorization to reside in the Islands was ever granted to Fathers 
Bachelot and Short; the Prefect Apostolic expressly states so. But on the other 
hand he claims an equivalent authorization from Governor Boki. 

It ia true that the Regent Kaahumanu opposed the staying of the Catholic priests. 
Did this often declared veto on their residence invalidate the acts of the Governor 
of Oahu? 

The relations between a regent and a governor were perhaps not clearly defined, 
the office of governor being one recently created by Kamehameha I. 

In regard to this Mr. Bingham says (A Residence, p. 147) : "It must be confessed 
that the government of the Sandwich Islands was not easily definable or made intel- 
ligible to a stranger at that period (1821), if, indeed, it was fully understood by the 
people themselves." 

It would appear that Kaahumanu herself granted a virtual permission to stay 
when she forbade the priests to teach the natives, but allowed them to minister to 
the spiritual wants of foreigners.? 

The Prefect Apostolic then once more urged the point that the chiefs ought 
not to have condemned the Catholic religion without knowing it, whereat Kua- 

6 Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 9-11. 

7 Cf. Chapter V, p. 54 of this volume. (Quot. 31.) 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 63 

kini replied : "Perhaps you are right, but you are a stranger ; our teacher (mean- 
ing Rev. Mr. Bingham) is likewise a stranger; both of you must know what 
is right, better than we. He came first and taught us his religion; and we found 
it good and adopted it. If you had arrived first, we should have listened to you 
with the same docility, but you came last, and it is not good that there should 
be two religions, for this would soon result in war." 

Father Bachelot answered that the question was not to know who came first, 
but who taught the truth; he then dwelt upon the separation of the Protestants 
from the Church, on the Catholic doctrine of the honoring of the Saints and 
their images, which, said he, was not like what the Protestant teachers made 
them believe. 

When the missionary ceased speaking, some of the chiefs and principally a 
certain chief ess, insisted on obtaining from the priests a promise to leave; but 
they avoided binding themselves, saying that, not knowing the future, they could 
not promise to do what perhaps would be impossible to fulfill. This refusal 
of the priests to comply with the wishes of the council created a great commo- 
tion among the women ; the male chiefs remained quiet, whilst the foreign element 
showed approval of the answers the missionaries made. When finally silence 
prevailed, the Fathers rose, and having made the customary salutations to the 
assembly, which all chiefs, except the Queen and a few women, returned in a 
friendly manner, they gravely withdrew. 8 

When the proceedings of the meeting became known, the prescripts received 
a great many visitors who came to express their sympathy. The afflux was so 
great that the priests, knowing the customs of the country, thought it prudent to 
protect their property against pillage. They therefore buried the church-orna- 
ments and concealed the rest of their belongings as well as they could. 

Here is the inventory of the riches which the priests thus carefully rescued from 
the rapacity of the natives: "They put on board the vessel La Comete some boxes 
of white mass-wine, two copes, two dalmatics, candlesticks for the altar in gilt copper, 
an altar cross, a processional cross, an ostensory, a censer with its boat, a holy water 
font, two candlesticks for the acolytes all this in silverplated copper flowerpots 
with artificial flower-bouquets, a silverplated sanctuary lamp and some other objects. 
The Superior General had moreover given to each of the three priests a complete 
Mass-outfit." (Some chasubles, altar linens, chalice, ciborium, .cross, candlesticks, altar- 
stone and altar-cards..) 9 They had, moreover, received "two very fine sets church 
ornaments and a chalice from the Californian Franciscan Fathersio who also had 
sent them two cows." 

In the beginning of May, Kaikeoewa with several followers called at the Mis- 
sion. Having dismissed his retinue, the governor, visibly embarrassed, disclosed 
the purpose of his visit, saying: "I come to speak about what you know well, 
and upon which we have agreed together." 

"I understand," answered Father Bachelot, "you come to drive me out." 

"Not that, we do not drive you out; but it is expedient that you go quietly 
back to your country." 

"How is that? If you do not drive me away, why do you want me to go 
against my will? I have my disciples here; are they thieves, murderers or for- 
nicators ?" 

"No, you are orderly and good, but it is better that you go." 

Hereupon Father Bachelot repeated briefly what he had said at the assembly 

8 Notes of F. Bachelot. 

9 Manuscript "Memoires faisant suite aux Memoires de Mme. Gabrielle de la Barre," p. 501. 

10 Letter of Short to Cummins, Nov. 30, 1S31. 



64 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

of the chiefs. Kaikeoewa did not answer, but having been shown around the 
premises, soon retired, taking leave with the utmost politeness. After some time 
he was urged to summon again the priests to depart; he refused blandly, saying 
that he did not wish to mix up in this affair any more. 

Kuakini came in his place, and after some discussion about the different 
charges which had been brought forward against the Catholics, he said that he 
had been apprised that they had received lately considerable sums of money from 
France, and had consequently now the means to return to their native land. 

The Prefect Apostolic replied that the rumors concerning the money they 
were said to have received were untrue, and that, if the chiefs wanted them to 
depart, they might look out for a vessel themselves, and pay the passage. Here 
the conversation ended. 

That they might appear to 'yield somewhat to the instances of the rulers, 
whenever a vessel was about to sail, the priests applied in writing to the captain 
for a free passage. But, well knowing their intentions, and unwilling to be the 
executors of the odious decree of banishment, the masters of vessels constantly 
denied the request. 11 

On June the 24th, the Prussian merchant vessel "Prinzessin L,uiza" arrived 
at Honolulu. Her commander, Capt. Wendt, brought from the King of Prussia 
presents and a friendly letter to the King of Hawaii, acknowledging the reception 
of a war-cloak from his Hawaiian Majesty, and recommending to his protection 
such of his subjects as might visit the Islands. 

During the stay of this ship, Kuakini came to advise the Fathers that now 
there was an excellent opportunity of repatriating. "Here," he said, "is a ship 
from near your own country. It will conduct you to your own land." 

"You are right," answered Father Bachelot, "but who will pay my passage? 
I came here with nothing but my body and the Word of God; my heart has 
not been upon the things of this world; I have hoarded no money." 

"Perhaps he will take you for nothing." 

"It is possible, but take the necessary steps yourselves, and we shall see." 

The governor retired with this answer. 

Shortly afterwards Capt. Wendt called on the priests and obligingly offered 
to receive them on board of his vessel, if they wished to depart; but if not, he 
told them to make an application to him in writing, and to dictate the answer 
which they wished him to make; which was done. When the Governor of Oahu 
went to see the Prussian captain, urging him to take charge of the missionaries, 
he answered that he would do it with pleasure, but that before the priests could 
come on board, he must be paid five thousand dollars. 12 

The chiefs were not in funds for the moment, and had to look for another 
opportunity to rid themselves of their unwelcome guests. On July 3d, the Prinz- 
essin Luiza continued her voyage, and although the three months which the priests 
had been allowed for their departure had expired, they had artfully managed a 
delay of execution. The threat to confiscate their property in the event they 
should stay over three months was not carried out. 

However, a new enemy had about this time entered the field against them. 
In the first days of June, an English gentleman by the name of Joshua Hill, 
arrived at Honolulu on board a whaling vessel, and took up his quarters at the 
British Consul's. 

Formerly he had served his country in France, in the quality of a spy, and 

11 Lettres Lithographiees, 1, pp. 11-15. 

12 Bingham, A Residence, p. 417; Lettr. Lith. I, p. 15; Notes, p. 18. 



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64 History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 

of the chiefs. Kaikeoewa did not answer, but having been shown around the 
premises, soon retired, taking leave with the utmost politeness. After some time 
he was urged to summon again the priests to depart; he refused blandly, saying 
that he did not wish to mix up in this affair any more. 

Kuakini came in his place, and after some discussion about the different 
charges which had been brought forward against the Catholics, he said that he 
had been apprised that they had received lately considerable sums of money from 
France, and had consequently now the means to return to their native land. 

The Prefect Apostolic replied that the rumors concerning the money they 
were said to have received were untrue, and that, if the chiefs wanted them to 
depart, they might look out for a vessel themselves, and pay the passage. Here 
the conversation ended. 

That they might appear to yield somewhat to the instances of the rulers, 
whenever a vessel was about to sail, the priests applied in writing to the captain 
for a free passage. But, well knowing their intentions, and unwilling to be the 
executors of the odious decree of banishment, the masters of vessels constantly 
denied the request. 11 

On June the 24th, the Prussian merchant vessel "Prinzessin Luiza" arrived 
at Honolulu. Her commander, Capt. Wendt, brought from the King of Prussia 
presents and a friendly letter to the King of Hawaii, acknowledging the reception 
of a war-cloak from his Hawaiian Majesty, and recommending to his protection 
such of his subjects as might visit the Islands. 

During the stay of this ship, Kuakini came to advise the Fathers that now 
there was an excellent opportunity of repatriating. "Here," he said, "is a ship 
from near your own country. It will conduct you to your own land." 

"You are right," answered Father Bachelot, "but who will pay my passage? 
I came here with nothing but my body and the Word of God; my heart has 
not been upon the things of this world ; I have hoarded no money." 

"Perhaps he will take you for nothing." 

"It is possible, but take the necessary steps yourselves, and we shall see." 

The governor retired with this answer. 

Shortly afterwards Capt. Wendt called on the priests and obligingly offered 
to receive them on board of his vessel, if they wished to depart; but if not, he 
told them to make an application to him in writing, and to dictate the answer 
which they wished him to make; which was done. When the Governor of Oahu 
went to see the Prussian captain, urging him to take charge of the missionaries, 
he answered that he would do it with pleasure, but that before the priests could 
come on board, he must be paid five thousand dollars. 12 

The chiefs were not in funds for the moment, and had to look for another 
opportunity to rid themselves of their unwelcome guests. On July 3d, the Prinz- 
essin Luiza continued her voyage, and although the three months which the priests 
had been allowed for their departure had expired, they had artfully managed a 
delay of execution. The threat to confiscate their property in the event they 
should stay over three months was not carried out. 

However, a new enemy had about this time entered the field against them. 
In the first days of June, an English gentleman by the name of Joshua Hill, 
arrived at Honolulu on board a whaling vessel, and took up his quarters at the 
British Consul's. 

Formerly he had served his country in France, in the quality of a spy, and 

11 Lettres Lithographiees, 1, pp. 11-15. 

12 Bingham, A Residence, p. 417; Lettr. Lith. I, p. 15; Notes, p. 18. 




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FATHER BACHELOT'S ALGAROBA TREE 

Planted in 1828 from a seed taken from the Royal Gardens, Paris 
This photo was taken about 1902 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 65 

later on in South America as a secret agent to assist the Spanish colonies in their 
fight against the mother country. Afterwards he had been for some time captain 
of a small schooner, but not having made much fortune in these several occupa- 
tions, had now turned missionary, and was visiting the Protestant South Sea 
missions as agent for the London Missionary Society. 

During his stay in these Islands he passed for a Lord and an envoy of the 
King of England. He was consequently treated with much consideration. 

At first he pretended not to favor one religious body more than the other, 
and spoke much about tolerance, saying that there was work for all. This at least 
was the trend of his conversations whenever he visited the Fathers. But else- 
where he spoke in a different strain. There he sustained that the Catholic priests 
would do well to leave, in order to remove all cause of disturbance and not to 
hinder the progress of the Gospel, which was materially hampered by the division 
between the preachers. 

To the merchants who were by this time mostly in favor of the prescripts 
and who cared but little about the progress of the Gospel, the cunning politician 
held out another line of argument. 

There were many islands in the Southern Pacific, inhabited by savages and 
frequented by merchant vessels, islands where the Gospel had not yet been 
preached. If the "Romanists" would only allow themselves to be taken over 
thither, they would find a free field for their activity, and at the same time open 
commercial possibilities full of promise to Hawaiian businessmen. 

This specious sophism looked like sound argument to some of the foreigners, 
and finally Mr. Hill proposed the design to Father Short, who promised to talk 
it over with his superior. 13 

Mr. Hill's arguments have since been taken up by some non-Catholic authors. 
Dr. E. S. Goodhue 14 puts it in the following forcible way : 

"The coming of the Catholics at this time was uncalled for, and unconsiderate. 
If they desired the conversion of the people from heathenism, if they wished noth- 
ing so much as the good of the Hawaiians, they should have thanked a common 
Father for the way the matter was being attended to by the missionaries already 
in the field. They could have turned their attention to some of the many other 
places then in need of their ministrations. 

"Their mission to Hawaii was as useless as it would be to send a Baptist 
missionary to Africa to reconvert the Methodist Liberians." 

Some extracts from a long letter Father Bachelot addressed to Mr. Hill in 
answer to this proposal, may perhaps not convince Protestant readers who are of 
one mind with Messrs. Hill and Goodhue, but will at least show them the Catholic 
position. 

"None is more anxious than I to promote the true blessedness of this people, who 
have endeared themselves to us by their happy natural qualities. None desires more 
than I the progress of religion. What other motive, sir, could have made me abandon 
my family, friends, and all that was dear to me in France, to sequester myself in 
these islands, without further guarantee as to the necessities of life than the word of 
Him who feeds the birds of the air, arrays with splendor the lilies of the field, forbids 
his disciples to be solicitous for the needs of the body, and commands them what 
to do when they will be sent either directly by Himself or by his representatives 
on earth 

"As a reason why we ought to withdraw you put forward, sir, the maintenance 
of the peace in the Sandwich Islands. I desire it as much, and, if I may judge by 
their conduct, more than others. A true minister of religion is essentially a minister 

13 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 16-17. 

14 Beneath Hawaiian Palms and Stars, p. 133. 



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FATHER BAOHELOT'S ALGAROBA TREE 

Pliinted in ISiiS from a seed taken from the Royal Gardens. Paris 
This, photo was taken ahout 1IHI2 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 65 

later on in South America as a secret agent to assist the Spanish colonies in their 
fight against the mother country. Afterwards he had been for some time captain 
of a small schooner, but not having made much fortune in these several occupa- 
tions, had now turned missionary, and was visiting the Protestant South Sea 
missions as agent for the London Missionary Society. 

During his stay in these Islands he passed for a Lord and an envoy of the 
King of England. He was consequently treated with much consideration. 

At first he pretended not to favor one religious body more than the other, 
and spoke much about tolerance, saying that there was work for all. This at least 
was the trend of his conversations whenever he visited the Fathers. But else- 
where he spoke in a different strain. There he sustained that the Catholic priests 
would do well to leave, in order to remove all cause of disturbance and not to 
hinder the progress of the Gospel, which was materially hampered by the division 
between the preachers. 

To the merchants who were by this time mostly in favor of the prescripts 
and who cared but little about the progress of the Gospel, the cunning politician 
held out another line of argument. 

There were many islands in the Southern Pacific, inhabited by savages and 
frequented by merchant vessels, islands where the Gospel had not yet been 
preached. If the "Romanists" would only allow themselves to be taken over 
thither, they would find a free field for their activity, and at the same time open 
commercial possibilities full of promise to Hawaiian businessmen. 

This specious sophism looked like sound argument to some of the foreigners, 
and finally Mr. Hill proposed the design to Father Short, who promised to talk 
it over with his superior. 13 

Mr. Hill's arguments have since been taken up by some non-Catholic authors. 
Dr. E. S. Goodhue 14 puts it in the following forcible way: 

"The coming of the Catholics at this time was uncalled for, and unconsiderate. 
If they desired the conversion of the people from heathenism, if they wished noth- 
ing so much as the good of the Hawaiians, they should have thanked a common 
Father for the way the matter was being attended to by the missionaries already 
in the field. They could have turned their attention to some of the many other 
places then in need of their ministrations. 

"Their mission to Hawaii was as useless as it would be to send a Baptist 
missionary to Africa to reconvert the Methodist Liberians." 

Some extracts from a long letter Father Bachelot addressed to Mr. Hill in 
answer to this proposal, may perhaps not convince Protestant readers who are of 
one_mind with Messrs. Hill and Goodhue, but will at least show them the Catholic 
position. 

"None is more anxious than I to promote the true blessedness of this people, who 
have endeared themselves to us by their happy natural qualities. None desires more 
than I the progress of religion. What other motive, sir, could have made me abandon 
my family, friends, and all that was dear to me in France, to sequester myself in 
these islands, without further guarantee as to the necessities of life than the word of 
Him who feeds the birds of the air, arrays with splendor the lilies of the field, forbids 
his disciples to be solicitous for the needs of the body, and commands them what 
to do when they will be sent either directly by Himself or by his representatives 
on earth 

"As a reason why we ought to withdraw you put forward, sir, the maintenance 
of the peace in the Sandwich Islands. I desire it as much, and, if I may judge by 
their conduct, more than others. A true minister of religion is essentially a minister 

13 Lettres Llthographiees, I, p. 16-17. 

1-1 Beneath Hawaiian Palms and Stars, p. 133. 



66 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

of peace. But certainly, air, you are not of those who that peace may be preserved 
wish to leave men in the creeds they adhere to, whatever they may be. This would 
be closing the door to the propagation of the Gospel, which cannot take place without 
creating a schism between those that embrace the truth and those that persevere in 
their errors. Such was not the foundation of peace laid by Him who declared that He 
had come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her 
mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. He has announced this 
conflict between truth and error, and to the Truth He has allotted persecutions for 
its portion in this world as its distinctive feature. Do not imagine, sir, that the 
diversity of religious denominations is incompatible with the peace you recommend. 
If any trouble is to be feared, we have elsewhere to look for its cause to study and 
to prevent it. It may be perhaps the lesion of some private interest, some one's, 
feelings hurt, a sustained prejudice, a nourished animosity, a secret jealousy, in a 
word, any other cause which surely is not founded upon the Gospel, and is not in favor 
of the religion which indulges in it. 

"Behold what must be eliminated, and where we ought to direct our blows. Avoid 
the invectives, the calumnies, the slanderous insinuations, especially when they become 
personal. Do not foster them even by silence. . Let us avoid by approving by as 
little as a smile, those tales which are spread either by malice or by ignorance. Teach 
these poor people who listen with so much docility and whom it is so easy to persuade 
that violence makes hypocrites and no Christians. 

"Then no trouble will have to be feared; the Truth can be spread quietly and 
peace will reign. is 

" You say: 'We ought not to kick against the goad.' If by that goad, sir, 

you mean the prohibitions of men and their opposition, I will ask you with Peter and 
John, consider whether it is right to obey men rather than God, and whether the 
apostles and their successors, the evangelical laborers in China and elsewhere, have 
read in the Gospel that they ought to abandon the work of God because it was pro- 
hibited by the great ones of the earth, whom the low and poor have always preceded 
in their adhesion to the truth. 

"If by this goad you mean the Spirit of God, I answer that we shall obey it, 
following the examples of our Fathers and models in the Faith; that without for- 
getting that we have to unite the wisdom of the serpent with the simplicity of the 
dove, we shall never listen to motives of" purely human prudence; neither shall we 
forget that only the hireling flies when he sees the wolf coming, whilst the good 
shepherd gives his life for his sheep 

"You say: 'An immense field is open where we can exercise our zeal without 
conflict or opposition.' We know it, sir. But that is not the field which the Father 
of the family has ordered us to till. Evangelical laborers require a special mission. 
The very name of missionary tells it. To have a right to reform the work of God, 
it is not sufficient, like some make themselves believe, to take the Bible in one's 
hands. Neither can this essential and indispensable mission be imparted by some 
private individuals, nor even by certain societies, which have merely the right and 
power to provide for the temporary wants of the missioners. It is an ecclesiastical 
mission given by an authority, which itself has received it with power of delegating 
it which comes through an uninterrupted succession from the very Founder of the 
Church. The Apostle teaches the necessity of this mission which cannot be found 
except in the Catholic Church, because She alone can trace back her pedigree to 
the Founder 

"After this remark, you will understand, sir, that the choice of the field to be 
tilled is not entirely left to the whims of the evangelical laborer. The field for which 
he has received this essential mission, must be the only theater of his labors. He 
cannot change it at will, without going beyond the limits of his power and duty. . . ."10 

Had the members of the Catholic Mission known at that time the true 
character of Mr. Hill, they would not have taken so much pains to convince 
him of the justice of their cause. But thinking him a special envoy of the 
King of England, of whom Father Short was a subject, they hoped that 
perhaps his report to the home-government might be instrumental in obtaining 

15 Experience has since taught the correctness of the Ideas Father Bachelot here expresses. 

16 Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 17-24. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 67 

the free exercise of the Catholic religion in these Islands, which then were 
yet considered as a sort of dependency of the British crown. 

Not at all discouraged by this letter of the Prefect Apostolic, Mr. Hill made 
one more attempt to persuade him to repair to other islands in Polynesia. 
Calling on the priests toward the end of July, he said that having soon to 
depart for the Society Islands, he was willing to convey them to any island of 
the neighboring archipelagoes they might choose. Without further arguing 
with him, Father Bachelot curtly declined his offers, saying that since he was 
a French subject, nobody had a right to take him on board against his will, 
not even by order of the Hawaiian government, unless the vessel carried the 
flag of his nation, or of the country where he happened to be. 

Mr. Hill left for the Southseas towards the end of August. He arrived 
at Pitcairn, where he tyrannized over the settlers, claiming to be a near relative 
to the Duke of Bedford, and under Government authority. His imposture was 
discovered when in 1837, an English vessel in command of Lord Edward 
Russel, son of the Duke of Bedford, visited the island. The following year, 
another British vessel called, the captain of which having a warrant for the 
arrest of the pseudo-lord, took him on board and removed him to Valparaiso. 17 

Hill had not succeeded in the plan the pursuance of which he seemed to 
have made his hobby during his stay in Hawaii; however he had done much 
harm to the Catholic priests by strengthening the idea of exiling them, and, 
when he saw that his pet scheme had failed, by advising the chiefs to embark 
the Fathers on a little Hawaiian brig which was then moored in the harbor. 
It was the Waverley, which Mr. Rives had made use of for his unlucky business 
trip on the Californian coast. 

As the party in power grew more and more determined to expel the 
messengers of the pope, and began to see their way clear for the execution of 
their design, a marked movement towards the Catholic Faith became noticeable 
among the natives, and encouraged the missionaries to hold out as long as 
possible. 

For some time the disgraced chieftains with their adherents had been draw- 
ing closer to the Catholics, considering probably, that having the same enemies, 
it would be well to stand united. Some of them applied to Kimeone and other 
catechists for instruction in the Catholic doctrine. Among them was Kalola, 
than whom few chiefs or chiefesses were more distinguished by birth in all 
Hawaii. She was a daughter of Kahekili, King of Maui, Oahu and Kauai, by 
his first wife, Kauwahine and a sister of Kalanikupule, last King of Oahu ; she 
was also an aunt to Liliha, governor Boki's wife. 18 Although her brother, 
Kalanikupule, had been defeated and killed by Kamehameha I, his family had, 
however, kept much of its former influence, until Kaahumanu despoiled and 
disgraced them in the assembly of April the 1st. 19 In the battle which decided 
the fate of her royal house, Kalola, was severely wounded, and left for dead on 
the field. As they found her yet respiring, Kamehameha took care of her, and 
rendered her the honors due to her rank. 20 Kalola received baptism at the 
hands of Luika in December, 1832. She took sick in March, 1837, received the 
Last Sacraments from Father Walsh, and having been taken to Maui, died 



17 Pitcairn; Extraits de 1'anglais de Bayle Murray, Paris, 1853, p. 32 and follow.; see also 
Enc. Brit. 9th Edit. Vol. XIX, p. 132. 

18 Porn. II, p. 261. 

19 Lettres Lithographlees, I, p. 64. 

20 F. Bachelot, I/ettres Lithographiees, I, p. 463. 

VTO 21 Op> cit - pp - 64 > 463. Baptism Records, Honolulu, No. 187. Bingham, A Residence, p. 
372; Pomander II, p. 261. 



68 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

there May the 20th, aged 84 years. 21 She left a husband, Makaimoku, who was 
then but a young man Father Walsh gives him 25 years and who was 
baptized a Catholic on March 25, 1837. 22 

Before long it was remarked that a considerable number of natives did not 
attend the Protestant prayer meetings as they used to. This discovery natur- 
ally created a stir in the Calvinist camp, and the "kumus" or Protestant 
catechists became active. 

In July twelve neophytes were successively arrested and asked to give an 
account of their beliefs. They answered that they had joined the Catholic 
religion, that they wished to persevere in it, and for it were willing to suffer 
any punishment which might be inflicted upon them. 

Kaahumanu condemned them to hard labor. They had to build, each one, 
a wall 50 feet long by 6 feet high and 3 to 4 feet wide. Every one had person- 
ally to work at his task, and they were forbidden to help one another. 

The wall had to be erected at Waikiki, which was then a dreary plain, some 
three miles to the East of the village of Honolulu. The ground was all 
covered with large stones frequently embedded in the soil, and the prisoners 
were to pick them up, having no tools of any kind to aid them. These con- 
fessors deserve to have their names recorded as on a roll of honor. Pelipe 
Mokuhou, 50 years of age; Kikime Kaihekauila, 28 years; Pakileo Luakini,'24 
years; and Nanakea (Anania Nanauwahi?) 70 years; males; Kekilia Kakau, 
50 years; Monika Ai, 50 years; Kaika Kapuloaokalani, 60 years; Amelia 
Uheke, 50 years; Akaka Kamoohula, 36 years; Helena Keehana, 50 years; 
and two other women; Ailimu, whose six-year-old child accompanied her in 
her imprisonment, and Mahaoi, who were still in the class of catechumens. 

Ailimu received baptism after the departure of the missionaries, on Decem- 
ber 15, 1833. Mahaoi allowed herself to be intimidated, and obtained her 
freedom by promising to join the Calvinists. Before the Fathers went into 
exile, she repented and asked for baptism; but Father Bachelot, not judging 
her sufficiently firm in the Faith, refused to admit her. 

Kikime was blind, and he alone was allowed to work jointly with his 
mother, Monika Ai. Every day they had to erect an extent of wall between 70 
and 80 feet long. The mother located the stones ; following her directions the 
son dug them up with his ringers, and together they carried them to the 
appointed spot, there to pile them up. The first few days the prisoners had 
fetters upon their ankles and wrists, but these were taken off afterwards. They 
were but sparingly provided with food, and strict prohibition was made against 
bringing them eatables or otherwise having communication with them. Withal 
their relatives succeeded in procuring them enough food to keep them from 
starving. Moreover their night watchman, touched with compassion, allowed 
them sometimes to hunt for provisions during the night, and they profited by 
these opportunities to visit the priests. They always appeared blithe and con- 
tented, because, as they said, they suffered for God, and not for having com- 
mitted any crime. 23 

One of these confessors for the Faith was Uheke or Esther, who in 
baptism was to receive the name of Amelia. 24 She was a Kauaian chiefess, 
and had in the April troubles been deprived of her estate. Before that time 
some of her retainers had secretly instructed her in the Catholic doctrine; but 

22 Baptism Records, C. M. Honolulu, No. 234. 

23 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, VI, pp. 114 et seq. ; Notes, pp. 24, 25. 

24 Baptism Records, Dec. 12, 1831. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 69 

since she no longer dissimulated her belief, Father Bachelot had given her a 
manuscript "Exposition of the Christian Doctrine." One day, whilst studying 
it, she was arrested and conducted before a chief, who summoned her, hence- 
forth to attend the Protestant services, threatening her with hard labor if she 
refused. The infliction of this punishment would be dishonoring in the eyes 
of her countrymen on account of her rank ; she nevertheless embraced it rather 
than to deny her religion. She was consequently condemned to work on the 
Waikiki wall, and, by her constant cheerfulness and good example became the 
comfortress of her fellow convicts, as later on she was to be the cause of their 
deliverance. 

About the middle of August, Aneroniko, who had escaped from the fort four 
months before, was again arrested and also made to join in the punishment 
with his correligionists. 25 

Meanwhile the plan suggested by Mr. Hill, to equip the Waverley for the 
deportation of the Catholic priests, had matured. It had taken some time to 
find her a master, for the native who was then in command of the vessel was 
unfamiliar with navigation on the high seas, and of the foreign captains none 
wanted to expose himself to the opprobrium of his countrymen by becoming the 
executor of the odious decree of banishment. Finally the chiefs addressed 
themselves to the former master of the Waverley, Captain Sumner, an English- 
man, who was then, on account of his age, unemployed and in rather needy 
circumstances. 

Notwithstanding the remonstrances of the other foreigners, he accepted the 
proposal of the chiefs, compelled as he was by the imperative necessity of 
providing for his family. 20 

Father Bachelot bore him no ill will for it, for he says in his defense; "I 
must say that the principal crime of that unfortunate man was his wish to gain 
a living and to procure nourishment for his children." 27 

On November the 5th, Capt. Sumner received a regular written com- 
mission framed in the following terms: 

November 5th, 1831. 

I, Kauikeaouli, King of the Sandwich Islands, and Kaahumanu and Kuakini, 
Governor of Oahu, do hereby commission William Sumner, commander of the brig 
Waverley, now lying in Oahu, to receive on board two French gentlemen and their 
goods, or whatever they may bring on board, and to proceed on to California, and 
land them safe on shore, with everything belonging to them, where they may sub- 
sist, and then to return back to the Sandwich Islands.28 

The priests were informed of their approaching deportation by public rumor, 
and knew that henceforth only a miracle could save them. But not having been 
officially notified, they quietly awaited further developments. 29 

Their faithful neophytes, who now for nearly five months had been expiat- 
ing in the arid plains of Waikiki the dire crime of adhering to the Rock of 
Ages, had finished their tasks in the beginning of December. The third of 
that month a chief came to inquire if they were willing to embrace the 
doctrines of Calvin. On their refusal he sent them the Rev. Mr. Bingham, 
who came the same evening, and wanted to present them with some Protestant 
reading matter ; but they declined having anything to do with him. 

25Annales de la Propagation de la Fol, VI, p. 98; Notes, p. 25. 

26 Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 25, 26. 

27 Ibidem, p. 29. 

28 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 274. 

29 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 80. 



70 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

The reading of Mr. Bingham's description of his visit to these prisoners, 
may be a valuable contribution to the study of that gentleman's character, and 
prove whether or not he belonged to the tribe of Nathanael, "in whom is no 
guile." 

"About the time, but before the papal priests were sent away, I called at a little 
cluster of huts, where I found several of their followers sojourned, being employed 
daily in building a stone fence between the dry plain and the plantations in the rear, 
along between Punchbowl Hill and Waikiki. Many hundreds of the people were, from 
time to time, called out to work on this wall, on which the chiefs labored with their 
own hands. But this was the ordinary mode of executing public works: the other 
was special, and though I saw and heard neither chains, whips, nor instruments of 
torture, it was regarded as punishment. This was the only instance of punishment 
which I ever saw inflicted on Hawaiian subjects who claimed to be papists. I asked 
Kaahumanu by what authority they were made to labor there. She said, "By the law 
against idolatry; for they have violated that law in renewing the worship of images."so 

It is difficult to imagine that 'Mr. Bingham was so absorbed in. spreading his 
sect by word and writing that he alone did not know what was going on for 
over a year in the fort and in the environs of Honolulu. His question to the 
Queen was evidently not in order to remonstrate with her in favor of the badly 
persecuted Christians; on the contrary, the sermon which he preached th.e next 
day, 31 and which he briefly relates on page 422 of his work, could under the 
circumstances have had no other effect than the one it really obtained: the 
Catholics were condemned to new and more severe punishments, from which 
they were to be delivered only about a year later by the combined and reiterated 
efforts of the reverend gentlemen who made up the fifth company of Protestant 
missionaries who arrived May 19, 1832, of the British Consul, and of Commo- 
dore Downes of the U, S. frigate Potomac. 

On the 7th of December the government published a manifesto stating their 
reasons for forcibly ejecting the Catholic missionaries. This document is almost 
identically reported by Mr. Bingham and in the "Suppliment to the Sandwich 
Mirror ;" I transcribe the former. 

"This is our reason for sending away the Palani: In the first place, the chiefs 
never assented to their dwelling at Oahu; and when they turned some of our people to 
stand opposed to us, then we said, 'Return to the country whence ye came.' At seven 
different times we gave them that order. And again, in speaking to them we said, 
'Go away, ye Palani. We allow you three months to get ready.' But they did not go 
during the three months, but remained eight months, saying, 'We have no vessel to 
return in.' Therefore we put them on board our own vessel, to carry them to a place 
where the service is like their own. Because their doings are different from ours and 
because we cannot agree, therefore, we send away these man."32 

Two days after the publication of this manifesto, Kinau's husband, Kekuanaoa, 
commander of the troops, called on the Fathers and abruptly announced to them 
their approaching departure. "You could not go away," said he, "because you 

30 A Residence, p. 421. 

31 The annotations to this sermon are of such a nature, and the attempt to control their 
truthfulness so baffled by the omission of references, that one feels tempted to believe, that 
the author was afflicted with "Cacoethes mentiendi" or "Pseudomania," an infirmity which 
according to medical authorities, makes the patient irresponsible for the non-observance of 
the commandment: "Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor." 

I have taken the trouble of reading twice all the notes to the "Rheimish Testament," and 
fail to find any the meaning or tendency of which it is, that "children ought not to spare 
their parents if they are heretics." 

A note to L/uke, XIV: 26, "If any man come to me and hate not his father and mother 
. . . . he cannot be my disciple," runs as follows: The law of Christ does not allow us 
to hate even our enemies, much less our parents; but the meaning of the text is, that we 
must be in that disposition of the soul, as to be ready to renounce, and part with everything, 
how near and dear it may be to us, that would keep us from following Christ." 

It is not to be presumed that Mr. Bingham objects to this doctrine: That we ought to 
love God above all things. 

32 Bingham, A Residence, p. 419. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 71 

pretended to have no vessel; there is one now; the day I come back, both of 
you will depart." He feigned ignorance of their place of destination. However, 
from Captain Sumner the information was obtained that they were to be taken 
to California. 33 

Some time before, the American consul had written to the governor of 
California to learn if he were willing io receive the missionaries in his territory 
in case they should be deported, and answer had come, that they would be 
very welcome indeed. The Prefect of the Franciscan Fathers also wrote asking 
them not to think of looking for a retreat elsewhere, since, on account of the 
scarcity and advanced age of his priests, their arrival would be a boon and a 
relief to his own mission. 34 

Being thus equally assured of their deportation, and of the good reception 
which awaited them on the Coast, the Fathers put themselves in readiness for 
their voyage. 

However, that they might not have any reason for self-reproach as having 
neglected any legitimate means to remain at their post of duty, Father Short being 
a British subject, applied for assistance to his consul. There being no repre- 
sentative of the French government in the Islands, Father Bachelot, at the 
suggestion of Mr. Charlton, addressed to him a similar protestation. 35 

Mr. Charlton having remonstrated with the Hawaiian Government in behalf 
of the two priests, Kaahumanu returned the following reply: 

"Kind regards to you, British Consul, I make known to you in answer to your 
inquiries respecting the cause of complaint against these two men; it is on account 
of division and opposition, that I did not assent to these two men residing here. At 
first, I ordered them to return. I again ordered them away. They said, we have no 
vessel. Here is a vessel. I send them to another country. Do you be still. This 
business is ours, and that of my Protegee adopted. Our vessel shall not treat them 
ill, but convey them safely. Some time to come, then we may write to the King of 
Great Britain. Such are our wishes. I forward this letter to you, that you may 
consider these things, and not act in haste, that trouble come not hereafter. 

KAUIKEAOULI, 
KAAHUMANU."36 

The priests had not expected any better results from the diplomatic inter- 
ference of the Consul, who now took up Mr. Hill's proposition and insisted that 
the Fathers should rather establish themselves somewhere in the South Seas, 
mentioning ^among others Wallis Island. He and other merchants made much 
of the fertility and other advantages of those islands, and sent maps of the 
different groups that the missionaries might be guided in making a selection. 
They declined, however, taking this course. 

Meantime the Waverley was being fitted out, and a part of the Island was 
put under contribution for her provisioning. Every day the priests now expected 
the return of Kekuanaoa to tell them that the moment for departing had come. 

Night after night the faithful came to see their pastors in order to receive 
their last instructions. Even some of the prisoners under cover of the night, 
and favored by the heavy rains which are usual during that time of the- year, 
managed to elude the vigilance of their sentinels, that they might prove their 
attachment to their spiritual fathers. 

The door of the little chapel was left open during the night; for whenever 
the faithful came to visit the missionaries, they always paid first their homage 

33 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 26. 

34 Ibidem, p. 33. 

35 F. Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 27. 

36 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 274. 



72 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

to the Most Blessed Sacrament. "Ke Akua ka mua" (God before all), they 
used to say. 37 

Although Captain Sumner had declared that he was going to remove the 
proscribed priests to the Californian coast, where they were sure to be favorably 
received, surmising the possibilities of being conducted to some other less 
friendly place, Father Bachelot, always prudent, asked the consul for a legal 
attestation stating the motive of their expulsion. 

We shall reproduce these documents, which are chiefly interesting because of 
the formal declaration of the rulers, to which both the British and American 
consuls bear witness, that the exclusive cause of the deportation was their 
religion. 

The king in his manifesto of December the 7th, stating the reasons why the 
two priests were sent into exile, had said: "They turned some of our people to 
stand opposed to us." Mr. Anderson, the secretary of the A. B. C. F. M., says 38 
that this standing opposed to the chiefs is correctly understood, hot of a mere 
difference of religious belief and practice, but of a seditious opposition to the 
government. He then wants to hold Messrs. Bachelot and Short responsible 
for the political disturbances at different times created by Boki and Liliha, and 
for the hostile feelings by the followers of these chiefs entertained against certain 
other chiefs. "The priests were either members of the conspiracy, or dupes and 
tools of the conspiracy." 

The fact is that the priests took no part whatever in the internal dissensions 
which then occurred at the Sandwich Islands, and which had begun as early as 
1819, immediately after Kamehameha the First's death, 39 or rather which had 
been going on for a few decades, chiefs of the same family fighting against one 
another, as it appears, for fighting's sake. 40 

The Fathers were without influence; up till the time of their expulsion they 
had baptized 180 persons, of whom only 35 were grown men; (apart from a 
few others who had received baptism on their death-bed) ; they were moreover 
too prudent and too conscientious to mix in political strife. 

They probably sympathized with the Oahu chiefs, who on various occasions 
had shown themselves friendly. Since these chieftains held their offices right- 
fully, and did not oppose the king and dynasty, but merely the influence which 
Kaahumanu exercised at their cost, there was not a suggestion of sedition in 
wishing them success. 

Neither did the Catholic natives stand in anything "opposed" to the ruling 
chiefs, except by refusing to attend the Protestant prayer meetings or to perform 
any other acts of apostasy. 

If then Messrs. Bachelot and Short were banished for having exhorted 
their catechumens not to obey the chiefs in these purely spiritual matters, they 
were certainly expelled only because of their religion. 

Some of the Catholics perhaps belonged to the party of Boki and Liliha; 
this seems to have been the case of Valeriano, "a staunch supporter of the 
kingly house that had ruled over Oahu and Maui." On joining the Catholic 
Church they were in no way obliged to .forsake their allegiance to their political 
party, the less so, as the Kamehamehas were nothing but foreign usurpers. 

37 Bachelot, Lettres Llthographiees, I, pp. 29, 30. 

38 Appendix to Report, 1841, p. 222. 

39 Arago, Promenade autour du Monde, II, p. 172. 

40 Alexander's Brief History, passim. Kotzebue, A Voyage of Discovery, London, 1821, 
vol. I, p. 349, says: "Since the conquest of the island of Woahoo, by Tamaahamaah, the 
inhabitants are always disposed to insurrection, and seize every opportunity that offers." 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 73 

Here follow the declarations of the two consuls : . 

Woahoo, Sandwich Islands, 

December 23, 1831. 

This is to certify that Mr. J. A. A. Bachelot and Mr. Patrick Short, who have re- 
sided on this Island ever since the year 1827 and who are now about to be sent away 
by the Chiefs, have during their residence here conducted themselves with the utmost 
propriety both towards Natives and Foreigners. 

I do also declare that Kaahumanu the Queen Dowager and Regent of these 
Islands declared unto me that they had been guilty of no crime but was (sic) sent 
away because they were Roman Catholic's (sic.) 

Richard Charlton 

H. B. H. Consul.4i 

United States Consulate 

Sandwich Islands. 

To all whom this may come, Be it known, that I, John C. Jones, Consul for the 
United States at the Sandwich Islands, do publish and make known to the world that 
J. A. A. Bachelot and P. Short during a residence at the Sandwich Islands of four 
years, have ever and all times conducted themselves with the greatest propriety and 
decorum, obeying at all times the Laws and regulations of these Islands, leading quiet 
and peaceful lives, respected by all foreigners who have had the pleasure to be made 
acquainted with them. 

They have been persecuted and driven by force from these Islands to seek an 
asylum they know not where merely because they were GatnollcTcs, the King and 
Chiefs have publicly acknowledged, they have not a single charge to bring against 
them; that their conduct has been meritorious and praise worthy during their resid- 
ence in their Islands, but because their Religion is Catholick, they have driven them 
from their shores. 

Given under my hand and the 

seal of this Consulate at Oahu this 

Twenty fourth day of December, 1831. 
L - s - JOHN C. JONES 

U. S. Consul.42 

On the 23d of December a greater number of the curious than usual 
crowded around the entrance of the mission enclosure. The cause of this gather- 
ing was a petty chief followed by two handcarts. Upon entering the house he 
said that he was sent to get the trunks. Father Bachelot was just then reading. 
As the native disclosed the purpose of his visit, the Prefect Apostolic answered 
him : "If you have orders to carry them off, go and take them ; there they are : 
as far as I am concerned, I do not give them up," and went on reading, seemingly 
not paying any further attention to his visitor, who having in vain insisted, got 
angry and left in disgust without carrying the baggage. 

The following morning the Fathers celebrated Holy Mass, Brother Melchior 
and an old Spaniard by the name of Sobradello receiving Holy Communion. 
Outside of the fence the multitude gathered early in the morning. About 
9 o'clock Kekuanaoa made his appearance and asked for admission. Brother 
Melchior opened the gate, after having obtained the assurance that the crowd 
should not be allowed to enter. 

The chief gave orders to this effect to the people, and entered alone. 

"Well," he said, "the time for departing has come." 

"You want thus to expel us by force?" 

"Yes," he replied, laying his hands on Father Bachelot's shoulder. 

Taking their breviaries, hats and walking canes, the priests left their dwelling. 
The people climbed on the fences to see them pass. A small number seemed to 
rejoice; all the others looked rather dismayed. 

41 Archives of Catholic Mission, Honolulu, V. D. 4. 

42 Archives, Catholic Mission, Honolulu, V. D. 5. 



74 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Kekuanaoa began the march escorted by a soldier beating a drum. The 
priests followed, accompanied by a foreigner who, though a Protestant, had 
always shown himself thoroughly attached to them. Another chief came some 
ten steps behind, busy keeping the crowd at bay. On the way towards the 
harbor other foreign residents came to meet the exiles to express their sympathy 
and to bid them farewell. 43 

When the procession had arrived at the landing, Father Bachelot turned to 
the multitude, among whom he saw many of his consternated neophytes, and 
addressed them in a little speech, which a woman catechumen, Maria Leahi, 
later related as follows: 

"It is not the chiefs of this country that wrong me ; they are the victims of 
error and calumny. This is why they did not embrace the true religion. As for 
you, the mustard seed of the Gospel has been sown among you; I hope that it 
will bear fruits. Whilst you are without a priest, do not fail to pray, as I 
have taught you. Beware of eating the bread of sacrilege in partaking of the 
Lord's supper with the Calvinists." 44 

The Waverley was lying in the channel ; a boat waited along Robinson's 
wharf and took the Fathers over to the brig. The baggage was yet at the 
Mission and would perhaps have been left there, had not the British Consul in a 
very forcible way impressed upon Kekuanaoa that if as little as a pin belonging 
to the priests remained ashore, trouble would be brewing for him. 

As the Waverley waited the arrival of the baggage before making sail, the 
American consul sent his clerk on board with a letter excusing himself for not 
having come to take leave, on account of their precipitate removal. An Irish 
sea-captain from the Columbia River came also, presenting them with a cask of 
salmon, and stayed with them till the arrival of the trunks, which came about half 
an hour later. 

Without further delay the anchor was weighed, the sails set and soon the 
harbor was cleared. 45 

Now, indeed, "the captivity of Hawaii was at an end." 

After this chapter was written, new documents came to hand, which throw addi- 
tional light on the question, who were ultimately responsible for the removal of Messrs. 
Bachelot and Short. 

From a letter to Jeremiah Evarts, corresponding secretary of the A. B. C. F. M. 
written by Bingham on February 6, 1832, we cull the following: 

"On the 5 of Nov. the mission families at this station (Honolulu) observed a 
season of fasting and prayer with special reference to that cause of solicitude which 
for four years had been increasing in our borders, the Jesuit Mission, and which we 
have besought the Lord to remove from us; if that would best promote His cause. 
On that day the king signed a commission authorizing William Sumner to transport 
on Board the king's Brig Waverly, "two French gentlemen" to the coast of California, 
with their baggage, &c." 

On Febr. 16, 1832 Bingham writes to the Rev. Anderson, Secretary of the 
A. B. C. F. M.: " . . . . In expressing your solicitude for our cause 

here and your fears that the Jesuits would give us more trouble, or does (sic) more 
injury than all the rest of the foreigners together, you made the inquiry "can they not 
~be removed?" (italics are tbe author's). These pages must be my reply. They may 
find difficulty in landing in California, and may come back in the vessel. But we 
have heard that the Catholics there were ready to receive them. I will now in my 
turn ask you, whether the Christian public particularly in America, can be easily 
satisfied that the Chiefs have done right in removing them? and whether you think 
the cause of missions in general will suffer any injury in the estimation of intelligent 

43 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 34 et seq. 

44 Archives, C. M. Honolulu, M. 25. 

45 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 35-36. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 75 

men of the world, in consequence of this measure, as ill timed, or injudicious* or intol- 
erant, in your converts here, or as a violation of the rights of nations on the part of 
the native rulers under missionary instruction? We have looked on with solicitude 
for the ark. We have pitied the sufferers on both, sides. It has been a sharp trial to 
Kaahumanu, & to us, and to all. Sometimes we have given it up as not agreeable to 
the will of Providence that they should be removed. We have said let Providence 
decide. We have preached & printed the pure word of God & made but plain infer- 
ences, have avoided hitherto a dispute. But had they remained, or should they return, 
we should not long avoid a battle. We know the truth can stand. The truth of God 
against the devices of men. We are weakness. In God there is strength. The Lord 
reigns. The ark is safe. But when any of the priests of the sanctuary abuse their 
office, and are in any way brought into suffering by our instrumentality, the feelings 
of awe are more becoming the place on which we stand, than those of exultation." 

We have here the precious acknowledgment that the initiative for the sending 
away of the Catholic priests originated in the rooms of the A. B. C. F. M., and 
Bingham explicitly admits that they have been brought into suffering "by HIS 
INSTRUMENTALITY." His conscience seems rather troubled, and he seeks to quiet 
it by throwing the responsibility on his superior in Boston. 

Those pangs of conscience came later. On the day after the departure of the 
Waverley, the exultation had the better of the awe, for says he in notes accompany- 
ing the letter to Anderson: "25th. Christmas ..Sabbath. I preafched to a full house 
from the song of the heavenly host. "Glory to GOD in the highest and on earth 
peace good will towards men." Showed that the birth of a' Saviour was a manifesta- 
tion of divine benevolence to men the means of establishing peace on earth, and of 
promoting the glory of GOD." 

This good will towards men evidently did not include the "Jesuits", who, as it is 
well known, do not belong to the human race. 



76 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER VII 
In Exile 

Landing on the California Coast. Departure of the Waverley. Kind Reception at 
San Gabriel. Again Threatened with Banishment. Hawaiian Visitors. Death of Kaa- 
humanu. Kinau, "Our Greatest Enemy." Visit of the Potomac. Conference of Com- 
modore Downes with the Chiefs. Waikiki Prisoners Liberated. The Prophetess 
Kahapuu. 

The exiles gazed as long as possible at their abandoned neophytes, who, with 
the other natives, continued to throng the beach for a long time; at their little 
stone house where the lonely Brother Melchior remained to keep alive the 
embers of the Faitry at the gloomy, barren mountain range, the familiar details 
of which slowly vanished from their sight. Their hearts throbbed painfully; 
prayers for the perseverance of their dear converts choked in their throats ; tears 
welled up in their eyes. 

The wind was not favorable; only after several days was the land lost 
sight of, and three weeks passed before the mountains of California loomed in 
the distance. 1 

The Fathers had requested the captain to be conveyed either to Monterey, 
where they hoped to meet the governor, from whom they had received such a 
kind invitation, or to Santa Barbara, where they were also certain to find 
friends; but Sumner refused to put them ashore in any inhabited harbor, as 
he wished to avoid the paying of anchorage and other duties. 2 

On January 21st, 1832, they coasted along Santa Catalina Island and 
towards sunset dropped anchor in San Pedro Bay. An American who had 
secretly secured passage on the vessel, went ashore in order to notify a farmer, 
who lived about nine miles from the landing, of the arrival of the missionaries. 
From there a messenger was forthwith sent to the nearest village, which hap- 
pened to be the Mission San Gabriel, situated at a distance of some thirty miles. 
The next day the farmer arrived and told the captain that the priests must not 
be put ashore before the authorities of the village had been notified and vehicles 
could be procured to carry the Fathers and their baggage. But Captain Sumner 
wanted to avoid the authorities. When the farmer requested him to be rowed 
back to the shore, the captain answered: "You will not go back except in 
company of the priests," and at the same time he ordered the baggage to be 
put into the boat. He then asked the Fathers for an attestation of the good 
treatment they had received during the voyage, that he might show it to 
Kaahumanu. 3 Father Bachelot gave him the following certificate: 

"This is to certify that we the underwritten Catholic missionaries to the Sandwich 
Islands have been debarked with all our effects at a place called San Pedro, on the 
coast of California, and that we have been treated by Captain Sumner during our 
voyage with all the attention and interest we could have expected. 

"22 January, 1832. J. A. A. BACHELOT, 

P. SHORT."4 



1 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 37. 

2 Ibidem, p. 38. 

3 Ibidem, pp. 39, 40. 

4 Sumner's Journal, quoted in Sandwich Island Gazette, Nov. 24, 1838. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 77 

Sumner then proposed to send their baggage ashore first, that they afterwards 
might be more comfortable in the boat. But Father Short insisted that, since 
he wished to land them now, they wanted to go with their belongings. They 
went thus ashore and there the native boatmen carried the trunks out of reach 
of high tide. 

As the farmer got ready to leave for San Gabriel in order to make arrange- 
ments for the transportation of the priests, having said that he could not be 
back before two days, Father Bachelot asked him, if in the meantime, they could 
not buy bread somewhere. The priests did not know that in those parts 
only rich people could afford to eat bread, whilst the diet of the poor consisted 
of meat and corncakes (tortillas). When the farmer answered: "Ah, Padre, 
we are poor people and do not eat bread;" it did not come to the mind of the 
exile 'that people too poor to eat bread could however have an abundance of 
other food, and so he contented himself with asking where they could get 
drinking water. The man answered that he was going to send a cowboy 
with milk and water. 

"Now, look," said Father Bachelot to the ten-year-old boy of Captain Sumner, 
"look what your father does; he leaves me here in a desert where there is 
nothing to eat; he wants me to die." 5 

"I shall tell him to send you something," answered the child. 

The farmer then gave the priests a little cake which was to have been his 
own provisions, and Sumner sent after some time two bottles of fresh water, 
which attempt at generosity made the missionaries smile even under their pre- 
carious circumstances. Towards evening two young cowboys came, bringing a 
bottle of water and a bottle of milk; they remained to pass the night in com- 
pany with the Fathers. Two custom house officers had also come on the scene 
and inquired about the vessel's cargo. The prefect answered that the sole aim 
of the vessel was to bring them thither, but that the captain had manifested an 
intention to go and hunt for sea-otters, and also to take back a cargo of horses. 
One of the officers thereupon went down upon the beach and signaled to the 
Hawaiians who were fishing in two boats, at no great distance from the shore. 
But they took no heed. Having vainly tried for half an hour to attract the 
attention of the boatmen, the employee came back, and requested the priests to 
write a note to the alcalde of the village. Father Bachelot wrote a few lines on 
a loose sheet of paper, and gave it to the officers, who returned to their station. 

When at daybreak, the exiles, after a sleepless night, looked at the sea, the 
vessel had disappeared. The Waverley had sailed for Santa Barbara, where the 
captain hoped to secure some cargo. On his arrival, he and his crew were 
arrested and the vessel searched. After an imprisonment of three days, they 
were released and returned to Oahu. 

On the morning of the 24th of January, the farmer came back with a letter 
from the Padre, who therein expressed his satisfaction over their safe arrival, 
and notified them that a carriage and wagon would come to convey them and 
their belongings to the mission. The carriage arrived two hours later, and the 
farmer having offered to take care of the trunks, they at once started for 
San Gabriel. After passing the night in a rancho, nine miles from that place, 
they arrived the following morning at the Mission, where the joyful peals of 

5 He appears not to have thought of the cask of salmon given them at Honolulu by the 
Irish captain, and which Sumner landed together with the trunks. "I sent their things 
ashore: 6 large boxes and a tierce of salmon." Sumner's Journal, quoted in Sandwich Island 
Gazette, Nov. 24, 1838. 



78 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the bells, the happy faces of the villagers and the welcome of the good old 
Padre told them that finally they had a home. 6 

Father Bachelot stayed at San Gabriel to help the good Padre (Bernardo 
Sanchez) 7 who had so kindly received them, and, when in 1833, death summoned 
him to his reward, remained with his successor. When in the following year, 
the Mexican government disestablished the Missions and confiscated their prop- 
erties, the new Padre, vexed by the ceaseless annoyances of the .Liberals, retired 
and left Father Bachelot alone in charge of more than two thousand souls 
scattered over a district which extended about 90 miles, the nearest missions 
being San Fernando to the northwest, and San Juan Capistran to the 
southeast. 8 

Father Short remained some time at San Gabriel; later we find him at 
the mission of San Juan Bautista, and in 1834 he started conjointedly with 
Mr. Wm. Edward Paty Hartnell a small college at the mission of San Carlos, 
Monterey. "This college," says Father Bachelot, "was the first ever established 
in California." It was called Seminario de San Jose, and was located on the 
Rancho Alisal or Patricinio, east of Salinas. In 1836 this college had 13 
collegiales. 10 

Whilst they were thus quietly working at the salvation of souls, each one 
in his own sphere, and without interfering in the confusing politics of that 
period, they were alarmed by a new decree of expulsion, issued this time, not 
by Calvinist Hawaiian chiefs, but by the nominal Catholics that then composed 
the Central government of Mexico. The pretext was that they had entered the 
country without authorization, and were moreover "Jesuits" and consequently 
according to "liberal" ideas dangerous to the state. 11 

They were getting ready once more to go into exile, when, probably on the 
remonstrances of the local authorities, countermanding orders were given; and 
since in 1835 the Conservatives again took the lead of affairs, they were there- 
after left unmolested. 

Father Bachelot had been frequently requested to come over to Valparaiso, 
where for some time past a procurator of the Mission was established; but he 
had constantly declined to do so, saying that in his present situation he had 
greater facilities for remaining in touch with the Sandwich Islands ; Monterey 
and Santa Barbara being ports much frequented by vessels from those parts. 12 

One day in the latter part of the year 1832, as the Prefect Apostolic was 
reciting his office on the beach, he was not a little surprised when, in a man 
rushing up to him and falling weeping about his neck, he recognized his old 
catechist, Aneroniko. 

Often before, Aneroniko and several other neophytes, both men and women, 
had made up their mind to leave their native country that somewhere abroad 
they might be free to practise the Holy Faith they had embraced. 13 

The priests had always dissuaded them for fear of the many dangers their 
faith and morals would be exposed to. When they had been sent into exile, 
Aneroniko, who was then a prisoner, resolved to make his escape and follow 
them to California. But as his plan became known, the other Catholics opposed 

6 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 40-46. 

7 Bancroft, History of California, III, p. 317. 

8 Father Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 82. 

9 Ibidem, p. 84. 

10 Bancroft, History of California, III, pp. 318, 777. 

11 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, p. 85. 

12 Ibidem, p. 83. 

13 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 49-50. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 79 

it, saying that his flight could not be concealed long from the chiefs, who might 
seek revenge on the remaining Christians, and even hold Brother Melchior 
responsible. For the moment the catechist acquiesced in their opinion ; but when 
after Kaahumanu's death the prisoners were released, he again took up his 
design and embarked with a younger Christian for California. They landed at 
Monterey and stayed for some time with Father Short; from there they came 
by sea to San Gabriel, where they took the Prefect by surprise. 

The latter had much desired to have some Hawaiians with him, the better 
to instruct them in the Faith, and to utilize their help for the finishing of some 
little manuscripts in the native tongue which he was then preparing. 1311 

The two neophytes were happy to meet their spiritual Fathers, but could not 
get used to surroundings so different from those in their islands. They returned 
to Honolulu soon afterwards, and there continued to give edification to their 
brethren. 14 Another visitor came later on, as we shall soon have occasion to 
mention. 

Meantime the persecution of the Catholics had not ceased on Oahu with the 
removal of the priests. The little colony of converts still continued their arduous 
work on the Waikiki wall. Once, when one of them, Agatha Kamoohula, wished 
to leave her task a moment to answer a call of nature, a guard beat her so cruelly 
with a stick that it broke at the third blow. The poor woman suffered this 
unjust punishment without a word of protest, although she felt acute pain. Her 
back became swollen and she could not walk upright for some time. 15 A 
Protestant churchmember, who arrived on the spot shortly afterwards, upbraided 
the guard for his cruelty. His remonstrance seems to have had for effect that 
more liberty was left to the convicts, who absented themselves from their work 
sometimes for several days. 16 

In the month of March, Kaahumanu came to solicit them to attend the 
Protestant services. She insisted particularly with Esther, well knowing her 
influence upon the others; but all her importunities were in vain. Often the 
prisoners were in want of food and clothing. Brother Melchior did his best 
to meet their needs by sending them, besides food, linen, shirts, and pants, 
although he himself was not rich, for his daily wages were his only means of 
subsistence, and not unfrequently he was without work. 17 

On the 5th of June, 1832, died Queen Kaahumanu, the "kind friend and 
benefactress of the (Protestant) missionaries, the firm supporter of their cause." 18 

She had doubtless been one of the most resolute adversaries of the Catholic 
Religfon in Hawaii, and never wavered for a moment from the course of persecu- 
tion she had determined upon. However, even the victims of her ill-inspired 
zeal recognized the purity of her intentions. 

Father Bachelot depicts her as follows : "Kaahumanu supports the Calvinists 
with all her power: she is a woman of much character, a friend of the general 
good and of order. As the Protestant missionaries have been the first ones to 
inveigh against the existing disorders, she is prejudiced in their favor; the 
unlimited docility she shows for them comes from the confidence they have 
succeeded in inspiring her with. She is under an illusion, but she means well. 
She has persecuted us because she has been unable to 1 distinguish between truth 



13a Ibidem, p. 51. 

14 Ibidem, p. 52. 

15 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, XII, p. 241. Bro. Melchlor's Journal Dec 28 29 
1831, Feb. 3, 1832. ' 

16 Bro. Melchior, Journal, Febr. 3, 1832. 

17 Ibidem, p. 242; Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 455, 456. 

18 Bingham, A Residence, p. 434. 



80 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

and error; this much we can credit her for, even when taking into account the 
unfavorable reports some think to revile her with." 10 When dying, her last 
words were for Bingham, 20 who since her conversion (1825) had been her 
unquestionable oracle. A few days after the expulsion of the Fathers she herself 
declared to the catechist Luika that Bingham was the ONE person responsible 
for the different acts of intolerance which had taken place. Having summoned 
this native woman before her she asked: "Tell me your idea: I have driven 
away the priests of the Pope; I have banished you to Maui, from where you 
have come back without my permission; I have caused the disciples of your 
teachers to be put into prison. Is this right?" 

"I do not know," answered Luika, "if all this is right, and if you have done 
well in sending away the priests of the Pope ; because they were no idolaters." 
"I did not banish them," replied the Queen. "Bingham did." 
"Bingham told you to banish them," rejoined Luika, "but you listened to him 
and ordered that they should be taken away on a vessel: if you had been 
unwilling, you would have closed your ears to the reasoning of Bingham, and 
our Fathers would be tranquilly here yet, as they used to." 

"Bingham is my light," said Kaahumanu, "he has advised me to do it." 
Here the conversation ended. 21 

Although Kauikeaouli was at that time 19 years of age (he was born about 
the year 1813 ) 21a they declared him too young to sway the scepter alone, and 
by an arrangement of the queen-mother and himself, Kinau, a daughter of 
Kamehameha the First by his concubine Kalakua, was proclaimed Kuhina-nui 
or premier. 22 

She had been herself a concubine of the last king Liholiho, her half-brother, 
and after having been the wife of one Kahalaia, who died shortly after their 
marriage, she was presently married to the chief Kekuanaoa. Father Bachelot 
calls her "our greatest enemy." 23 

In a public address to the people she declared her intention to pursue the 
policy and carry out the measures of Kaahumanu. Soon an occasion to do so 
presented itself. 24 

In the month of July the Catholic prisoners at Waikiki had finished their 
task, and their guardians asked them what they now thought to do. 

"Since we are through with our work, we intend to go home," they said. 

"In that case," replied one of their guards, "you will have first to reject the 
prayer, the GOD, and the idolatrous worship of the French." 

The prisoners, who had not been instructed by the priests about the existence 
of national gods, answered that they were determined to continue in the service 
of the Lord. On their refusal to forswear the Catholic Faith, the Waikiki con- 
fessors were told that they would be condemned to construct each five more 
fathoms of wall; the women, separated from their husbands and "put together 
with lewd women," would be employed in cutting bog-rush and in building mud 

19 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, IV, p. 294. 

20 Bingham, A Residence, p. 433. 

21 Bro. Melchior's Journal, Jan. 2, 1832. Lettres Lritho. I, p. 456. 

21a Alexander gives August 11, 1813, Thrum (Annual 1875) indicates March, 1814, probably 
on the authority of the Rev. A. O. Forbes in Andrew's Dictionary. Early authors variously 
indicate the year of his birth between 1812 and 1816. Alexander probably calculated his date 
from the visit of the Uranie in August, 1819, Freycinet stating that the young prince was 
then six or seven years of age. March, 1814, has probably been adopted by the other author- 
ities because in March, 1833, Kauikeaouli declared himself of age. 

22 Bingham, A Residence, p. 436. He says: "by arrangement of his father." But the 
king's father, Kamehameha I, was dead since 1819. 

23 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, X, p. 382. 

24 Bingham, A Residence, p. 437. 




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80 History of the Catholic Mission in Haivaii 

and error; this much we can credit her for, even when taking into account the 
unfavorable reports some think to revile her with." 19 When dying, her last 
words were for Bingham, 20 who since her conversion (1825) had been her 
unquestionable oracle. A few days after the expulsion of the Fathers she herself 
declared to the catechist Luika that Bingham was the ONE person responsible 
for the different acts of intolerance which had taken place. Having summoned 
this native woman before her she asked : "Tell me your idea : I have driven 
away the priests of the Pope ; I have banished you to Maui, from where you 
have come back without my permission ; I have caused the disciples of your 
teachers to be put into prison. Is this right?" 

"I do not know," answered Luika, "if all this is right, and if you have clone 
well in sending away the priests of the Pope ; because they were no idolaters." 
"I did not banish them," replied the Queen. "Bingham did." 
"Bingham told you to banish them," rejoined Luika, "but you listened to him 
and ordered that they should be taken away on a vessel : if you had been 
unwilling, you would have closed your ears to the reasoning of Bingham, and 
our Fathers would be tranquilly here yet, as they used to." 

"Bingham is my light," said Kaahumanu, "he has advised me to do it." 
Here the conversation ended. 21 

Although Kauikeaouli was at that time 19 years of age (he was born about 
the year 1813 )~ ln they declared him too young to sway the scepter alone, and 
by an arrangement of the queen-mother and himself, Kinau, a daughter of 
Kamehameha the First by his concubine Kalakua, was proclaimed Kuhina-nui 
or premier. 22 

She had been herself a concubine of the last king Liholiho, her half-brother, 
and after having been the wife of one Kahalaia, who died shortly after their 
marriage, she was presently married to the chief Kekuanaoa. Father Bachelot 
calls her "our greatest enemy." 23 

In a public address to the people she declared her intention to pursue the 
policy and carry out the measures of Kaahumanu. Soon an occasion to do so 
presented itself. 24 

In the month of July the Catholic prisoners at Waikiki had finished their 
task, and their guardians asked them what they now thought to do. 

"Since we are through with our work, we intend to go home," they said. 

"In that case," replied one of their guards, "you will have first to reject the 
prayer, the GOD, and the idolatrous worship of the French." 

The prisoners, who had not been instructed by the priests about the existence 
of national gods, answered that they were determined to continue in the service 
of the Lord. On their refusal to forswear the Catholic Faith, the Waikiki con- 
fessors were told that they would be condemned to construct each five more 
fathoms of wall ; the women, separated from their husbands and "put together 
with lewd women," would be employed in cutting bog-rush and in building mud 

10 .Annali.-fi do la Propagation cle la Foi, IV, p. 294. 

20 Hingham, A Residence, p. 433. 

21 Bro. Melehior's Journal, Jan. 2, 1832. Lettres Litho. T, p. 4uG. 

21a Alexander gives August 11, ISl.'i, Thrum (Annual 1S75) indicates March, 1814, probably 
on the aiuhcirity of the Uev. A. O. Forbes in Andrew's Dictionary. Early authors variously 
Indicate the year of his birth between 1812 and 1810. Alexander probably calculated his date 
from the visit of the Uranie in August, 1S1U, Freycinet stating that the young prince was 
then six or .seven years of age. March, 1S14, has probably been adopted by the other author- 
ities because in March, 183:!, Kauikeaouli declared himself of age. 

22 Bingham, A Residence, p. 430. He says: "by arrangement of his father." But the 
king's father, Kamehameha J, was dead since 1819. 

23 Annales do la Propagation do la Foi, X, p. 382. 

24 Bingham, A Residence, p. 437. 




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History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 81 

dikes in the swamps. The guards did not cease threatening and tormenting them, 
but could not in the least shake their constancy. 25 

On the 19th of July the British consul promised that he would intercede with 
the rulers in their favor, and soon an opportunity offered itself. 

Four days later the U. S. frigate Potomac dropped her anchor in Honolulu 
roadsteads. The visit of this American vessel was far more agreeable to the rulers 
and members of the Protestant mission than had been that of her predecessor, 
the Dolphin, which in the early part of 1826 had caused so much unpleasantness 
that the people were accustomed to apply to this vessel and her commander inter- 
changeably the appellation of the "mischief making man-of-war." 

Commodore Downes of the Potomac and his officers had much friendly inter- 
course with all parties on shore. For about three weeks there was a continual 
exchange of courtesies between them and the chiefs and the mission family. 
Before they sailed the officers and crew contributed the sum of $200.00 to pur- 
chase a bell for the church, and $100 for the Orphan School. 20 

On August 15-16, a conference was held between the Commodore and the 
chiefs for the discussion of various topics ; the case of the Catholic natives toil- 
ing on the stone wall of Kulaokahua for religion's sake was brought up. The 
prisoners were then again treated with greater severity, and suffered from a lack 
of food, as they were not allowed to communicate with their friends. 27 The 
kind commodore strongly upbraided the chiefs for thus persecuting men on 
account of their religious opinions and pleaded for their liberation. 

We have two relations of this conference: the first written by Francis War- 
riner, 28 a literary gentleman on board the Potomac and a warm friend of the 
Protestant missionaries, at whose house he took up his residence during his stay 
at Honolulu; and the other by J. N. Reynolds. 29 This latter author was not an 
eye-witness of the events which marked the visit of the man-of-war to the 
Hawaiian Islands. He was at Valparaiso in October, 1832, when the Potomac 
arrived at that place, and there received an invitation from Captain Downes to 
join the Potomac as his private secretary. For the descriptions of the pro- 
ceedings at Honolulu, Reynolds acknowledges his obligations to Lieutenant R. 
Pinkham and Acting-Lieutenant S. Gordon, who placed their notes in his 
hands, and to the private journal of the Commodore. 

Here follows Warriner's account of the meeting: 

"On Monday and Tuesday a council of the King and chiefs was held for the con- 
sideration of topics presented by the foreign residents through Commodore Downes. 
Mr. Bingham was present as interpreter. The following is the substance of what 
passed on the occasion. 

"On the subject of religious freedom and touching the expulsion of the Jesuits, it 
was said that in the most enlightened countries all religions are tolerated, and that 
no person is banished for his religious opinions. It was however allowed that Roman 
Catholic countries, particularly Spain, Portugal, and Italy, do not hold to the prin- 
ciples of toleration. Mr. Bingham remarked that the Jesuits had been repeatedly ex- 
pelled from European states. Another observed that it was for their interference with 
government, and that those who did interfere ought to be expelled; a remark intended 
as a reflection upon the supposed conduct of the missionaries resident at the Sand- 
wich Islands. Mr. Bingham further remarked that the vow of the Jesuit of unquali- 
fied submission to a foreign prince, was supposed by intelligent men to be incompat- 
ible with the free institutions of America. This was granted. 



25 Lettres Ltthographiees, I, pp. 456-457. 
2G Honolulu, Laura F. Judd, pp. 49, 50. 

27 Bro. Melchior's Journal, Aug. 7, 17, 1832. 

28 Cruise of the U. S. Frigate Potomac round the World during the Year 1831-34, New 
York; 1835. 

29 Voyage of the U. S. Frigate Potomac, New York; 1835. 



History of llic Catholic Mission in Huu'd'i <?1 

dikes in the swamps. The guards did not cease: threatening and tormenting them, 
i ut could not in the least shake their constancy. - r< 

Chi the 19th of July the British consul promised that he would intercede with 
the rulers in their favor, and soon an opportunity offered itself. 

Four days later the U. S. frigate Potomac dropped her anchor in Honolulu 
roadsteads. The visit of this American vessel was far more agreeable to the rulers 
and members of the Protestant mission than had been that of her predecessor, 
the: Dolphin, which in the early part of U'26 had caused so much unpleasantness 
that the people were accustomed to apply to this vessel and her commander inter- 
changeably the appellation of the "mischief making man-of-war.'' 

Commodore Downcs of the Potomac and his officers had much friendly inter- 
course with all parties on shore. For about three weeks there was a continual 
exchange of courtesies between them and the chiefs and the mission family. 
Before they sailed the officers and crew contributed the sum of $200.00 to pur- 
chase a bell for the church, and $100 for the Orphan School.- 1 ' 1 

On August 15-16, a conference was held between the Commodore and the 
chiefs for the discussion of various topics; the case of the Catholic natives toil- 
ing on the stone wall of Kulaokahua for religion's sake was brought up. The 
prisoners were then again treated with greater severity, and .-uttered from a lack 
of food, as they were not allowed to communicate with their friends.- 7 The 
kind commodore strongly upbraided the chiefs for thus persecuting men on 
account of their religious opinions and pleaded for their liberation. 

'We have two relations of this conference: the first written by Francis War- 
rincr,"' s a literary gentleman on board the Potomac and a warm friend of the 
Protestant missionaries, at whose house he took up his residence during his stay 
at Honolulu; and the other by J. X. Reynolds. -" This latter author was not an 
eye-witness of the events which marked the visit of the man-oi-war to the 
Hawaiian Islands. He was at Valparaiso in October. IS'32, when the Potomac 
arrived at that place, and there received an invitation from Captain Downes to 
join the Potomac as his private secretary. For the descriptions of the pro- 
ceedings at -Honolulu, Reynolds acknowledges his obligation^ to Lieutenant R. 
Pmkhnm and Acting-Lieutenant S. Gordon, who placed their notes in his 
hands, and to the private journal of the Commodore. 

i [ere follows Warrincr's account of the meeting: 

"On Monday and Tuesday a council of the King and chiefs was held for the con- 
sideration of topics presented by the foreign residents through Commodore Downer. 
Mr. Bingham was present as interpreter. The following is the substance of what 
passed on the occasion. 

"On the subject of religions freedom and touching the expulsion of the Jesuits, it 
was said that in (he most enlightened countries all religions are tolerated, and that 
i.o person is banished for his religious opinions. It was however allowed that. Roman 
Catholic, countries, particularly Spain, rortugal, and Italy, do not hold to the prin- 
ciples of toleration. Mr. Bingham remarked that the Jesuits had been repeatedly ex- 
pelled from European states. Another observed that it was for their interference with 
government, and that those who did interfere ought to be expelled: a remark intended 
as a reflection upon the supposed conduct c.'.' the missionaries resident at the Saiui- 
wich Islands. Air. Bingrunn further remarked that the vow of the Jesuit of uiuiuali- 
n>d submission to a foreign prince, was supposed by intelligent, men to be incompat- 
".iV.e with the free institutions of America. This was granted. 

ITi Leu res "Lithc'Ki'.'iHiiros. 1. HI. -irn:-.ir,7. 

:.''! l.lnnolulii, Laura. ]'. .Jiicld, p]>. -I',', f.n. 

i'7 Hro. .Mclcliinr's .Journal. AUK. 7, 17. 1, V M > . 

-S Cruise el' the U. S. Knuah- JVtmnai' :' ;;!.<! ti.- \\Vrld <unii;f '.'.'.: Y> ;.r ISul-ol, New 



(,f tin- I*. S. Fr!^;U- I v, !..;..'. .V- '.V V. :'!:: 



is: 1 ." 



82 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

"Another remarked that the Jesuits were tolerated in America. Mr. Bingham 
said: "I presume they are." Commodore Downes did not approve of the punishment 
of any of the subjects of the King for the difference of opinion on religious matters. 
On this the King signified that it was not for entertaining different opinions, but 
for worshipping images, in violation of the laws of God, and in disobedience to his 
own orders. He might also have said that his royal brother and predecessor had 
prohibited image-worship, an event at which every Christian rejoiced. A complaint 
was next made that some of the islanders were subjected to a severer task than 
others, because they would not part with their images. This was a complaint against 
the government and not against the missionaries."30 

"Mr. Bingham said that the chiefs had never consented to the Jesuits remaining 
on the Island as missionaries; that from their first landing the late Queen Kaahumanu 
insisted upon their return; that, about eight months previous to their departure, the 
King and the chiefs, as a body, ordered them positively to leave the country in three 
months, and that when they remained even eight months, saying they had no vessel 
in which to embark, Kaahumanu said that she would fit out one herself to carry them, 
and that intelligent men ave it as their opinion that she had had an undoubted right 
to do so. Possibly if the Jesuits had not been sent out of the country, they might 
have fomented a civil war in favor of the .establishment of their own religion, as they 
have always been wont to do."3i 

Reynolds relates the proceedings as follows: 

"In due time we sat down at a sumptuous repast of cold meats. No wine however 
was presented; for which deficiency the king took occasion to apologize in a whisper, 
saying that the missionaries did not like it. 

"We mention this anecdote to give some idea of the influence which these pious 
laborers hold over the king and government, and which wisely exercised, may be 
greatly for their good."32 

"Some time before the arrival of the Potomac, a few Spanish missionaries of the 
Catholic Faith came from the coast of California, with a view to establishing a school 
and church for the benefit of the heathen islanders. 

" . . . .At the time of the Potomac's arrival at Oahu, some 40 natives, men, 
women and children, were confined at hard labour, on a coral wall which was then 
erecting of several miles in extent, and were not allowed to visit the town. 

"One woman was seen, with an infant on her back, bearing large stones in her 
arms for building this wall! And this punishment was inflicted because they were 
Catholics, and would not change their religion for that of the missionaries of the 
Island. ... 

"At the conference previously alluded to between Commodore Downes and the 
authorities, this subject was introduced when the Commodore in a mild, though de- 
cisive tone, explained to the chiefs and Queen-Regent, that in England and in the 
United States and other countries, persons were not punished for their religious opin- 
ions; and that Catholic countries might not view with indifference such cruel treat- 
ment of Catholics; that a bitter spirit of persecution was not sanctioned in any en- 
lightened country, and ought at once to be abolished. 

"There were few present at this interesting conference who will soon forget the 
apparent reluctance with which Mr. Bingham, head of the mission, interpreted this 
liberal and truly Christian advice; and that, in apparent justification of the authorities, 
he instanced Spain as a country that would not admit of toleration. 

"The Commodore's remarks seemed to break like new light upon the minds of the 
chiefs; and the release of the unhappy sufferers for conscience's sake followed immedi- 
ately afterward."33 

The Catholics, however, were not released immediately afterward. Whether 
or not any promise to this effect had been made to Commodore Downes, ten day 
after the conference they had not yet been liberated. On the contrary, on the 
26th of August new efforts were made to make them renounce their religion. 
They were told by the guards that unless they at once embraced Protestantism, 

30 Op. cit. p. 234. 

31 Ibidem, pp. 235, 230. 

32 Opere citato, p. 413. 

33 Op. cit. p. 417. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 83 

their houses would be destroyed, their property confiscated and the women 
separated from their husbands. 

When on the 1st of September the guards materialized a part of their menace 
by putting the prisoners at work, the men on One side and the women on the 
other side of the wall, Esther and the other women climbed over it and rejoined 
their husbands. Hereupon the guards wanted to put them into irons, but Esther 
boldly refused to let them do it, saying: "Henceforth we shall not submit any- 
more to any kind of punishment, until we shall have heard the Chief himself. 
Only when his voice shall reach our ears, then we will obey. But, as for you, we 
will not listen to you any more; bring us to the Chief." 34 

Confounded by this unusual but determined resistance, the petty chief in 
command of the prisoners, when every effort to make them go back to work had 
failed, took Esther, Philip, Helen, and a few others to town. In passing the house 
of the British consul, Esther stopped and said to the guards : "It is already a long 
time that you have kept us at work without so much as giving us anything to 
eat; this foreigner here is more kindly disposed than you; he will give us some- 
thing; we are hungry and are going inside." The guards tried to prevent them 
from entering into the consul's yard, but that gentleman, attracted by the 
tumult of the scuffle, came hurriedly out of his house, and driving the guards off 
with a flood of abuse, took the prisoners under his protection, and hospitably 
lodged them for eight days. The guards went to bring their complaints before 
Kinau, but she refused to interfere in the matter. On September llth, Mr. 
Charlton called on the King and chiefs, and obtained the liberation of all the 
prisoners that were then suffering for religion's sake. This ended the persecution 
for the moment. 

Two of the prisoners, Ailimu and Pilipe, died within a few months after 
their liberation, "as a consequence of the ill-treatments they had been exposed to," 
says the afore quoted anonymous chronicler. 35 

From that time on the Catholics gathered frequently, principally on Sundays, 
in the house of Brother Melchior, the catechist ; they there said the rosary and 
recited their lessons from the "Christian Doctrine." But not satisfied with thus 
being tolerated to practice their religion more or less secretly, some of them 
traveled around the Islands to propagate the good Seed of the Gospel. Valeriano 
was the most zealous of all. They made many converts; and so, here and there, 
little communities of Catholics formed, who united morning and night to say 
their prayers and study the catechism. Principally on Thursdays and Sundays 
they came together for the recitation of the rosary. 36 

About this time a new sect was started in Puna, Hawaii, which, although 
certainly not Catholic in its origin, nor in its practice, was destined in following 
years greatly to facilitate the introduction of Catholicism in the southeastern 
districts of the Big Island. 

The foundress of this sect is even now considered by the natives as a 
prophetess inspired by God to deter her countrymen from embracing the 
Calvinist tenets, and to be a kind of forerunner of the Catholic priests. However 
providential her mission may have been, it can hardly be said to have been 
supernatural. 

The "prophetess" Kahapuu was born at Kahaualea, Puna, Hawaii, about the 
year 1815. When she was 13 years of age she went to one of the country schools 
which the Protestant missionaries had established; there she learned to read and 



34 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 459; Bro. Melchior's Journal, August 26, 29, 1832. 

35 Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 459, 460; Bro. Melchior's Journal, Sept. 2, 4, 12, 1332. 

36 Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 462, 463. 



84 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

acquired rather jumbled notions of Christianity. Like many Hawaiians, she was 
of a hysterical disposition, subject to visions and trances. Once she advised her 
fosterparents that she was going to sleep and did not want to be disturbed for 
the next four days; which to try would be moreover useless, since her body 
would be invisible during that time. She thereupon fell into a trance, in which 
her spirit was taken to a place in the upper regions of the air, there to be 
taught "prayer and all the things concerning Jehovah and Jesus." Having come 
back to her senses, she began to communicate the heavenly wisdom thus obtained 
to her relatives and all others who wanted to listen to her, curing them at the 
same time of their diseases. The new prophetess' fame spread rapidly abroad, 
and people came from the district of Kau and Kona to be initiated in her 
teachings. 

But Hapuuism in Puna was not to be tolerated any more than Catholicism 
at Honolulu. Two natives arrested the young seeress and dragged her to Hilo 
where she was examined by a chief named Koomoa, and condemned to work on 
the roads for a month. Her relatives who had accompanied her before the 
judge, received the same punishment; the place indicated for the fulfilment of 
the task being Puuonihau. The infliction of this punishment gave only more 
importance to Kahapuu in the eyes of the people, and she continued to deter 
them from listening to the Calvinist preachers, telling them to wait, because 
"other men dressed in long garments were going to come from the sea, who 
would announce the only true religion, which all ought to embrace." 

The girl died in the earlier part of the year 1832. She had doubtless heard of 
the long-robed priests whose preachings at Honolulu had disturbed the slumbers 
of chiefess_es and missionaries, and it was an easy matter to predict that sooner or 
later they would come over to Hawaii. 37 As a fact, already in 1829 a plan was 
talked of to send either Father Abraham or Father Patrick to Kona, Hawaii, 
under pretext of improving the lands of governor Kuakini, but for some 
reason or other it did not materialize. 88 

That Kahapuu had been in either direct or indirect contact with Catholic 
converts is most probable, for one of her prayers is an attempt to render the Hail 
Mary, and the name of the Blessed Virgin also repeatedly occurs in the other 
prayers, which are, however, evidently of Protestant origin, as appears from 
the frequent occurrence of the words Jehovah, Emmanuel, Abraham, salvation or 
life, and halleluia, and fragments culled from the Protestant hymnbook. 

From the mouths of Kahapuu's surviving relatives in Kau and Puna, I have 
gathered at different times two versions of her prayers, and have also found a 
copy of the same, which appears to have been written by Father Denys Maudet, 
in 1879, and another by Father Eustathe, who collected the Hapuu story in 1854. 
The four versions are substantially the same ; we may hence assume to have the 
authentic Hapuu-formulary. 

It is made up of a series of ejaculatory prayers, which are in general expres- 
sions of sorrow for sin, belief in the Blessed Trinity : Jehovah, Emmanuel and 
the Holy Ghost, and of hope in Jesus, the Saviour ; but are often also void of 
sense. 

How the sect spread after the death of its foundress is related by Rev. Mr. 
Sheldon Dibble. 39 



37 Cf. Kahapuu papers, Archives Catholic Mission, Honolulu, M. 18. 

38 Bachelot's Journal. 

39 History and General Views of the Sandwich Island Mission, New York, 1839, pp. 107 
et seq. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 85 

"In Puna, a district under my missionary superintendence, and about thirty miles 
from my place of residence, some young men took advantage of the state of things,40 
to bring themselves into notice. ' They devised a system of religion half Christian and 
half heathen. They promulgated that there were three gods: Jehovah, Jesus Christ, 
and Hapu (a young woman who had pretended to be a prophetess, and had lately 
deceased.) They dug up the bones of Hapu, adorned them with kapas, flowers and 
birds' feathers; deposited them in a prominent spot, and marked about this spot a 
definite inclosure. This they called the place of refuge. They went from house to 
house, saying that the heavens and earth were about to meet, and all who were not 
found in the place of refuge would be destroyed. Many other things they said which 
I shall not take up your time to mention. 

Many of the ignorant people, in part from terror, and in part from the promptings 
of carnal hearts, listened to the young men, and assembled around the bones of the 
deified Hapu. They erected at once a neat thatched building as a temple, and another 
as a sepulchre. The throng of people was very great, and they continued day and 
night in their worship. 

In the midst of it the report was brought to our station; and in company with a 
young chief by the name of Hoolulu, I immediately set out for the place. They heard 
of us before our arrival and dispersed to their houses. Self-convinced of their folly, 
they could not think of meeting us. On our arrival, all we met seemed to be ashamed, 
and disposed to hide their faces. We succeeded in collecting a company together and 
mildly exposed the foolishness and guilt of their conduct. They seemed to be con- 
founded. We then inquired if they had any desire to continue the senseless worship of 
Hapu. "No desire," was the reply; and as a test of its sincerity, the temple of Hapu 
was soon ascending in flame and smoke toward heaven." 

The sect continued, however, till the arrival of Father Walsh in Puna in the 
year 1841, when its members, seeing the fulfilment of Hapuu's prophecy, in the 
coming of the "long-robed priest," followed his instructions and became 
Catholics. 41 



40 The author alludes to the disorders which prevailed during the year 1833, when Kaul- 
keaouli having- announced his majority, assumed the reins of the government. For which, 
confer Bingham's A Residence, pp. 447 et seq. It is worth noticing in that account that at 
the time the missionaries could boast only of 600 church members throughout the Islands. 

41 P. Maigret, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 773. 



86 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER VIII 
The Charge of the Irish Brigade 

Ecclesiastical Division of Oriental Oceania. The First Vicar-Apostolic. The King's 
Majority. Saturnalia. Bro. Columba Murphy. New Persecution. An Evasive Docu- 
ment. Arrival of Father Walsh. Visit of La Bonite. A Dinner on Board. An After- 
Dinner Speech. H. B. M. Acteon. English Treaty. An Absurd Clause. Father 
Walsh's Activity. 

When in 1825, at the solicitation of Mr. Rives, the establishment of a 
Catholic Mission in the Hawaiian Archipelago was determined upon, Father 
Alexis Bachelot had been appointed as the first Prefect Apostolic of the Sand- 
wich Islands. His jurisdiction extended no further. However, we have seen 
how before the expulsion of the priests from Oahu, the Honolulu merchants had 
repeatedly advised the starting of a mission in some of the South Sea Islands, 
and Father Bachelot did not neglect to call the attention of the religious 
authorities to those yet uncultivated fields. 

Consequently Father Coudrin, the Superior General of the Congregation of 
the Sacred Hearts, begged of the Holy See that his children be entrusted with 
the evangelization of those southern archipelagoes. His request was granted, and 
by a decree of the Holy Congregation of the Propaganda, at its meeting of May 
20th, 1833, "all the islands of both the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, 
from Easter Island inclusive until the archipelago of Roggewein, equally inclusive, 
and from the Sandwich Islands down to the Antarctic Circle" were committed 
to the spiritual care of the Fathers of the Sacred Hearts. 1 

This new ecclesiastical division was to be called "the Vicariate Apostolic of 
Oriental Oceanica," and was divided into two prefectures: one to the south, the 
other to the north of the Equator; over the latter, which extended from the 
longitude of the westernmost of the Hawaiian group to the longitude of Easter 
Island, Father Bachelot was confirmed as Prefect; while the former, containing 
the rest of the vicariate, was put under the jurisdiction of Father Chrysostome 
Liausu, both prefects being under the dependency of a Vicar Apostolic, to which 
dignity Father Jerome Rouchouze was elevated with the title of Nilopolis. 2 

Two parties of missionaries left successively, destined for the Southern pre- 
fecture. The first was composed of Fathers Chrysostome Liausu, Francis of 
Assise Caret, Honore Laval, and Brother Columba Murphy, a choirbrother. 
They embarked at Bordeaux toward the end of December, 1833, but on account 
of unfavorable winds, could not leave the Bay of Biscay before February 1st, 
1834. They arrived in the Gambier Islands on August 7th of the same year, 
except Father Liausu, who had remained at Valparaiso at the request of the 
Franciscan Fathers. 3 

The second company was to depart under direction of the Vicar Apostolic as 
soon as he had received the episcopal consecration. This he received at Rome, 
September 22, 1833, out of the hands of Cardinal Pedicini, and on the 29th of 
October, 1834, the new Bishop left to take possession of his vicariate, in company 

1 Decret. Congreg. Prop. Fidel, May 30, 1833; Arch. C. M., D. R. 38. 

2 Ibidem. 

3 Annales Prop, de la Foi, VIII, p. 27. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 87 

with three priests, Fathers Frederic Pages, Desire Maigret, and Cyprian Liausu, 
and three brothers catechists. 4 

Mgr. Rouchouze arrived with his company in Mangareva, May 9th, 1835, 
where they found the mission begun by Fathers Caret and Laval in a very 
flouris'hing state. 5 

In the beginning of the year 1833, Kauikeaouli, feeling that the possession of 
a ship would make him happy, told his premier to buy him one. But the good 
Kinau thought it a plaything too luxurious for a prince whose debts were already 
not inconsiderable, and consequently refused the royal request. The young 
king's chagrin on being disappointed was so great that he took to drinking and 
entered upon a course of libertinism. The older chiefs tried in vain to bring 
him back to the paths of righteousness. Kauikeaouli let them know that he was 
the King, and meant to reign by himself and not to be interfered with. The bad 
example of the court naturally caused a revival of licentiousness among the 
masses. Restraints having been withdrawn from the manufacture, sale and use 
of intoxicating liquors, Honolulu became the theatre of such an unbridled dis- 
soluteness, that the very foreigners who had encouraged the king to take off the 
restrictions imposed on the sale of intoxicating beverages, now asked him to put 
a stop to this state of anarchy. 8 

As a rule those natives who professed Christianity remained within the bonds 
of decency during this commotion. "The six hundred members of the church in 
different parts of the islands," writes Bingham, "for the most part, stood their 
ground firmly. Samuel J. Mills and the young princess, and a few others, were 
drawn into the snares of the devil, and occasioned disappointment and grief." 7 

Likewise Brother Melchior thus relates the conduct of the Catholic natives 
during the Saturnalia in Honolulu, which lasted over a year. "Although we can 
say that our Christians persevere in the Faith, some of them, however, feel the 
absence of their pastors. The liberty each one has to live as he pleases, has 
brought this small number to a state which makes us grieve; the others per- 
severe," 8 Many of them took to drinking. Therefore, when they came to the 
Brother to inquire about the fast for Lent was approaching he told them to 
keep it by not drinking any rum. 9 

When thus Kinau's authority was considerably diminished, and the mis- 
sionaries lost, in consequence, their hold on the government, whilst not exactly 
for the good of the country the liberals were on top for the first time since 
Liholiho's death, Brother Melchior thought he saw the dawn of religious liberty 
rise at the horizon of all these disturbances, and he kept his superiors informed 
of the changing situation. 

When therefore the Bishop of Nilopolis arrived at Mangareva, all the mis- 
sionaries advised him to send Brother Columba to Hawaii to observe the situa- 
tion. He was chosen for this end, because being a British subject and not in 
Holy Orders, no objection could be raised to his visiting Hawaii. 10 

On his arrival at Honolulu, August 21, 1835, he first visited the British consul, 
by whom he was cordially welcomed. Having also called on the American consul, 
he there inquired where he could find the priests' house, and was told that it 
was quite near by and that he would find it occupied by two brothers. 11 He 

4 Stanislas Perron, Vie du Pere Coudrin, pp. 587-589. 

5 Annales de la Prop, de la Fol, IX, pp. 182, 183. 

6 Bingham, A Residence, pp. 447 et seq. 

7 A Residence, p. 450. 

8 Annales de la Propagation de la Pol, VIII, p. 25. 

9 Bro. Melchior's Journal, Jan., Feb., April, 1834. 

10 Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, IX, p. 183. 

11 Bro. Leonard Portal had joined Bro. Melchior Oct. 17, 1834. 



88 History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 

then went over to the house. On the advice of Mr. Charlton it was resolved that 
next day he should take up his residence at the Mission without asking anybody's 
permission. Thus it happened that Brother Columba was for three weeks at 
Honolulu without any chief knowing of it. The king was ill at that time; but 
Kinau having finally been informed of the presence of the new "Palani," bade 
him to present himself before her. 

Next day, Mr. Murphy, accompanied by his consul, went to see the premier. 
Mr. Charlton conducted the conversation. As Kinau asked of the Brother, what 
had brought him to the Islands, the consul answered that his countryman had 
come to do whatever he wanted. 

"We have been told," said Kinau meekly, "that he has been establishing mis- 
sions in other islands." 

"So he will do here." 

"He ought to have called sooner on us." 

"He that is bearer of a passport of the King of England may go wherever he 
pleases, and he will not call on anybody but the king." 

"But he did not see the king." 

"His Majesty is sick, and when I informed him of Mr. Murphy's arrival, he 
said that he would be pleased to meet him as soon as he should feel better." 

"Will the gentleman always remain here?" 

"As long as he wants." 

Having thus terminated their conversation with Kinau, the two men left for 
the king by whom they were well received. In the course of the conversation the 
consul asked the king if he would not like to see a college established at Honolulu, 
whereupon the prince prudently answered that he would consult the chiefs on the 
matter. 12 

Having obtained all the information he wanted, Mr. Murphy embarked for 
Monterey, where he hoped to find his countryman, Father Short. He must have 
thought the actual situation in Hawaii favorable enough, for he had made 
arrangements with the shipmaster to take both Messrs. Bachelot and Short back 
to the Islands. However, on his arrival at Monterey, Father Short was absent, 
being detained by sickness in a place some thirty miles inland, whilst Father 
Bachelot was still further away at his mission at San Gabriel. 

Before the Brother could communicate with the priests, the vessel left; but 
from that time on, Father Bachelot remained on the lookout for an opportunity 
to return to his beloved mission. 13 

Shortly before Mr. Murphy's visit to Honolulu, the persecution of the 
Catholic natives, who since September llth, 1832, had been left undisturbed, burst 
out again. The occasion seems to have been the arrival of the seventh company 
of missionaries, on June 6th, and the annual meeting of the missionaries which 
quite naturally caused a renewed activity. No efforts were spared to pervert the 
Palani, and as these remained faithful, the fanatic kumus hunted them every- 
where to drive them to the Protestant prayer meetings and schools. 14 

On August the first, two women, Kilika and Lahina, who had refused to 
attend Bingham's services, were loaded with irons. This time the persecution 
seemed to be more of a money making scheme, for they were each fined 25 
piasters. Unhappily for those who needed the coin, the poor women were unable 
to furnish the amount. Then they were told to furnish mats instead, but as 
they had none, Kinau conceived such a disdain for people so utterly useless to her 

12 Bro. C. Murphy, Lettres Lithographlees, I, pp. 188 et seq. 

13 Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 279. 

14 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 466: Bro. Melchior's Journal, June 1-22, July 9-15, 1835. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 89 

treasury that she condemned them to gather with their hands the excrements in 
a lane used by the prisoners and guards of the fort as a place to satisfy their 
natural needs. During the night the hands of the poor sufferers were manacled, 
but in the morning their fetters were taken off that they might work at their 
ignominious task. 

To increase their shame, the rabble frequently gathered in the lane, and fol- 
lowed the confessors with hoots and abuse when they carried their unseemly 
burdens to the sea. 

When not thus occupied, they were kept working at a wall near the fort. 
They remained exposed to these ill-treatments until the 16th of January, 1836, 
when they were released only on condition of making several mats for the 
chiefs. 15 

These outrages had, however, not the results the persecutors intended. For 
not only did the victims remain attached to their religion, but many a native, 
admiring their constancy and patience, asked of the catechists to be instructed in 
the Catholic Faith. 16 

The foreigners were particularly indignant over this new mode of religious 
persecution; consequently the American and British consuls went to remonstrate 
with Kinau and insisted that the prisoners should be liberated. They Avould 
doubtless have succeeded in their noble endeavors, had not Bingham opposed 
them, saying that all Hawaiians ought to be of one mind. 17 This happened August 
the 8th. 

The catechist Simeon, with five catechumens, was also arrested on December 
the 29th, taken before the chiefs and after an examination as to their beliefs, 
they were condemned to the same ignominious treatment as the two women we 
have just mentioned. 

Simeon having become ill, Brother Melchior managed to pay him a short 
visit in his prison. He found him in a very damp place, stretched out on a table, 
wrapped in a piece of native cloth. A native who visited the prisoner a few days 
later, found him with his neck, hands and feet attached with shackles. The other 
catechumens were not chained. 18 

On February the 2d, 1836, some kwnus came to see if the long imprisonment 
had not shaken Simeon's constancy; finding him resolutely attached to the 
Catholic doctrine, they beat him cruelly, and despite his sickness he was forced 
to go to work. 19 

On the 18th of February his wife Marianna was imprisoned for the crime of 
"popery," and like her husband, had her neck and limbs encircled with gyves. 
The next day Kinau sentenced her to share her life-partner's painful labor. The 
prisoners refused to take the food which was set before them by the chiefs, 
being under a false impression that thereby they would appear to apostatize; 
however, the Brothers succeeded now and then in smuggling some food, linen, and 
matting into the fort for the relief of the unhappy sufferers. 20 Later on Simeon 
succeeded in leaving the fort occasionally to get "poi" and other things he 
needed 21 

Often times messengers were sent them by Kinau, who in vain tried to 

15 Bro. Melchior's Journal, Aug. 1-3, 1835. 

16 Ibidem, Aug. 8, 1835. 

17 Ibidem, loc. cit. 

18 Bro. Melchior's Journal, Dec. 29-Jan. 2-15, 1836. 

19 Ibidem, Feb. 16, 1836. Cf. also Suppliment Sandw. Isl. Mirror, p. 23, and Polynesian, 
Oct. 23, 1841. 

1840, pp. 23, 24. 

20 Bro. Melchior's Journal, Jan. 2-Feb. 18, 19, 1836; and Suppliment Sandw. Isl. Mirror, 

21 Bro. Melchior's Journal, March 28, May 16, 1836. 



90 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

shake their constancy, Simeon invariably answering: "If they demand me to do 
work of any kind, I will submit to it; but as to denying my faith, I cannot 
consent." His wife gave a similar answer. 22 

It is difficult to imagine that during this period of persecution, Rev. Mr. 
Bingham "saw and heard neither chains, whips nor instruments of torture," for 
the prisoners suffered all these ill-treatments in the fort, where Kinau habitually 
resided, and where he doubtless frequently called. But far from recommending 
milder means of "conversion," he repeatedly preached against the Papists with 
such a vehemency, that the American residents who heard him were greatly 
incensed. 23 

In regard to the different punishments inflicted on the native Catholics for 
religion's sake, we have quoted our authorities, all eyewitnesses of proceedings 
which happened, so to say, in public, "It may not be credited, but we assert it is 
a fact incontrovertible," writes Mr. J. C. Jones, the American consul and author 
of the Suppliment to the Sandwich Island Mirror, "our eyes have seen it again 
and again; hundreds of others have seen it, and there are individuals of the 
American mission, who will not have the effrontery to say they also have not 
seen it, not only once, but twice and repeatedly." 24 

. In 1841, a committee of the Protestant mission composed of Messrs. 
Chamberlain, Armstrong and Castle, called on some of the chiefs, asking of them 
a statement, as to the reasons why, and the manner in which, punishment was 
dealt out to the Catholics. 

The following is a part of the answer given by the chiefs, and printed in the 
Polynesian of October 23, 1841. The italics are ours; we have used them to call 
the attention to the evasive nature of the document. 

As one of the subscribers is John li, I will note from the Suppliment to the 
Sandwich Island Mirror, p. 23: "Kimeone Paele . . . was beaten in the most 
cruel manner, kicked, trampled and spit upon by the members of the Protestant 
church, but more feelingly so by a Mr. John li, a native, celebrated for his piety, 
who sought every opportunity and devised every means in his power to augment 
the torture and suffering of this miserable man." 

EXTRACT FROM THE POLYNESIAN, October 23, 1841. 

"What was the punishment inflicted? 

"We make known to you that it was confinement in prison. If not this, cutting 
stone and carrying stone, or, if not this, building stone fence, and if any one continued 
to make difficulty by worshiping idols five times, then he was sentenced to gather up 
filth in the fort and carry it off. 

"The term of imprisonment or labor, as the case might be, was four months. 
When they cut stone they carried them but a short distance. None were ever con- 
demned to cut and carry fifteen hundred stones each, a long distance. 

"They labored during the term allotted, and were not put in irons at night, as a 
general thing. The women were not condemned to make lauhala mats ten feet 
square each, nor were they separated from their husbands. Sometimes two or more 
women made but one mat during their term. The labors of the women generally were 
as much or as little only as they chose to perform. The labor of neither sex could 
be called severe. The prisoners were not beaten, corporal punishment being only 
inflicted for theft. (The native who announced that Boki had come back was whipped 
at the carttail; he, however, had not stolen. Author.) They were not compelled to 
labor when sick. They were not as a general thing abused or harshly treated. 

"Simeon whose case is alluded to in the history (Annales de la Propagation de la 
Foi, XII, p. 238 et seq. is meant) was treated more severely than most, because, as they 



22Lettres Litho. I, p. 474; Ann. Prop. Foi, XII, p. 253. 

23 Lettres Lith. I, pp. 474, 475; Ann. Prop. Foi, XII, p. 253. 

24 Suppliment to the Sandw. Isl. Mirror, 1840, p. 24. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 91 

say, he would not give attention, he uttered things of a quarrelsome character and did 
quarrel, and disturbed the court and it was almost impossible to preserve order. 

"None of the convicts died in prison, but one who seems to be the same described 
as Alodia, in the French account, died soon after being released. She was sick, but 
was not compelled to work, or even required to. It can not be ascertained that any 
one was ever fined 25 piasters. They were never denied food and drink (as there 
stated.) 25 

"Signed by KEKUANA, JOHN II, PARANA, KULUWAHINENUI, KANIUA, 
KAPALA, and KEALOHA." 

In Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 325, is found a document which he 
claims to have copied verbatim and literatim, being an investigation of the 
punishments dealt out to Catholics. It is also signed by seven chiefs, six of 
whom are identical with the ones who have their signatures under the docu- 
ment published in the Polynesian. Some of the wording is absolutely identical ; 
for the rest much is admitted by Wyllie's version that is denied by that of the 
Polynesian. The former appears to be the authentic version, whilst the latter 
was perhaps reported from memory. We give Wyllie's document in full. 

1. Did the Chiefs punish the disciples, of the Roman Teachers? If so, when? 
We hereby make known that such punishment was inflicted, beginning in the year 

of our Lord, 1828. 

2. What was the ground of inflicting this punishment on the disciples of the 
Popish Teachers? Did you intend to injure the religion of the Pope, or the kingdom 
of France? 

We hereby declare that it was not on these accounts that these punishments were 
inflicted, but on account of idolatry. 

3. What was their precise fault, as you thought, at the time? 

Why, surprising! Perhaps you have heard that in the reign of Liholiho both 
Chiefs and common people were disturbed by this thing, because Liholiho overthrew 
the Idol-Gods, and their temples all over the kingdom, but a certain chief, Kekuaka- 
lani was his name, and his followers and chiefs that were under him, were resolved 
to cleave to these things, and make diff iculty ; Liholiho held a council, and it was 
resolved that he ahould return, and work comfortably, a man having been already 
killed at Waipio, on Hawaii, by these Idol worshippers. On this account, Liholiho sent 
two men from his presence to Waipio, to settle this difficulty. They did not reach 
that place, being suddenly killed at Mahiki, by the worshippers of Idols, and their 
bones were carried to Kekuakalani, at Kona. Now the chiefs made war on these 
worshippers of Idols, and blood waa spilt in this work. 

The evil of Idol worship was plain; it was a thing very bad, and on this account 
a law against Idol worship was enacted, on account of this disturbance of the king- 
dom. If any one was found worshipping Idols, he was punished, bound with a rope, 
hands and feet. This law a_nd punishment for Idolatry was, previous to the arrival 
of the Word of God. 

Now, when we saw this Company (meaning Romanists) worshipping with an Idol 
standing before them, this was the real character of the idolatry that was taboo (for- 
bidden). We had not merely heard, we had seen with our eyes, the old Idolatry. 
Therefore these persons were punished as Idolaters. 

4. What was, the punishment for their crimes? 

We make known unto you, it was confinement in prison; if not this, cutting stone; 
or if not this, building stone fences; and if any one continued to make difficulty, 
worshipping idols, five times, then he was sentenced to gather up the filth of the 
Fort, and carry it off. 

5. In the year 1830 were certain Popish disciples sentenced to draw 1500 coral 
stones, each to a great distance, being watched by a guard, and forbidden to converse 
with each other, and put in irons at night? Was it so? 

We acknowledge it was done so, according to the amount of guilt. What we have 
seen was their carrying such stones as a man would carry easily, or drag or roll the 

25 For the fines confer the last paragraph of the Ordinance prohibiting the Catholic 
religion, in Chapter XI, p. 122. 



92 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

length of one chain, two chains, three or four, till it got to the pile of stones. This 
they did until the time specified for their work was expired. 

6. Were some of them punished frequently? 
Yes, some of them were repeatedly punished. 

7. For what reason? 

Because they repeatedly broke the law. 

8. Were the women separated from their husbands and condemned to make 15 
mats each? 

They were not separated from their husbands, but they worked. 

9. Did any of them die in prison? 
None at all. 

10. Were the men condemned to bring stones from the ravines, and make a 
heavy stone fence, 5 fathoms for each man. 

Yes, they were. 

11. Were the women condemned to make stone fence, 3 fathoms each? 

They did so, like other convicts, as for instance, those who committed adultery; 
all the convicts did such work. 

12. Were they furnished with wood and water? 
They were all furnished with these things. 

13. Was Luke or any one else, put in irons, in 1835, and fined $25 for turning 
to the religion of the Pope? 

There were many Idol-worshippers about that time; we have not heard or seen 
any one by that name (of course not, the man evidently was known by his native 
name. Author) nor of a fine of money being inflicted, as you inquire. 

14. Was Simeon put in irona in 1835, whipped, and otherwise dreadfully abused, 
and obliged to work when he was sick? 

It is true, that some such punishment was inflicted on him (Simeon), because he 
was accused before the Magistrates at that time, for the one offense which he had 
committed, and his crime was plain; but other offenses were soon obtained; he 
would not give attention; he uttered things of quarrelsome character, and quarreled in 
and disturbed the Court, and it was almost impossible to preserve order. Afterwards 
he repented on account of his having acted so. No convict before or since, ever 
acted so before the Judges. When he was sick, he was strongly forbidden to work, 
and he sat still until recovered, and then he went to work. 

15. By whose advice were the Popish disciples punished by that of the Chiefs, 
or some foreigners? 

By the direction of the Chiefs only. 

16. Did not Mr. Bingham, or some other foreign teacher, stir up the Chiefs to 
inflict punishment on those who turned to the side of the Pope? 

From the time of their arrival until the year 1837 none of these were chosen as 

Members of the Council of Chiefs, to consult together and enact laws, in reference 

to any whom they wished to censure or injure not at all. They did not sit in the 
Assembly of Chiefs for seeking laws. 

Here evidently the chiefs neither wanted to compromise their foreign 
teachers, nor commit a falsehood ; the answer is absolutely irrelevant, and can 
hardly stand for anything else but; Yes, they did. 

17. Were all the convicts punished alike? Perhaps the sentence of the Popish 
disciples far exceeded that of others? 

The punishment was according to the offense, according to law; all were not 
equal. If any one committed great offense, great was his fine and punishment; it 
was so with the transgressors who opposed the laws. 

(Signed) 

KEKUANAOA, 

KAAOAOHEMA, 

DANIELA KANINA, 

E. PAAHANA, 

KALUAHINENUI, 

KEALOHA, 

J. II. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 93 

The natives continued to be harrassed for their adherence to the Catholic 
Faith until after the arrival of the French man-of-war I'Artemise, when the 
Hawaiian chiefs were forced to grant liberty of conscience to their subjects. 

However, in this dire visitation the Catholics were no longer to be deprived 
of the assistance of a spiritual father ; Divine Providence granted them a power- 
ful consolation by sending them a most zealous priest, whom we may rightly 
call the Apostle of Hawaii, in view of the many missions he established 
throughout the group, and the innumerable conversions he effected. It was 
Father Arsenius Robert Walsh, an Irishman by birth, and, like Fathers 
Bachelot and Short, a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of 
Jesus and Mary. 

After the visit of Brother Columba Murphy to Honolulu, Brother Melchior 
had written as follows to his Superior-General: 

"We have also been apprised that His Lordship (the Bishop of Nilopolis) 
seriously thinks of coming here. This news consoles us; however, we are not 
without fear. We know the influence the Methodists (he hereby means the 
Boston missionaries, who however, did not belong to the Methodist church, but 
some of whom were Congregationalists, others Presbyterians) have over the 
mind of several chiefs. The English and American consuls, the other foreigners, 
as well as the king himself say and it is also my own opinion that Messrs. 
Bachelot and Short cannot come back to the Sandwich Islands, at least not 
for some time to come; but that other priests migh be admitted, principally if 
among them were British subjects. . And if they came under the protection of 
the American government, but preferably yet of the English government, to 
which this country is supposed to belong, the Methodists and the chiefs that 
belong to their party will have to moderate themselves. As far as the King 
is concerned, he awaits only such an opportunity to declare himself in our 
favor. He is not yet married ; neither is he baptized ; he only thinks of amusing 
himself. I repeat it : it is through the English government that the door of the 
missions of Tahiti, Sandwich, and perhaps other neighboring islands, can be 
opened easily. The people do not oppose much obstacle to the progress of the 
Faith; the number of those that are being instructed is great; notwithstanding 
the persecution. They agree in saying that if liberty of conscience were 
granted, almost everybody would join us." 26 

Brother Columba had in a similar way reported the religious situation in 
Hawaii to the prefect residing at Valparaiso, Father Liausu.f 7 

Now it happened that even before Brother Melchior's letter had reached the 
Superior-General, Father Walsh had been sent to Valparaiso, destined for the 
missions. He arrived at the aforesaid port in the spring of 1836. When in 
August of that year the American consul there equipped a vessel (the Garissila, 
Captain Seymour), which was to call at the port of Honolulu, the Prefect 
resolved to improve the occasion to see, if, this time, it would be possible for 
a priest to establish himself there. Father Walsh, being a British subject, was 
chosen for the perilous undertaking. Furnished with letters of recommendation 
from the American and British consuls at Valparaiso to their colleagues in 
Hawaii, and with "sixty dollars" for his needs, 28 the young missionary arrived 
at the place of his destination on the 30th of September, 1836. 

Jarves says that Father Walsh was "a man of low habits and violent temper; 
well suited hy congenial tastes to secure the good will of the partisans of his prede- 



26 Lettres Ltthographiees, I, pp. 274, 275. 

27 Ibidem, p. 186. 

28 Father Liausu, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 271, 272. 



94 History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 

cessors."29 Those that have known him long and well, describe him as a gentleman 
beloved and respected by all except the Boston missionaries, who hardly could love 
the man who successfully wrestled with them all over the group. He was of a firm, 
resolute character; just the man needed under the difficult circumstances. He smoked 
and used liquor very moderately. If smoking tobacco is a low habit, how shall we 
qualify "chewing" tobacco to which some of the Boston missionaries 'were addicted? 
But one needs but to read Jarves' violent attacks on Catholics to find out that his 
description of Father Walsh is but a mirror-image of the author. 

Having been introduced by the captain to his consul, Father Walsh went 
from there to the mission premises, where he found the two brothers, Melchior 
and Leonard busy with their spiritual reading. Their transports at the unex- 
pected sight of a priest of their Congregation need not be described. 

The ensuing day, Mr. Charlton introduced the priest to Kinau. Reluctantly 
she granted him permission to stay, but soon after she repented ; for on October 
the 3d, she summoned him before the council of the chiefs. They then limited 
his permission to reside until the arrival of the British man-of-war, Acteon, 
which was expected before long. 

Nevertheless on October the 7th, early in the morning, Kinau sent a mes- 
senger to notify the priest that he had to quit the Island; the same evening the 
order was renewed. 30 

But the following morning Father Walsh's painful situation was relieved 
by the entrance into port of the French corvette "La Bonite," Captain Vaillant. 

Although the cannons of the fort boomed forth their volleys to welcome 
the visitor, the sight of the French tricolor inspired the chiefs and missionaries 
with rather gloomy apprehension. It had been easy enough to expel two 
defenseless priests, and unlimited had been their courage in oppressing the 
Frenchmen (Palani) when by that name aged women, little children, and unre- 
sisting native men were meant. But these Palani had twenty-four large guns 
aboard and 150 soldiers who knew how to handle them. With beating hearts, 
the king's secretary, Haalilio, and two other natives came on board together 
with the pilot, and tried to find out if the captain had any knowledge of the 
outrage perpetrated in 1831, or orders from his government to retaliate. 31 

The captain had not; for the priests had not lodged any complaint with 
their home government. The only orders concerning Hawaii the commander 

had received before sailing were " to gather all the information proper 

to gain a knowledge of the advantages and dangers which expeditions made 
by our merchants to those shores might meet with; the kind of protection 
they may need ; the dispositions of the local authorities and inhabitants towards 
the French; the chances of navigation near the coasts, etc., etc " 

He was furthermore instructed "to seize all opportunities which might be 
offered to him to render French captains of vessels and merchants the services 
in his power; to receive their complaints whenever they would appear just; 
and wherever they were in need of protection, to endeavor to make up for 
the deficiency of a permanent station or of a consular agent, by obtaining 
reparation for the wrongs they might have suffered. 32 

At the time of receiving Haalilio's visit, the captain of La Bonite had not 
yet been informed of the wanton injury inflicted upon a French subject in the 
person of Father Bachelot. 

29 History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, 1S43, p. 304. 

30 Letter of Father Walsh, Nov. 17th, 1836. 

31 De La Salle, Voyage autour du Monde, II, p. 231. 

32 Op. cit. vol. I, pp. 12, 13, Lettre de M. le Ministre de la Marine a M. Vaillant sur 
I'objet de sa mission. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 95 

But a few hours later Father Walsh came to pay his respects to the French 
commander, told him the story of the two missionaries who had been expelled 
in 1831, acquainted him with the alarm the corvette's appearance had created, 
and finally asked protection for himself. 33 

The two Brothers, also, did not delay paying their respects to the flag of 
their country, and offered their premises for the observations which the scien- 
tists of the ship's company were anxious to make ashore. 34 

In consequence of the information thus obtained, Captain Vaillant resolved 
to impart to Kamehameha III a salutary fear of French power, treating him 
at the same time in such a way as to inspire him with feelings of sympathy 
for the French. 

By a display of arms, conversations on the strength of the army and its 
exploits, by copious dinner parties, courtesy and presents, the commander 
flattered himself fairly to have attained this end on his leaving Honolulu. 

On the 12th of October, Kauikeaouli, Kinau and their suite had been invited 
to take dinner on board. Owing to the multifarious libations they had indulged 
in, both the King and his premier were in high spirits, and they made no 
secret of their satisfaction. Withal it was noticeable that Kauikeaouli was ill 
at ease. He was shrewd enough to understand that after the many conversa- 
tions the foreign residents had had with Capt. Vaillant, the latter could not 
be ignorant of the banishment of Messrs. Bachelot and Short. Till then, it is 
true, he had made no allusions to the event, but his very reserve and demure- 
ness in the midst of the courtesies he lavished on the king, left that ruler in a 
painful incertitude. Finally, Kauikeaouli made up his mind to broach the 
subject ; hence through the offices of the American consul, he expressed a desire 
to obtain a certificate that La Bonite had been well received in his dominions. 35 

This was the occasion the captain had been waiting for. Assuming a severe 
countenance he answered: "La Bonite, indeed, has been kindly received in the 
Sandwich Islands; a French man-of-war could not be received but well in any 
place where it puts in an appearance. But how have the Frenchmen been 
received, who before her came to Honolulu? They have been brutally driven 
away, deported to an inhospitable strand, and there abandoned without re- 
sources, the nearest place being from 12 to 15 miles distant. Can one fancy 
that such information has been received by me without indignation?" 36 

A painful silence resulted for some moments. Then the king tried to excuse 
himself, timidly saying that since they taught a religion different from the one 
followed in his kingdom, he had feared lest quarrels between the inhabitants 
might be the outcome of it. 

"But," answered the commandant, "you feared not the wrath of France, 
when thus ill-treating two of her subjects, who did not deserve it. You may 
be thankful to these peaceful men who have been good enough not to com- 
plain; for, had they written to France in order to denounce the violence of 
which they have been the victims, our powerful monarch would not have suf- 
fered this outrage to pass unpunished " 

By way of illustration he narrated the recent expedition to Algiers, in which 
France vindicated her honor by the capture of the robber-city and the complete 
defeat of the Dey, while she acquired for herself a most flourishing and im- 
portant colony. 

33 Ibidem, vol. II, p. 231; F. Walsh, Letter of Nov. 17, 1836. 

34 Ibidem, p. 235. 

35 Ibidem, pp. 252-259. 

36 Ibidem, pp. 259, 260. 



96 History of the Catholic Mission in Haivaii 

The poor king did not know any longer where he stood ; his sister, Kinau, 
bowed her head and dared not say a word. 

Satisfied with the impression he had made, M. Vaillant would not prolong 
the embarrassment of his guests. "Do not be uneasy," he said to the king in 
a kind voice, "if France knows how to punish those who resist her, she knows 
also to forgive. The French are good and faithful friends to those that treat 
them well. Moreover, a sure means of conciliating the favor of my sovereign 
is at your disposal. Two other Frenchmen are living among you. Respect 
their persons and property. Receive favorably those that may come later 
on. At this price the friendship of France may be had." 

The king promised that it would be done. M. Vaillant told -Kinau that 
he hoped that henceforth she would prove herself the most zealous protectress 
of French subjects. 37 

On the 22d the king pledged himself most positively that the two lay 
brothers would be left in the tranquil enjoyment of their property, and that he 
would protect their persons and interests. He also revoked the order of 
expulsion against Father Walsh, authorizing him to reside at Honolulu, and 
even to exercise the functions of his ministry in one of the houses of the 
Frenchmen, under condition that only the Catholic Europeans would be ad- 
mitted to his instructions, and not the natives. 

Kauikeaouli finally promised to receive with particular good will all French 
subjects whom their business might bring to his dominions. 38 

La Bonite sailed in the morning of October 24th. The preceding day the 
British sloop-of-war Acteon, under command of Lord Edward Russell, had 
been sighted; as a flat calm surprised her when approaching the roadsteads, 
she was prevented from letting her anchor go before nightfall, and only entered 
the harbor the next morning. Lord Edward Russell remained over three weeks. 
During his stay he negotiated a treaty between Great Britain and the Sandwich 
Islands, which was signed on November the 16th. 

The first article of that treaty stipulated that 

"English subjects shall be permitted to come with their vessels and property of 
whatever kind to the Sandwich Islands, they shall also be permitted to reside therein 
as long as they conform to the laws of these Islands and to build houses and ware- 
houses for their merchandise with the consent of the King, and good friendship shall 
continue between the subjects of both countries, Great Britain and the Sandwich 
Islands." 

The clause in this article "with the consent of the King," has been the 
subject of much and violent discussion both before and after the signing of the 
treaty. 39 

This restriction makes of the convention an absurdity. It was certainly not 
necessary, nay, not even profitable in the slightest degree, that an English lord, 
commander of a man-of-war, and the chiefs of a nation should gravely meet 
and discuss at great length, in order to reach an agreement, that henceforth 
"English subjects shall be permitted to come. ... to the Sandwich Islands 
.... and to build houses and warehouses if the king allows them to." 

The Dalailama of Thibet, if asked by some foreign diplomat that his coun- 
trymen might be allowed to take up their residence within Lhasas's most sacred 

37 Ibidem, pp. 261, 262. 

38 Ibidem, pp. 314, 315. 

39 See Appendix to Wyllie's Report to the Hawaiian Legislature, 1851, pp. 239, 330 289: 
Bingham, A Residence, p. 505; Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 311. 




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96 History of flic Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

The poor king did not know any longer where he stood; his sister, Kinau, 
bowed her head and dared not say a word. 

Satisfied with the impression he had made, M. Vaillant would not prolong 
the embarrassment of his guests. "Do not be uneasy," he said to the king in 
a kind voice, "if France knows how to punish those who resist her, she knows 
also to forgive. The French are good and faithful friends to those that treat 
them well. Moreover, a sure means of conciliating the favor of my sovereign 
is at your disposal. Two other Frenchmen are living among you. Respect 
their persons and property. Receive favorably those that may come later 
on. At this price the friendship of France may be had." 

The king promised that it would be done. M. Vaillant told Kinau that 
he hoped that henceforth she would prove herself the most zealous protectress 
of French subjects. 87 

On the 22d the king pledged himself most positively that the two lay 
brothers would be left in the tranquil enjoyment of their property, and that he 
would protect their persons and interests. He also revoked the order of 
expulsion against Father Walsh, authorizing him to reside at Honolulu, and 
even to exercise the functions of his ministry in one of the houses of the 
Frenchmen, under condition that only the Catholic Europeans would be ad- 
mitted to his instructions, and not the natives. 

Kauikeaouli finally promised to receive with particular good will all French 
subjects whom their business might bring to his dominions. as 

La Bonite sailed in the morning of October 24th. The preceding day the 
British sloop-of-war Acteon, under command of Lord Edward Russell, had 
been sighted; as a flat calm surprised her when approaching the roadsteads, 
she was prevented from letting her anchor go before nightfall, and only entered 
the harbor the next morning. Lord Edward Russell remained over three weeks. 
During his stay he negotiated a treaty between Great Britain and the Sandwich 
Islands, which was signed on November the 16th. 

The first article of that treaty stipulated that 

"English subjects shall be permitted to come with their vessels and property of 
whatever kind to the Sandwich Islands, they shall also be permitted to reside therein 
as long as they conform to the laws of these Islands and to build houses and ware- 
houses for their merchandise with the consent of the King, and good friendship shall 
continue between the subjects of both countries, Great Britain and the Sandwich 
Islands." 

The clause in this article "with the consent of the King," has been the 
subject of much and violent discussion both before and after the signing of the 
treaty." 

Tin's restriction makes of the convention an absurdity. It was certainly not 
necessary, nay, not even profitable in the slightest degree, that an English lord, 
commander of a man-of-war, and the chiefs of a nation should gravely meet 
and discuss at great length, in order to reach an agreement, that henceforth 
"English subjects shall lie permitted to come. ... to the Sandwich Islands 
.... and to build houses and warehouses if the king allows them to." 

The Dalailama of Thibet, if asked by some foreign diplomat that his coun- 
trymen might be allowed to take up their residence within Lhasas's most sacred 

:i7 lliid in, ]i]i. 2C1. 202. 
US 11, idem. pi>. :',M, :!ir>. 

:!!i Si><; ApiM-ndix to AVyllu-'K lii-port to ih<- Hnwaii;m I^c-Kislaturt-, IS.'l, j,p ">^ ;j;io "S'>- 
Birij-'h:im, A i:< si,!, nco, j,. :,(ir,; I.ettre.s I.itlinf.cmi'lik-c-.s, j. p. ;ni. 




CHURCH OF ST. ANTHONY, WAILUKU, MAUI 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 97 

shrine, would never have hesitated a moment to sign a document to that 
purport, he being allowed to add the clause "if first they receive my permission." 

Withal, when one reads the minutes of the meetings in which this conven- 
tion was discussed, concluded, and signed by twenty-four of the assisting 
chiefs, it becomes apparent that this preposterous meaning of the article was 
willed by the rulers, and finally consented to by the English lord. The chiefs 
had even first insisted that their own consent would be required besides that 
of the king; but the words "and Chiefs" were struck out after a protracted 
debate. 40 

Father Walsh hoped to obtain through Lord Russell's intervention the right 
of freely preaching his religion; however, he did not obtain anything more 
than a new assurance that he was allowed to remain but not to preach to the 
natives nor to allow any of them to assist at his services. 

This clause could not bind Father Walsh in conscience any more than the 
charge of Annas and Caiphas "not to speak at all, nor to teach in the name 
of Jesus" bound Peter and John. The Apostles answered "If it be just in 
the sight of God to hear you rather than God, judge ye." 41 

This has always been the either explicit or tacit answer of the Apostles 
and missionaries to the princes of this world, were they Jewish high priests, 
Roman emperors, Chinese mandarins or Hawaiian aliis. Neither have Prot- 
estant preachers ever held themselves bound to heed the prohibitions of Cath- 
olic princes. On the contrary, where Catholics have been satisfied to offer a 
passive resistance, Protestants, as a rule, had recourse to arms, not merely to 
obtain for themselves freedom to practice their religion, but to deprive their 
Catholic fellow-citizens of that privilege, the possession of which they had 
enjoyed for centuries. 

From the time of the arrival until the Declaration of Religious Tolerance 
on July 16th, 1839, Father Walsh baptized principally in the mission chapel 
16 adults and 30 infants, only 9 of the latter being children of foreigners. And 
although the catechumens were mostly instructed by native catechists, for fear, 
as Father Walsh says, "to attract new orders to depart," but necessarily also, 
on account of the priest's ignorance of the native tongue, he himself did not 
abstain entirely from imparting instruction to the Hawaiians, for in the Baptism 
Records he states, that "a young man by the name of Pule, by me instructed, 
has baptized at Waialua, his mother Luanuu, the wife of Napunawai, she 
being in danger of death." 

This was in May, 1839. On June 22d, the young man himself was baptized 
by Father Walsh. 42 



40 Govt. Archives, Honolulu. 

41 Acts, IV, 18. 

42 Baptism Records, Honolulu.. 



vrc~ 




CHURCH OF ST. ANTHONY, WAILUKU, MAUI 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 97 

shrine, would never have hesitated a moment to sign a document to that 
purport, he being allowed to add the clause "if first they receive my permission." 

Withal, when one reads the minutes of the meetings in which this conven- 
tion was discussed, concluded, and signed by twenty-four of the assisting 
chiefs, it becomes apparent that this preposterous meaning of the article was 
willed by the rulers, and finally consented to by the English lord. The chiefs 
had even first insisted that their own consent would be required besides that 
of the king; but the words "and Chiefs" were struck out after a protracted 
debate/ 10 

Father Walsh hoped to obtain through Lord Russell's intervention the right 
of freely preaching his religion ; however, he did not obtain anything more 
than a new assurance that he was allowed to remain but not to preach to the 
natives nor to allow any of them to assist at his services. 

This clause could not bind Father Walsh in conscience any more than the 
charge of Annas and Caiphas "not to speak at all, nor to teach in the name 
of Jesus" bound Peter and John. The Apostles answered "If it be just in 
the sight of God to hear you rather than God, judge ye." 41 

This has always been the either explicit or tacit answer of the Apostles 
and missionaries to the princes of this world, were they Jewish high priests, 
Roman emperors, Chinese mandarins or Hawaiian aliis. Neither have Prot- 
estant preachers ever held themselves bound to heed the prohibitions of Cath- 
olic princes. On the contrary, where Catholics have been satisfied to offer a 
passive resistance, Protestants, as a rule, had recourse to arms, not merely to 
obtain for themselves freedom to practice their religion, but to deprive their 
Catholic fellow-citizens of that privilege, the possession of which they had 
enjoyed for centuries. 

From the time of the arrival until the Declaration of Religious Tolerance 
on July 16th, 1839, Father Walsh baptized principally in the mission chapel 
16 adults and 30 infants, only 9 of the latter being children of foreigners. And 
although the catechumens were mostly instructed by native catechists, for fear, 
as Father Walsh says, "to attract new orders to depart," but necessarily also, 
on account of the priest's ignorance of the native tongue, he himself did not 
abstain entirely from imparting instruction to the Hawaiians, for in the Baptism 
Records he states, that "a young man by the name of Pule, by me instructed, 
has baptized at Waialua, his mother Luamm, the wife of Napunawai, she 
being in danger of death." 

This was in May, 1839. On June 22d, the young man himself was baptized 
bv Father Walsh/ 1 -" 



40 Govt. Archives, Honolulu. 

41 Acts, IV, 18. 

42 Baptism Records, Honolulu.. 



98 History of the Catholic Mission in Ha^van 

CHAPTER IX 
The Affair of "La Clementine" 

Papal Encouragement. On the Lookout for an Opportunity. Fathers Bachelot 
and Short again Embark for Hawaii. Arrival at Honolulu. Ordered to Leave. Kinau 
Offers a Bribe to Dudoit Forcible Reembarkation A Floating Prison. Epistolary 
War. A Clear Case of Angaria Something Anent the Divine Rights of Kings. The 
Sulphur and the Venus. La Clementine Recaptured. F. Bachelot's Memorial to Cap- 
tain Du Petit Thouars. A Stormy Conference. The Commanders Promise that the 
Priests Shall Depart. A Treaty with France. The Imogene Father Short Leaves. 

In 1835 a Papal brief of which Bro. Columba was bearer had reached 
Father Bachelot, exhorting him to bear patiently the difficulties he encountered 
and not to give up the hope of continuing the Hawaiian mission. 1 The report 
which Brother Columba made of his visit to -Honolulu caused the two exiled 
missionaries to surmise that, if a new attempt were made by them to establish 
themselves in the Hawaiian Islands, their presence might be tolerated. 

Consequently they steadily watched for a vessel willing to carry them back 
to their mission. In the beginning of November, 1836, Father Bachelot wrote 
that at last he had found a ship ready to run the risk. "Our affairs here," he 
says, "are far from being in a fair condition, and I do not know how we shall 
be received. In all probability we shall be treated as enemies." 

If the Catholic priests had been looking for financial advantages, they 
might have renounced the idea of going back to Hawaii, where poverty and 
persecution awaited them. Just then the Californian authorities offered Father 
Bachelot an annual net income of $3000 if he would consent to take charge of 
the Mission where he was then working. The priest declared himself willing 
to perform, for the time being, the duties connected with the work, but he 
refused to receive any salary, in order to remain free to go whenever he 
wanted. 2 

In February of the following year Father Walsh acquainted his colleagues 
with his arrival at Honolulu, the proceedings of the French and English men- 
of-war, and the treaty made by the latter, stipulating that British subjects were 
to be permitted a residence in the Sandwich Islands as long as they conformed 
to the laws. 

"This news," writes Father Short, "greatly rejoiced us, and reanimated our 
confidence. Mr. Walsh let us know that the French commodore upbraided 
the king severely for having driven us away from his shores, albeit we were 
not guilty of any misdemeanor, and that he (the commodore) had obtained 
very favorable promises for the French who in the future might come to the 
king's dominions. On the other hand we have a copy of the treaty which the 
English commander made the king sign in favor of British subjects. In this 
state of affairs we considered ourselves obliged to risk another attempt. I 
thought that in virtue of the established convention, I, as a Britisher, had a 
right to go on and reside at the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Bachelot, also, was of 
the opinion, that the promises made to the French commander sufficiently war- 
ranted his availing himself of the occasion to rejoin his spiritual children. 3 

1 Letter Bachelot, Nov. 9, 1836. 

2 F. Bachelot, Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 282. 

3 Lettres Lithographtees, I, pp. 314, 315. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 99 

On March 28th, 1837, the missioners embarked on the brig "La Clementine," 
having secured a passage for $500, and an additional present of $100 to the 
captain, whose reluctance to take them on board could be overcome only by 
this inducement. 

The brig belonged to Mr. Jules Dudoit, a Frenchman, but navigated under 
English colors. She had been chartered to a Mr. Hinckley, a merchant estab- 
lished at Honolulu, and was then in charge of Captain Handley. 4 

_ It was Mr. Bachelot's intention to go to Ponape, there to establish a new 
mission, in case permission to locate in the Hawaiian group could not be ob- 
tained ; 5 but he believed that Mr. Short ought to try his best to remain there. 
"By reason of this design," writes the latter, "we had agreed that I was to go 
ashore before the news of our arrival spread, and that I would keep in hiding, 
whilst Father Bachelot would disembark ostensibly." 6 

After a voyage of twenty days the brig dropped anchor in Honolulu harbor 
on the 17th of April, early in the morning, and was pulled close to the wharf 
to facilitate the disembarkment of sixteen horses which had been brought along 
from California. Very shortly afterwards Father Short landed in the pilot's 
boat. A great number of natives had gathered about the landing, Governor 
Kekuanaoa being in the crowd. 

The missionary was soon recognized, notwithstanding a long beard which 
he had grown during his stay in California, and a broad brimmed hat which 
overshadowed his face. He first made straight for the mission, but seeing 
that the crowd followed him, and fearing to attract the governor's attention, 
he took a roundabout path, and so succeeded in ridding himself of his escort. 

Father Bachelot landed a few hours later, unmolested but not unseen. Soon 
the governor sent for him. The Prefect-Apostolic answered that he would call 
later on, being at present wearied with his long voyage. Next day the two 
priests were again required to come to the fort, where Kekuanaoa made his 
residence. Father Short went accompanied by the British consul, whilst Father 
Bachelot, who was ill from seasickness, begged to be excused. 7 

Kekuanaoa ordered the priests to reembark at once, and forbade Captain 
Handley, whom he also had sent for, to have their baggage carried ashore. 
However, when Father Bachelot declared his intention of staying only for 
a while, the governor allowed them to remain on shore for some time, adding, 
after some moments, that he wished it understood that this was but a pro- 
visiqnal permission, and that any concession obtained from him was to be 
considered null and void on Kinau's arrival. 8 

This lady was then with the king and the rest of the chiefs at Lahaina, 
Maui, where they had gone to inter the remains of the king's sister, Naahie- 
naejia, who had died at Honolulu on December 30th of the preceding year. 

Father Bachelot asked that the refusal of a residence be given him in 
writing. As a consequence the priests were presented next day with a sort 
of account of their first expulsion, which document Kekuanaoa requested Father 
Bachelot to sign. This the Prefect refused, saying: "That writing expresses 
your ideas; hence it behooves your and not my signature." The succeeding 
day another missive of nearly the same purport was submitted to them ; Father 

4 F. Short, Lettres Lithographlees, I, p. 482; Bingham, Report to the A. B. C. F. M. p 23 

5 Letter Bachelot, Nov. 9, 1836; Walsh, Nov. 17, 1836; Melchlor, Nov. 18, 1830. 
GLettres Lith. I, p. 483; Annales Prop. Foi, XII, p. 257. 

7 F. Short, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 483, 484. 

8 Memorial of Father Bachelot, Arch. Congr. SS. Hearts, Valparaiso, No. 14. 



100 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Bachelot again refused to affix his signature to it, offering to write out a 
version of his own, and to sign that. 9 

Hereupon, the governor probably took advice of the "unofficial" Privy 
Council of the Realm, and this consultation resulted in the issuing of the 
following handbill from the "Oahu Printing Establishment" (Missionary 
Press) : 

Honolulu, Oahu, Aperila 19, 1837. 

He olelo na'u nona haole palani. Eia ko'u manao ia olua e na kanaka i kipaku 
ia aku mai keia aina aku, nolaila ke mau nei o ka olua kipaku ia e ko'u mau Lii, 
nokamea ua ninau aku a'u ia olua, e noho mai ana nei olua mauka nei; i mai olua: 
aole. E noho iki mauka nei a loaa'ka moku, holo koke olua. Oia ko'u manao no 
olua, i keia mau la no olua e kali ai, a makaukau ka holo o ka moku o olua i holo 
mai ai, alaila, e hele aku olua i luna olaila, o ko olua holo ana aku no ia; mai hoo- 
panee aku olua. NA KBKUANAOA. 

If Kekuanaoa was the author of this document, then he had a poor way of 
expressing himself in his mother tongue. For this reason perhaps the handbill 
bore a free English translation which precluded all ambiguity: 

April 19th, 1837. 

This is what I have to say to the French gentleman. This is my opinion to both 
of you who were sent away hefore from these Islands, that you are forever forbidden 
by our chiefs to come here, this is the reason. I asked you if you intended to live 
here, the answer you made was No, we intend to stop for a few days until we can 
obtain a vessel to carry ua from here. I replied When you get a vessel, go quickly. 
This is what I say to both of you: Now this time prepare you to depart in the same 
vessel in which you arrived: when the vessel is ready both of you are to go 
without delay. NA KEKUANAOA. 

Printed at the Oahu Printing Establishment. 

Meantime the governor had sent word to the King at Lahaina, informing 
him of the return of the Catholic missionaries. The young potentate having 
received this letter on April 26, issued a proclamation, which he entrusted to 
Kinau in order to promulgate it in Honolulu. 10 She arrived there Sunday, 
April 30, 11 had the King's proclamation printed in Hawaiian and English, sent 
to the missionaries, and ten days later 12 extensively circulated among the 
foreign residents, consuls and captains of vessels. 13 

The document is as follows: 

Ye strangers all from foreign lands, who are in my dominions, both residents, and 
those recently arrived, I make known my word to you all, so that you may understand 
my orders. 

The men of France whom Kaahumanu banished, are under the same unaltered 
order up to this period. The rejection of these men is perpetual, confirmed by me 
at the present time. I will not assent to their remaining in my dominions. 

These are my orders to them, that they go back immediately on board the vessel 
on which they have come, that they stay on board her till that vessel on board which 
they came, sails; that is to me clearly right, but their abiding here, I do not wish. 

I have no desire that the. service of the missionaries who follow the Pope should 
be performed in my kingdom, not at all. 

Wherefore, all who shall be encouraging the Papal missionaries, I shall regard 
as enemies to me, to my counsellors, to my chiefs, to my people, and to my kingdom. 

By KAMEHAMEHA III. 

This official translation was not dated, but the Hawaiian version was dated 
Maui, Lahaina, April 29, 1837. 

9 F. Short, Lettres Lithographiees, I, pp. 483, 484. 

10 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 275. 

11 Sandw. Isl. Gazette, May 6, 1837. 

12 Suppliment to Sandwich Island Mirror, 1840, p, 32. 

13 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 275. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 101 

The copies sent to the Catholic priests being addressed to the "French" 
priests, Father Short sent his copy back, saying that it did not concern him, 
since he was a British subject, and as such entitled to a residence in Hawaii, 
as long as he was not convicted of any crime. 14 

Next day the Fathers were required to appear before Kinau. Mr. Bachelot 
went alone. Being told to comply with the royal decree, he answered that he 
would willingly do so, if La Clementine sailed for Chile; that otherwise he 
refused absolutely to embark on her. 

Mr. Dudoit who arrived about that .time, accompanied by the British con- 
sul, stated in his turn, that he never would receive the priests on his board 
unless they came voluntarily, and a sufficient remuneration was made for their 
passage ; he added that he would strike his flag and abandon the vessel, if they 
were put on board against their consent, and that he would exact satisfaction 
for this violation of international law. 15 

Until the 19th of April almost daily interviews between the chiefs, Mr. 
Dudoit and the consul took place in the fort. 

Much trouble would have been spared the Chiefs, had the exiles been re- 
turned on board La Clementine on the day of their arrival. After Captain 
Handley had discharged his cargo, and returned the vessel to her owner, Mr. 
Dudoit, he had no more right to receive passengers on board. His authority 
over the ship was at an end. A new complication arose when, on the 10th 
of May, Mr. Dudoit again chartered La Clementine to Mr. William French, an 
American citizen, who without delay began to load. 10 

Eight days later Mr. Dudoit was notified that if the priests did not volun- 
tarily embark, they would be compelled to do so. The two lay brothers were 
forbidden to give further shelter to the exiles ; they answered that by sending 
them away, they might incur the blame of their government. 17 

On the 20th, Kinau is said by Dudoit to have made a last effort for obtain- 
ing his consent to receive the priests on his vessel. He states in a letter to the 
French consul at Manila : "The chiefs of the government have not been ashamed 
to offer me as a reward of my adhesion to their wishes, the seizure in my 
favor of the French establishment (the Catholic missionary establishment was 
known as the Hale Palani, i.e. the French House) to wit, to make me by a 
single act of despotism the proprietor of the fruit of ten years of work and 
privations of poor. French workmen, who for the moment lodge me. and my 
family; and this to reward me for the part I was to take in the iniquitous 
proceedings against other Frenchmen, who have contributed to the cost of 
this establishment, and whose only crime it is to be Catholic priests." (In the 
same letter Mr. Dudoit estimates the establishment at 6000 piasters.) 18 

This offer appears so iniquitous and crying to Heaven for a vengeance, 
that one hesitates to believe Kinau guilty of it, on the testimony of one man. 
Father Short mentions the offering of the bribe in the Annales de la Propa- 
gation de la Foi, XII, p. 259 ; Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 487 ; so does Captain 
Belcher, vol. I, p. 53; but their assertions give no new weight to the accusa- 
tion; since they most probably speak on the atvthority of Dudoit. It must be 
remarked, however, that these accusations which must have been certainly read 
by "the Protestant missionaries and by them reported to Kinau, were never 



14 F. Short, Lettres Lith. I, p. 485. 

15 F. Short, Lettres Lith. I, p. 486. 

16 Bingham, Report A. B. C. F. M. p. 25; Alexander, Brief History, p. 219. 

17 F. Short, Lettres Lith. p. 487. 

18 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, copy, V. D. 20. 



102 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

contradicted. Moreover, it was a frequent complaint of the foreign residents 
of those days, that the chiefs did not consider themselves affected by the 
Divine ordinance concerning "Mine and Thine." 19 

But perhaps Kinau considered the projected confiscation as a just punish- 
ment, because of the Brothers' refusal to drive out the priests; since according 
to the King's proclamation "all who should be encouraging (the Hawaiian text 
says . rendering assistance to) the Papal missionaries, would be regarded as 
enemies, to him, to his counsellors, to his chief, to his people, and to his 
kingdom." 

However, whether the proposition was made or not, and in whatever way 
the pious Kinau formed her conscience, Mr. Dudoit says that he rejected the 
infamous proposition with indignation. 

When Kinau found out that nothing could induce Mr. Dudoit to take the 
Catholic clergymen aboard against their will, she resolved to have recourse to 
force. Consequently two natives were sent to conduct the priests to La Clemen- 
tine. When they had delivered their message, Father Bachelot answered that he 
would yield only to force. 20 

Whilst one of the officers went for fresh instructions, the Father made out 
the following protests, addressed respectively to Mr. Dudoit and the British 
Consul : , 

To. Mr. Jules Dudoit, owner of the Schooner Clementine. 

Honolulu, 20 May, 1837. 
Sir, 

Two men sent by the government presented themselves at my lodgings with orders 
to embark me by force on board your schooner Clementine. That vessel is under 
English colors, and I am a Frenchman. 

I protest against the violence made, and against the part which you might take 
in it, receiving me as a prisoner on your vessel: and I declare that you are responsible 
for the consequences, being fully determined to demand justice of my government. 
I have the honor to be 

Your most humble & obedient servt. 

J. AUG-USTIN BACHELOT.21 

Honolulu, 20th May, 1837. 
Dear Sir: 

Two men have just presented themselves at my lodgings who say they are sent 
by the regent to embark me by force on board the schooner Clementine now in the 
harbor and shortly to sail. 

I protest against the violence offered as a violation of the rights of British subjects 
at these Islands as consigned in the treaty lately made and agreed by the King of the 
Sandwich Islands and Lord Edwd. Russell, Captain of H.B.M. Ship Acteon. 

I. also protest against it as a violation of the common laws of humanity to compell 
any unoffending person to embark in a low state of health in which I actually find 
myself. It would expose me to an imminent danger of death. I therefore, Sir, feel 
myself bound to claim your protection against the violence offered, and have the 
honor to be, Sir 

Your very obedt. and humble servt. 

P. SHORT.22 

The police officers tarried till about 3 o'clock, when they returned and 
informed the two clergymen that it was time to depart. The priests followed the 
emissaries, some of whom took care of their belongings. 

19 Cf. f. i. Tales from the Archives, Pacific Commercial Advertiser, March 6, 1910, and 
February 20, 1910. 

SOKumu Hawaii, August 16, 1837; Ann. Prop. Foi, XII, p. 259. 

21 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 17. 

22 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 18. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 103 

At the wharf they were told to step into a boat, whereupon Father Bachelot 
said: "Touch us, touch us." The officers did not at first appear to grasp his 
meaning, until one of the foreign residents said: "The Catholic priests will not 
go till you lay your hands upon them, to prove that you force them on board the 
Clementine." Then the native placed his hand upon their shoulders, and they 
stepped into the boat, Father Bachelot asking the foreigners to bear witness to 
the proceedings. Some of them shouted: "I saw it! I saw it! I am witness 
to it!" 23 

As the boat came alongside "La Clementine," the mate ordered them off, 
telling the native officer that no persons should be forced on board the brig, 
whilst he was in charge of the same. The boat hereupon returned to the wharf. 24 

Mr. Dudoit was ill and in bed whilst the priests were being taken to the 
wharf; however, having been informed of what was going on, he hastened to 
the scene, and arrived just in time to see the boat returning from a second attempt 
to embark the priests. He had himself rowed on board his vessel and was 
followed by the boat with the prisoners. Upon the parapets of the fort stood 
Kekuanaoa, vociferating and gesticulating as a madman, in order to prompt his 
subalterns not to heed Mr. Dudoit's remonstrances. 25 

. Just then a boat arrived from the whaleship Matilda, containing Mr. Swain, 
the captain of said vessel, and other foreigners. Mr. Dudoit hailed them to be 
witnesses to the violence offered him, and called their attention to the fort where 
two cannons were uncovered and pointed towards the vessel. 26 

Meantime the native officer, pressed by the repeated orders of the irate 
governor, gathered sufficient courage to climb on board La Clementine, com- 
manding the clergymen to follow him. 

It was not Mr. Dudoit's intention to defend his vessel in a futile combat. As 
soon as the exiles had been forced on board of the vessel by the envoys of the 
government, he hauled down the British ensign, which had been flying at the 
masthead of the brig during the proceedings we have just related, and gathering 
its folds under his arm, himself with his ship's company abandoned the vessel. 

The consternation in and around the harbor was over; La Clementine was 
quietly riding at her anchors, no longer a dignified merchant vessel, but the 
floating prison of Fathers Bachelot and Short, and of an infirm old man, their 
servant, who would not forsake them in the hour of trial. 27 

Meanwhile Mr. Dudoit had taken his flag to the British consul, Mr. Charlton, 
who, having been met in the street, at the gate of Mr. Reynold's courtyard, took 
the ensign, and by way of protest against the action of the Hawaiian government, 
burnt it on the spot. 28 

That same day Kinau sent on board provisions for the prisoners which she 
took care to renew from week to week. 29 

On the 19th, the Premier had informed the King of the difficulties she had 
experienced in reembarking the missioners. Kauikeaouli answered as follows: 

Lahaina, Maul, 20th May, 1837. 

This is my reply to you, Kinau. Take these men of France, and put them on 
board the vessel in which they came; if the captain refuses to admit these men of 

23 Kumu Hawaii, August 16, 1837; Brinsmade, in Sandwich Island Gazette, June 24, 1837. 

24 Suppliment, Sandw. Island Mirror, 1840, p. 35. 

25 F. Short, Lettres Lith. I, pp. 487, 488. 

26 Father Bachelot, Memorial; according to Mr. Samuel N. Castle, this seems to have 
been the permanent position of the guns, and hence implied no menace to La Clementine. 
Polynesian, 1841, p. 82. 

27 Sandwich Island Gazette, May 27, 1837. 

28 Ibidem, August 26, 1837. 

29 F. Bachelot's Memorial, Arch. Congr. SS. HH. Valparaiso, No. 14; Wyllie's Historical 
Summary, p. 277. 



104 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

France, on board, then let them pay me the money which I paid to William Sumner, 
for they have brought back without liberty these two men that have been banished 
from my dominions. This, also, inquire of Kelemaka what we said with the captain 
of the French ship of war. In our conversation with him, he inquired of me. "Why 
do you not desire the Catholic religion?" I replied, "I desire not that religion here, 
lest the people of my kingdom be divided.' He said, 'Perhaps it would be well to have 
some foreigners here like those of our religion." I said to him, 'It would not be well; 
if the people of my kingdom were enlightened it might be well.' To this he assented, 
saying, 'You know the nature of your kingdom.' That which he said to me about me 
giving protection to the people of France that came here, and that is what you are to 
inquire of him, that it may be plain to you, for he is the person who interpreted 
between us, and that you may hear correctly."30 

This letter arrived at Honolulu after the reembarkation had taken place. 

The king was informed of the accomplished fact by Kinau, by the British 
consul, and by Mr. J. C. Jones, United States consul. The latter inclosed a 
protest by William French, a citizen of the United States, complaining of the 
invasion of La Clementine, which vessel he had chartered, as a violation of the 
rights of an American citizen, and of the treaty made with the United States in 
1826 by Captain ap Catesby Jones. 

This was the beginning of a kind of epistolary war, the din of which sounded 
unto the utmost boundaries of the Pacific. Mr. Dudoit and Father Bachelot 
wrote to the French consuls at Lima, Valparaiso and Manila, to implore the 
protection of their government. The British and American consuls chartered a 
vessel which they dispatched to Valparaiso, there to expose their grievances to 
the commodores of the naval stations. 31 

Before taking this step, they had endeavored to obtain redress from the King, 
who, during all these disturbances stayed on Maui. In answer they received 
long missives 32 in which all their demands were flatly denied, the King declaring 
that he fully approved of all that had been done by Kinau. In a letter to Mr. 
Charlton he said : "My will is that the vessel depart, and that of my chiefs also ; 
and this has been our order from the beginning." 33 

The style of the King's letters evidently point to the authorship of some 
missionary. The King himself declared to Mr. Jones that the decree of expulsion 
had been by Mr. Bingham, and that he had only signed out of fear. 34 

How he could order away a merchant vessel belonging to a friendly nation 
whose citizens were entitled to reside in, or trade with the Hawaiian Islands in 
virtue of treaty rights, at the same time forcing passengers on board of her 
against the will of the owner and charterer, and disclaim to be guilty of violating 
the law of nations, is hard to explain. The action of the Hawaiian rulers in the 
affair of La Clementine seems to constitute a clear case of unwarranted angaria. 

"Angaria is the requisition of a merchant vessel for any public service. . . . The 
right (of angaria) ... on account of the risks and onerous charges it imposes upon 
the vessel which is subjected to it, engages the responsibilities both material and 
financial of the state which by a necessity of a superior order is obliged to have 
recourse to it. The exercise of these two rights (of embargo and of angaria) 
especially of the latter, is extremely delicate, and requires much caution in order to 
safeguard the private foreign interests which are affected by it. For on one hand it 
upsets commercial relations which were freely engaged in, and which it is the duty of 



30 Wyllie, Op. Cit. p. 277. The man named by the King, Kelemaka, was a native of 
Louisiana, who according to La Salle, spoke with equal facility the English, French and 
Hawaiian languages, and who was then a resident of Honolulu. His true name was Gravier. 
Cf. De la Salle, II, p. 234. 

31 Letters of F. Bachelot and Mr. Dudoit; Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 20, 23, 24. 
Letter of Richard Charlton to Kamehameha III, May 31, 1837. 

32 They may be read in Wyllie's Historical Summary, pp. 279-281. 

33 Wyllie, Op. cit. p. 279. 

34 F. Short, Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, XII, p. 201. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 105 

all governments to respect and favor; by diverting a vessel from the course the 
owners intend it to take, it prolongs its voyage, jeopardizes its cargo hither and 
thither, increases the wages of the crew, occasions unforeseen and forced expenses, etc. 
The universal rule to be followed in this matter is, that every government which 
is bound by circumstances to have recourse to angaria, be not only responsible for the 
material consequences to the vessel which is subjected to it, but be also obliged 
before imposing a requisition, to debate with those interested, and to pay an indemnity 
for the required services."35 

Mr. Dttdoit was in no way responsible for the return of the Catholic clergy- 
men, who arrived on La Clementine, owned, indeed, by that gentleman, but for 
the time being at the disposal of its charterer, Mr. Hinckley. The priests them- 
selves violated no law in coming back. The decree of banishment said : "Begone 
from this land," but did not . state that the exile was to be forever. Moreover, 
that decree had been revoked as soon as it was promulgated, and substituted by 
an "amicable invitation to the priests to leave the country." 

At the moment of their return, no law forbidding Catholic priests to reside 
in Hawaii did exist, although the opposition of the Chiefs against them was 
universally known. Father Walsh had obtained permission to stay. 

The only person responsible for the return of the two exiles was, besides 
themselves, Captain Handley. But, if he knew them to be exiles from Hawaii, 
he might very well have considered the decree of banishment repealed by the 
English treaty. There can, however, be no doubt that this captain had his 
apprehensions, as is seen by his demand for a bonus of $100 as a condition for 
taking them on board. 

As far as the positive right of nations goes, the Hawaiian Government had 
a right to refuse residence to any foreigner whom they expected to be a source 
of trouble; neither were they obliged to give any reason for their action, except 
in case of the violation of a treaty. 36 However, the government's right to expel 
the priests, does not seem to have warranted a recourse to angaria. 

As for the missionaries themselves, they were in no way bound to heed the 
decree of banishment even had it not been revoked. Vattel's authority has 
so O'ften been invoked to defend the action of the Hawaiian rulers, that we need 
no excuse for quoting him, when he justifies the return of the exiled priests. 

Says he 37 : "He (the ruler) may refuse their services (of the missionaries), 
and if he orders them away, they must obey. One needs a very express order of 
the King of kings in order to disobey legitimately a sovereign who commands in 
conformity with the extension of his power, and the ruler who is not convinced 
of this extraordinary order of the Divinity, makes but use of his rights, when 
punishing the disobeying missionary." 

"But if the nation or a considerable body of the people wishes to retain the 
missionary or to follow his doctrines, we have elsewhere established the right of 
the nation and those of the citizens/' 

Now it suffices to remark that the Catholic priests were fully provided with 
that "extraordinary order of the Divinity: Going therefore, teach ye all nations" 
(Math. XXVIII, 19). That the chiefs of Hawaii did not recognize their divine 
right to preach, did not make that right less real. If the Apostles had waited for 
the countersignature of the Roman emperors, Christianity would never have 
been preached to the world. 

The principle of the Peace of Westphalia : Cujiis reglo, hujus religio had only 

35 Le Droit des Gens, Charles Calvo, vol. I, p. 430. 

36 See for instance, Belgian Law, as interpreted by the tribunal of Antwerp, August 14, 
1883, and the expulsion of the Baroness Vaughan in 1909 by Minister Vandenheuvel. 

37 Le Droit des Gens, 1820, vol. II, ch. IV, p. 284. 



106 History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 

a chance to be accepted in a time, when the prince was considered to be THE 
State, and the Nation a mere accessory. 

King Kauikeaouli did not exactly act upon that principle, for His Majesty 
had no religion to speak of ; he never embraced Protestantism. He did what he was 
told to do by his premier under the influence of Mr. Bingham, and thought per- 
haps that he acted right. A few years later he began to doubt the all around 
wisdom of his advisers. For in an undated letter to the King of France, the 
young monarch naively writes : "Because of my lack of intelligence I frequently 
get into trouble, though I desire very much to live in peace with all mankind and 
to perform those things that are done in civilized nations. Those who are educat- 
ing me and my people in book-learning are perhaps not used in things pertaining 
to the government and the laws of nations. They have not instructed me in these 
things, and therefore in my ignorance I have done things of my own will. 
Because of this, whilst diligently exercising at times what I think to be proper, I 
perhaps have ignorantly restrained the rights of those from foreign lands." 38 

On June 10, Father Short addressed a letter to his consul, asking him to be 
favored with a visit, that he might have an opportunity of speaking on some 
matters interesting to him in his present situation. The same day Mr. Charlton 
applied to the King, who, three days before, had returned from Maui, for per- 
mission to visit the prisoners ; this permission was refused. 39 

The arrival of the King occasioned no further developments, although the 
literary war between him and the consuls continued, enlivened by side-skirmishes 
in the Sandwich Island Gazette, between the partizans of the priests and those of 
the government or rather of the Protestant mission. 

But new actors were now approaching the scene of combat. On the 8th of 
July, early in the morning, H. B. M. sloop-of-war Sulphur, Captain Sir Edward 
Belcher, 25 days from San Bias, anchored outside of Honolulu harbor. 

The captain landed at once, and was received with much warmth by his old 
friends, the British and American consuls, the former applying for his interfer- 
ence in the question raised against the Hawaiian Government by the forcible entry 
of La Clementine. 40 

Having been advised by Consul Jones to address Captain Belcher in order to 
claim his protection as a British subject, Father Short exposed his situation to 
the commander in the following terms: 

On board the Clementine. 

Honolulu, July 8, 1837. 
To Edward Belcher Esq. Commanding 
H. B. M. Ship Sulphur. 

Sir: I beg leave to congratulate you on your safe arrival to this port, and to lay 
before you the case of an unoffending British subject, whom the representative of his 
Government has not been able to protect from lawless and arbitrary oppression; I 
am fully convinced that your presence and authority will easily obtain that justice, 
which reason, menace and remonstrance have sought in vain. 

The person who claims your protection, is a Catholic Priest, who came here in 
1827, in company with two French clergymen; one of whom returned to France. They 
formed a small congregation of their religion here under the protection of Bold, then 
Governor of this island. Towards the latter end of 1829, they were prohibited to 
instruct the natives by Kaahumanu, but were expressly authorized by her to remain 
unmolested in the exercise of their religion, in favor of foreigners. It was not so 
much as objected to them, that they had once broken this prohibition, or infringed 
any law, when, in 1831, they were forcibly embarked in a little schooner, and cast 
upon a desert spot on the Coast of California. I protested, in vain, against the violence 



38 Govt. Archives, Honolulu. 

39 Correspondence, Short-Charlton: Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 22-34. 

40 Belcher, Narrative, vol. I, p. 54. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 107 

offered, claiming the right of a British subject. The intervention of the British consul 
was disregarded, as it has been on the present occasion. 

After five years exile, Kaahumanu, who had been the author of it, being no 
more, and her acts against us having no force, to judge by her own rule, or that of 
her chiefs, who told us, that those of Bold in our favor had no force after his decease. 
I had been duly informed of the treaty made in favor of British subjects by Lord 
Edward Russell, at the passage of the Acteon, which assured me the right at least of 
residing here as long as I conformed to the laws: these and other assurances from 
particular persons engaged me to return. But after a month of vexations on shore, I, 
together with my companion in misery, was forced on board this brig, in spite of my 
protestations, against the violence offered, and the intervention of the British consul 
in my behalf. 

I only claim the rights which every subject of H. B. M. always had and has, as 
confirmed by the aforesaid treaty, to reside at these Islands, with entire liberty and 
under the same conditions as any other, without my quality, as Catholic Priest, being 
at any time, a pretext for vexation or molestation of any kind, either in person or in 
property. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedt. and humble Servt. 
P. SHORT.41 

The British commander gave notice to Kinau and the chiefs that he wished 
to confer with them concerning the complaints made by two British subjects 
against the government. 

He then called at Kinau's house, where he and his officers were received with 
military honors by Kekuanaoa dressed in his general's uniform. The chiefs were 
present, as well as most of the missionary establishment. Mr. Bingham acted 
as interpreter. 42 

Captain Belcher gives the following account of this first interview: 

"Finding remonstrance useless, and that their principal missionary leader, Mr. 
Bingham, evidently spoke in his own name as well as theirs, and therefore that they 
were not free agents, I ventured to acquaint them that stronger arguments must be 
resorted to, and I instantly ordered the brig to be recaptured, and the British colours 
re-hoisted. 

"Mr. Bingham then ventured to show himself in his true colors, and intimating 
"that blood would flow from this act," I most distinctly assured him, "that having now 
ascertained his character, I should visit that threat on his head, and that his life 
should answer for the first drop of British blood which his agency should cause to 
flow." It is true that I did accompany that threat with my clinched fist, but totally 
false that any action of mine towards Kinau could be so construed. Indeed, I felt too 
much pity for her situation, and so far from the slightest animosity at that instant 
existing, she shook hands with me, and Kunoa, the husband, warmly pressed my hand 
at parting."43 

Whilst the commander was thinking of sending an officer in La Clementine 
to Maui, in order to request the immediate presence of the King, the French 
frigate La Venus, made her appearance. This was on the morning of the 10th. 
Her commander, Captain Du Petit-Thouars, having been informed of the situa- 
tion, requested that he might be allowed to act in conjunction. 44 

The same day the two officers had a fresh interview with Kinau and the 
chiefs, but finding them stubbornly determined on maintaining their acts, it was 
resolved to liberate the prisoners. 

Consequently about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, a body of marines, in charge 
of an officer of the Sulphur, recaptured La Clementine, hoisted the English flag, 
and landed the priests. They were met at the wharf by the commanders and the 

41 Quoted in Suppliment to S. I. Mirror, 1840, p. 39. 

42 Belcher, Narrative, I, p. 54. 

43 Narrative, 1843, vol. I, p. 54. 

44 Ibidem, p. 55. 



108 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

naval officers, the consuls, a number of foreign residents and a crowd of natives, 
who triumphantly escorted them to their domicile. 43 

The recaptured Clementine was dispatched the same evening to Maui, with a 
request to the King, that he would, if possible, repair to Honolulu, with as little 
delay as might be convenient. 40 

On receiving this dispatch, Kamehameha sent a vessel to fetch Kuakini, who 
was then on Hawaii, and when that chieftain had joined him, sailed for the capital, 
where he arrived on July the 20th. 47 

Meanwhile Father Bachelot had addressed the following memorial to the 
commander of the French man-of-war: 

Honolulu, July 12, 1837. 
Sir Commander: 

The undersigned, a French priest, finds himself obliged to call your attention to 
the conduct which the rulers of these islands have carried on in his regard. He exposes 

That having established himself in these islands under the auspices of him who 
at his arrival was at the head of the government, he has exercised his ministry pub- 
licly and without restraint during 3 years and 9 months, although since the last 15 
months this liberty has been restricted to strangers only. 

That jointly with two mechanics, countrymen of his, he has. defrayed the expenses 
of an habitation which notwithstanding its simplicity, has been appraised at over 30,000 
francs, and which is the only one known here as the French establishment. 

That without any pretext either known or alleged, other than that of being a 
Catholic priest, he has been taken from his residence, embarked upon a government 
vessel, without having been able to learn from the chief, to which corner of the earth 
they were to deport him, and clandestinely thrown upon a lonesome spot of the Cali- 
fornian coast; 

That this clandestine landing in a country which was then in the throes of a 
political revolution, exposed him to real dangers, and caused him the disgrace of 
being treated by the Mexican government as a suspect and dangerous person; 

That the author of his expulsion having departed this life, and the same's act 
against complainant necessarily having the same fate as those of Bold in his favor, 
which had been declared null and void after his demise, no law moreover before today 
having declared my exile to be perpetual; the King at the severe reproach addressed 
to him by the commander of La Bonite, regarding my expulsion a,nd other subjects of 
complaint, having promised to protect without exception, every Frenchman, who would 
reside in these islands; 

The undersigned has again presented himself here, from the first day declaring 
that he would remain only till an opportunity of sailing either to Valparaiso could be 
found, as in fact he already had made arrangements for a passage; 

That on the 20th of May, he again had been taken away and thrown into the 
English brig La Clementine, notwithstanding the opposition of her owner, who aban- 
doned the vessel for that reason alone. 

On the other side the undersigned states that the French mechanics, notwithstand- 
ing their good behavior which at all times has deserved them the universal esteem, 
have several times been threatened to be deprived of their habitation under the 
slightest pretexts. 

After this statement, the undersigned begs of you, Sir Commander, to use your 
authority and mediation, in order that 

lino: The decree of expulsion confirmed by the King this last month of May, and 
the declaration that it was perpetual, may be revoked entirely, and henceforth be re- 
garded as null and void: 

2o: It will be allowed to the undersigned to inhabit these Islands with the same 
liberty and under the same conditions as other foreigners; 

3o: That Religion never be made a pretext of vexation to the French either in 
their persons or property; 

4o: That those who actually occupy the habitation called the French establish- 



45 F. Short, Lettres Lithogr. I, p. 489; Suppliment S. I. Mirror, 1840, p. 41. 

46 Belcher, Op. Cit. p. 54. 

47 Ibidem, p. 5G. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 109 

ment, may dispose of it at their own pleasure, having informed the authorities that 
reside on Oahu. 

The undersigned has the honor of being respectfully, 

Sir Commander, 

Yours most humble servant. 

f. J. A. A. Bachelot.48 

On the. day after the king's arrival, at noon, the captains of the Sulphur 
and the Venus accompanied by their officers and the American and English 
consuls, repaired to the king's house, where they were received by the officers 
attendant on that prince in their state uniforms. 

Captain Belcher gives the description of the conference. 

"Before proceeding to business, both Captain Du Petit-Thouars and myself 
protested against the interpretation or interference of Mr. Bingham ; indeed we 
requested his absence. This latter point was not conceded, and he took up a 
position where he could command the eye of the king; but the sharp glances of 
some of the officers of both ships were too powerful for him ; and I believe some- 
thing very much allied to menace from one of the lieutenants of the Venus 
damped his ardour, as he spent the remainder of the time with his head between 
his hands nearly resting it on his knees. 

"The questions at issue were 1st. The forcible entry of the Clementine, and 
putting on board 'Messrs. Bachelot and Short. 

2d. The rights of British subjects to reside at these islands so long as they 
conformed to the laws, as established by treaty of Lord Edward Russell. 

This latter they endeavored to reject indeed refused to acknowledge. The 
discussion of the merits of the case of Messrs. Short and Bachelot continued until 
four, when all the parties being exhausted, the king proposed an adjournment 
until the following morning. 

The only object carried was the consent that Messrs. Short and Bachelot 
should remain unmolested until they could be removed, on the guarantees respect- 
ively o'f Captain Thouars and myself. The meeting was then adjourned." 49 

Mr. Bingham contributes the following incidents of that day's meeting : 

"The king chose Mr. Bingham for interpreter, but Messrs. Charlton and 
Belcher refused him, and sent for Mr. Bachelot, whom they had put on shore con- 
trary to the positive edicts of the king and chiefs, and Drought him in without 
proper consent, to act as interpreter. When he had with difficulty interpreted a 
sentence for them into imperfect Hawaiian, which the king in a quiet time and 
from a welcome speaker could have understood, 50 he followed him with the 
forcible interrogation, "What?" The intruded interpreter labored through the 
sentence again, which was followed by the "What?" from the king. The inter- 
preter increasing the energy of his voice if not the lucidness of his style, repeated 
his task; and the king, with increased self-possession, renewed his significant 
interrogatory, "What is it?" 

Thus mildly rebuking the discourteousness of those who had attempted to 
obtrude on him one who trampled on his authority, and who was here in his 
dominions without his consent, he, in his turn refused to do business for them 
through the interpreter of their choice. 

The obtruded priest, unsuccessful as interpreter, assumed the censor, and 
with some shrewdness, and not a little rudeness, said to the king, "You don't 

48 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 42. 

49 Op. Cit. pp. 57, 68. 

50 Mr. Lorrin Andrews, who was also present at the meeting, says: "Mr. Bachelot gave 
the Interpretation In Hawaiian in a passably correct manner." Wyllie's Summary, p. 336. 



110 History of .the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

understand me because you don't wish to." Thus ended his official service for 
the day. 

By this time a foreign officer, whom, had it not been for the extreme boorish- 
ness of his manners, I should have taken for a lieutenant of the French navy, 
came and stared me malignantly in the face, placed his back against me, and 
crowded me back hard upon a sideboard against which I was quietly standing 
with folded arms. As I attempted to escape sideways from this incipient lynch- 
ing, he suddenly wrenching his body either to prevent my escape or to consum- 
mate the outrage, gave me a blow with his elbow, which was chiefly warded from 
my breast by my still folded arms. His strange movements being perceived, one 
of the counsellors, John li, came and kindly placed himself between us and 
defeated his repeated attempts to approach me, for a time, as we stood behind 
the captains. 

Another interpreter was called in, through whom the two captains and the 
British consul in vain attempted to gain the consent of the king to the residence 
or sojourn on shore of the two expelled priests. Mr. Andrews of our mission 
was at length employed as the fourth interpreter, as agreeable to both parties." 31 

The conference was resumed on the morrow at ten, and lasted till about 
2 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Captain Du Petit-Thouars gives an account of the result of the discussion in 
the following note to Father Bachelot: 

On board La Venus, 22 of July, 1837. 
Sir: 

In conformity -with your letter of the 12th of this month, I have assiduously 
busied myself with the various motives of complaint against the Government which you 
expose. I have made out a claim; and in the different conferences with the king 
assembled in council with the chiefs, 

The government has explicitly acknowledged that it has not made use of the word 
exile regarding you, and that this was a wrong translation of the native word; but that, 
in fact, it had desired and did desire yet that you leave the country, because you are 
a Catholic priest, and that it does not wish any other religion preached to the natives. 
Since, in conformity with the law of nations, they have the right common to all 
governments in these matters, I cannot force them to allow you a residence, having no 
instruction nor power in this regard. 

Besides having told them that you were going to Valparaiso, they insisted on your 
prompt departure; this I have opposed and it has been agreed that you will remain 
until a favorable occasion offers, and that I was to receive a guarantee that till then 
you will be neither annoyed nor molested. 

On my side, in order to remove all doubts, I have been obliged to promise in your 
name that you will seize the first opportunity of leaving this country. The exchange 
of these documents has not taken place yet. Please, answer me, and tell me if it is 
convenient to you that the exchange takes place. 

Please receive the new assurance of my high consideration. 

The Capn of the Vessel 

Commander of La V6nus, 

A. Du Petit-Thouars. .I.' 

Father Bachelot having agreed to the arrangement proposed by the French 
commander, the exchange of the following documents took place. 

Honolulu, 21st of July, 1837. 

The undersigned Post Captain, Commandant of the French Frigate "La Venus" 
promises in the name of M. Bachelot, that he will seize the first favorable opportunity 
which may offer to leave this Island, to go either to Lima, to Valparaiso, or to some 
other part of the civilized world; and that in case such an opportunity should not 



51 A Residence, pp. 508, 609. 

52 Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 44. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Haivan 111 

offer, he shall be embarked upon the first French man-of-war that may visit this 
Island. M. Bachelot in the meantime shall not preach. 

A. Du Petit Thouars, 
Post Captain Commanding the French Frigate "Ve"nus." 

His Britannic Majesty's ship "Sulphur," 

Honolulu, 21st of July, 1837. 

I, Edward Belcher, commanding His Britannic Majesty's ship "Sulphur," engage 
1 for Mr. Short that he will quit the island by the first favourable opportunity which 
offers, for Manila, Lima, Valparaiso, or other civilized part of the world, and that in 
the event of no opportunity offering before the arrival of a British vessel of war, he 
will be received on board of her. I further engage that he. will not act contrary to the 
laws of the country. 

Edward Belcher, 

Commander of His Britannic Majesty's Ship "Sulphur," 
and senior officer of the British navy, present. 

The clause in Captain Du Petit-Thouars' statement "Mr. Bachelot in the 
meantime shall not preach," seems to have been inserted on his own authority; 
at least, neither in his note to the Prefect-Apostolic nor in the latter's answer to 
the commander, is that stipulation mentioned. 

The King on his part consented that the two priests should reside unmolested, 
at Honolulu, until a favorable opportunity offered to quit the country either for 
Manila, Valparaiso, Lima or other civilized portions of the world." 53 

Concerning the affair of La Clementine no definite arrangement was reached. 
Kauikeaouli declared that "no obstructions would be offered to the Clementine 
pursuing her voyage," 54 whereupon Captain Belcher answered that "the insult 
offered to the flag of Great Britain by the forcible entry and making a prisonship 
of the Clementine, together with the damages due to her owner for demurrage, 
loss of market, &c., was of too important nature for him to discuss, and that 
he was going to communicate these points without loss of time to his govern- 
ment." 55 

On the 24th, the following convention was entered into between France and 
the Sandwich Island government : 

Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, 24 of July, 1837. 

Convention between the King of the French, Louis Philippe the First, represented 
by A. Du Petit-Thouars, Captain of the Frigate the Venus, and the King of the Sand- 
wich Islands, Kamehameha III: 

There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the French and the inhabit- 
ants of the Sandwich Islands. 

The French may go and come freely in all the states which compose the Govern- 
ment of the Sandwich Islands; they will be there received and protected, and they 
will enjoy the same advantages as the subjects of the most favored nation. 

The subjects of the King of the Sandwich Islands may equally come to France; 
they will be there received and protected, as the most favored strangers.50 

In the afternoon of the same day both men-of-war got under way and de- 
parted. Within a fortnight after their departure Father Short applied for a 
passage to Valparaiso on the schooner Henry Clay, but her captain answered 
that already having two passengers, it was quite impossible to take any more. 57 

53 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 287. 

54 Belcher, Op. Cit. p. 58. 

55 Wyllie's Historical Summary. On the 9th of October, 1839, the Government of the 
Sandwich Islands granted to the proprietor of La Clementine an indemnity of $3000 for de- 
murrage and other losses sustained. Mr. French received an indemnity of $2500. Cf. Perrin's 
Historical Memorandum, p. 240; Letter of F. Short, Oct. 26, 1839, Arch. C. M. Honolulu, V. D. 
84. 

56 Govt. Archives, Honolulu. 

57 Letter of Capt. D. Oilman, Aug. 10, 1837. 



112 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

On the 24th of September the British frigate Imogene arrived in Honolulu 
harbor. The chiefs took an early occasion to ask her commander for the removal 
of the Catholic missionaries, and consequently Captain Bruce declared himself 
willing to redeem Captain Belcher's pledge by providing Father Short a passage 
on his vessel. 

But this gentleman having previously applied to the firm Peirce & Brewer for a 
passage on their vessel, the Peru, declined the captain's offer. He left Honolulu 
in the Peru on October 30, and after a short stay at Tahiti, arrived at Valparaiso 
in the course of January of the ensuing year. 58 

Father Bachelot remained behind intending to embark on a schooner, the near 
arrival of which had been announced. Father Walsh says that he wished to go 
to the Marquesas, "to which mission Mgr. Rouchouze had appointed him, should 
the entrance of the Sandwich Islands prove irrealizable." 59 

But this seems not to be exact, since Mgr. Rouchouze himself wrote to Father 
Bachelot under date of November 15, 1837, "I reiterate here, what I already 
must have written you, and what Mr. Maigret must have told you by word of 
mouth, that I cannot accept your demission. My faculties do not allow me to 
appoints Prefects; hence I cannot receive their resignation. If I knew that you 
were writing to Rome, I would oppose you. In name of your neophytes, these 
confessors of the faith, do never take such a step." The Bishop says in the same 
letter concerning the Marquesas: "I think of the mission to the Marquesas 
Islands, but I cannot undertake it before the return of Father Caret." 

However,, a few days after Father Short's departure, just when the chiefs 
might think that their difficulties were being in a fair way of solution, the 
schooner Europa entered the roadstead with two other Catholic priests on board, 
and became a source of fresh annoyance to the native rulers. 



58 Sandw. Isl. Gazette, Nov. 4, 1837. 

59 Letter to Father Jean de la Croix Amat, Jan. 15, 1838. 




75 

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112 History of the Catholic Mission in Plaivaii 

On the 24th of September the British frigate Imogene arrived in Honolulu 
harbor. The chiefs took an early occasion to ask her commander for the removal 
of (he Catholic missionaries, and consequently Captain Bruce declared himself 
willing to redeem Captain Belcher's pledge by providing Father v Short a passage 
on his vessel. 

But this gentleman having previously applied to the linn 1'eirce & Brewer for a 
passage on their vessel, the Peru, declined the captain's offer. He left Honolulu 
in the Peru on October 30, and after a short stay at Tahiti, arrived at Valparaiso 
in the course of January of the ensuing year. 58 

Father Bachclot remained behind intending to embark on a schooner, the near 
arrival of which had been announced. .Father Walsh says that he wished to go 
to the Marquesas, "to which mission Mgr. Rouchou/.e had appointed him, should 
the entrance of the Sandwich Islands prove irrealixable." 50 

But this seems not to be exact, since Mgr. Rouchoti/ce himself wrote to Father 
Bachelot under date of November 15, 1837, "I reiterate here, what I already 
must have written you, and what Mr. Maigret must have told you by word of 
mouth, that I cannot accept your demission. My faculties do not allow me to 
appoints Prefects; hence I cannot receive their resignation. If I knew that you 
were writing to .Rome, I would oppose you. In name of your neophytes, these 
confessors of the faith, do never take such a step." The Bishop says in the same 
letter concerning the Marquesas: "1 think of the mission to the Marquesas 
Islands, but I cannot undertake it before the return of Father Caret." 

However, a few days after Father Short's departure, just when the chiefs 
might think that their difficulties were being in a fair way of solution, the 
schooner Furopa entered the roadstead with two other Catholic priests on board, 
and became a source of fresh annovance to the native rulers. 



Js). Gaxi-Hc, Xc.v. -1, 1SH7. 
di Kulhor .Iran <U- la Croix Ain;;t, Jrm. ];". 




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FATHER MAIGRET AT THE GRAVE OF 
FATHER BACHELOT 

Reproduction of a wood cut in the supplement 
to the Sandwich Islands Gazette 



KIMEONE 

Reproduction of wood cut in supplement to the 
Sandwich Islands Gazette 





MALIA MAKALENA KAHA 

Reproduction of a wood cut in supplement to the 
Sandwich Islands Gazette 



JULIANA MAKUWAHINE 

Reproduction of a wood cut in the supplement 
to the Sandwich Islands Gazette 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 113 



CHAPTER X. 
Death of Father Bachelot 

FF. Caret and Maigret at Valparaiso. Mgr. Pompalier. Ordination of F. Colum- 
ba Murphy. FF. Maigret and Murphy for Hawaii. F. Maigret refused a landing. 
Consular Intervention in Vain. A Question of Veracity. The "Honolulu" Bought. 
FF. Bachelot and Maigret sail for Ponape. Sickness of F. Bachelot. His Death. 
F. Maigret on Ponape. The Last Resting Place of F. Bachelot. 

In the beginning of the year 1837 Mgr. Rouchouze had sent two of his 
missionaries, Fathers Caret and Maigret, to Valparaiso, there to employ them- 
selves in the concerns of the mission 1 and especially to complain before the 
representatives of the French government of the ill treatments Frenchmen 
received at Tahiti. 2 

Having arrived at that port March 22, they had frequent interviews with the 
French naval commanders and the staff of the French consulate. A fortnight 
after their arrival they received news from Father Bachelot, who, writing from 
San Gabriel, acquainted them with his design of making a new effort to enter 
the Hawaiian Islands. 3 

It was the intention of the two ecclesiastics to expedite their business at 
Valparaiso with the utmost diligence, and to return to Gambier by the first op- 
portunity. 4 But the intelligence that the man-of-war, Flore, then in the port, 
was soon to sail for France, caused them to change their plans. On the 4th of 
May it was resolved that Father Caret was to go with her; he accordingly left 
two days later. 5 

News had reached Valparaiso of the approaching arrival of Mgr. Pompalier, 
newly appointed Vicar-Apostolic of Western Oceanica, who, on the voyage of his 
mission, was expected to call at Mangareva. Father Maigret purposed to return 
in his company to his own field of labor. 

Having arrived in the latter part of June, accompanied by several missionaries 
of the Society of Mary, the Bishop chartered the vessel "Europa" which was soon 
to sail for Gambier, Tahiti and the Sandwich Islands. 

The Europa cut her moorings on August the 10th. She had on board 
Mgr. Pompalier, three priests and three laybrothers of the above mentioned 
society, with three members of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts: Father 
Maigret, Father Guilmard, and Brother Columba Murphy. 

On September 13th, the party arrived safely at Akena, one of the Gambier 
Islands, where Bishop Rouchouze made his residence. 

In the early morning of the 15th, Brother Columba was ordained a priest by 
Bishop Rouchouze, Father Maigret being the only witness of the ceremony. 

Father Laval in his "Memoires pour servir a -THistorie de Magareva," ch. 
XII, p. 560, gives the reasons for this singular proceedings : "At this occurrence," 
he says, "Brother Columba was ordained priest without anybody knowing about 
it, except Mgr. of Nilopolis and his pro-vicar, Father D. Maigret. His Lordship 

1 F. Caret, Annales Prop. Foi, X, pp. 229, 230. 

2 Letter of Nilopolis to Bachelot, June 27, 1837. 

3 Maigret's Journal, March-April, 1837. 

4 P. Caret, Annales Prop. Foi, X, p. 234. 

5 Maigret's Journal. 

6 Maigret's Journal, July- August, 1837. 



114 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

proceeded thus secretly that the ordination performed at Taravai in the presence 
of but one witness, might not hecome public, and cause the object to fail which 
Mgr. of Nilopolis had in view, in succoring the Sandwich Islands without bring- 
ing upon M. Murphy the suspicion of being a priest. The only Irish priest, 
Father Walsh, who was then at the Sandwich Islands, could by this means go to 
confession, without drawing a new persecution on his collaborator." 

After a brief stay the Europa continued her voyage via Tahiti to Hawaii, 
where it was hoped that a passage could be secured on some vessel bound for the 
island of Ponape, which was nearly in the center of Mgr. Pompalier's extensive 
vicariate, or else for New Zealand. 

To travelers of the twentieth century the Bishop's itinerary seems absurd. 
But in the first half of the nineteenth century direct communication between the 
distant ports of the Pacific Ocean was very rare. Sometimes a regular cruise 
had to be performed ere a ship could be found destined for the desired harbor. 

When the missionaries were at Valparaiso, only one vessel was found to be 
bound for New Zealand; but the captain, an American Protestant, refused to 
carry thither any Catholic priests. 7 

As the Vicar-Apostolic of Eastern Oceania heard that his colleague in the 
episcopate was to go to the Sandwich Islands, there to wait for an opportunity 
to proceed to his mission, he at once determined to send Fathers Maigret and 
Murphy in his company, that they might try to obtain a residence there, in case 
Fathers Bachelot and Short were again refused a landing on account of their 
former expulsion. 

At Tahiti, where this time the missionaries were allowed to come ashore, they 
were told by the American consul, Mr. Moerenhout, that he had just bought the 
brig Raiatea, which he was willing to put at the disposal of the Bishop at $400 
a month. Thus seeing a way open to reach his mission directly, Mgr. Pompalier 
resolved not to continue his voyage to Hawaii, but to sail immediately for 
Ponape. 8 

Whilst at Tahiti, Father Maigret received intelligence concerning the failure 
of Father Bachelot's bold undertaking at Honolulu. He determined to try never- 
theless if, not having the disadvantage of a former expulsion, he might perhaps 
effectuate a landing on the strength of the French convention. 9 

The Europa weighed anchor on the 6th of October. During the trip, as was 
his custom, Father Maigret busied himself with literary occupation. Besides com- 
posing a Mangareva dictionary of the Gospel according to St. Luke, he applied 
himself daily to the study of the Hawaiian language. After an uneventful voyage 
of less than a month, the Europa cast anchor in Honolulu roadstead. 10 

The news of the probable arrival of Catholic missionaries had been conveyed 
to Hawaii by the British man-of-war Imogene, which sailed from Valparaiso a 
few days before the Europa. 11 

As soon as the vessel was decried from the harbor, a pilot was sent aboard 
with an order forbidding her to enter. The captain was however permitted to go 
ashore in order to make his representations. 12 Soon Kekuanaoa, Kinau's husband, 
came on board, and asked to be certified in writing that the "missionaries would 



7 Mgr. Pompalier, Ann. Prop. Foi, X, p. 237. 

8 Mgr. Pompalier, Annales Prop. Foi, X, p. 418. 

9 F. Walsh, Letter of Jan. 25, 1838. 

10 F. Maigret's Journal, Oct. 1837. 

11 Letter of F. Maigret, Jan. l(i, 1839. Lettres Litli. I, p. 497. 

12 Ibidem. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 115 

not preach the Papal doctrines, nor officiate according to the Catholic rites, and 
that they did not know the teachings of the Pope." 13 

Considering the absurdity of the third question and Father Maigret's slight 
acquaintance with the Hawaiian tongue, it is doubtful whether he rightly caught 
the meaning of the governor's questions. No Catholic priest certainly could 
conscientiously sign a thus formulated pledge. The Fathers consequently con- 
fined themselves to the following declaration: 

"The undersigned, passengers on board the Europa, promise not to interfere with 
the laws and regulations of the Sandwich Islands during their sojourn, and to leave 
the islands the first favorable opportunity. 

J. C. MURPHY.14 
L. MAIGRET. 

Shortly afterwards Kinau returned the following reply: 

Salutations to you L. Maigret and J. C. Murphy on board the ship Europa. I 
received your vjriting today and have seen what you have made known, but you have 
not stated definitely to me in the writing what countrymen you are and what your 
employments and how long you wish to stay. You have not informed me in your 
writing to what country you wish to go by the first favorable opportunity. 

On this, account I request you to make a clear statement of these points in 
writing, and if you or either of you are priests of the religion of the pope or of any 
other office, make it known to me, do not hide it from me, for this is the only 
reason why I hesitate to allow you to land. I do not desire propagators of that 
religion to dwell here, that is tabu. 

By me Kaahumanu II. is 
Honolulu, Nov. 2, 1837. 

The next morning Mr. Dudoit brought the following answer to the premier, in' 
which the Father refrains from replying to the question concerning his priesthood : 

Oahu, Nov. 3, 1837. 

This certifies that I, Louis Maigret, a Frenchman, came on board the ship 
Europa as passenger at Valparaiso, and my object was to remain here until I could 
get a passage to the Marquesas or the Dangerous Archipelago Islands, and that I will 
conform to the laws and regulations of Government at all times. 

L. MAIGRET. 10 

Mr. Murphy, who did not wish either to disclose the secret of his ordina- 
tion or spoil his chance of a landing by an explicit answer, did not make any 
reply; and on the declaration of the British consul that he was not a priest, he 
was allowed to land. 17 

Having perused Father Maigret's letter, Kinau earnestly inquired of Mr. 
Dudoit if its writer was a priest, and the French agent admitted that he was. 
She said he had concealed that fact ; whereupon Mr. Dudoit said that M. Maigret 
told him he was afraid he should not be permitted to land if it were known 
that he was a priest. 18 

In vain the consular agent insisted that his countryman, on the strength of 
the French convention, had a right to come ashore, without furnishing bail as 
Kinau required. When he could not obtain his demand, he said he would renew 
his request in writing, and asked her to answer him in the same way, that he 
might communicate those documents to the government of France. 



13 Maigret's Journal, Nov. 2-3. 

14 Bingtiam, A Residence, p. 512. 

15 Ibidem. 
Ifi Ibidem. 

17 Ibidem, p. 513. 

18 Ibidem, and Dibble, History of the Sandw. Isl. 1909, p. 337. 



116 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Three days later he addressed her consequently with a lengthy memorial in 
the French language, 19 to which she replied as follows : 

Salutations to you, M. Dudoit. 

I have seen your letter of November 6th, translated into Hawaiian. Allow me 
to make known to you my determination, and that of my king, ever to dwell in peace 
with the people of France, and England, and America, and other lands, in conformity 
with the treaties and with justice, as far as we know it. 

We protect all strangers, but on account of former difficulties, and dissensions, 
our minds are made up not to consent that Roman Catholic priests come here, 
from any country. In accordance with this, the captain of a former man-of-war, 
M. Vaillant by name, gave his approval to Kauikeaouli, the king, likewise the com- 
modore (A. Du Petit-Thouars) at the time of the signing of the treaty. My king 
said to him, 'I will allow all other persons to come, but priests of the Roman Catholic 
religion. I shall not allow them.' He replied, 'That is as you please.' 

Moreover I make known to you this respecting the Romish priest Maigret. He 
concealed from me his country, and his being a priestj as though he wished to land 
privately and dwell, and we could not remove him. And when he could no longer 
conceal, he .stated that he was a Frenchman wishing to go to the Marquesas. We 
know, however, that vessels do not sail direct from these Islands to the Marquesas, 
and if they do, they usual touch at the Societies, (Kahiki) whence he has come. I 
cannot therefore by any means confide in his word. You have done well by interven- 
ing, but you have informed me that you could not guarantee with certainty that he 
will go away in a French man-of-war, in case you could obtain no other opportunity 
for him. 

Moreover, I will make known to you this in an earnest and pleasant manner. 
If you have the power to do the thing, I beg you will put Bachelot on board the ship 
Europa, about to sail for China, that he may leave the country agreea,bly to the 
word of the commodore. If the Governments of France, and England, and America 
desire the peace and quiet of my country and my king, they will allow us to enforce 
our laws prohibiting the priests of the Roman Catholic religion. 

This is my reply to your letter, moreover, let M. Maigret go away in the ship in 
which, he came, and you will please make known my letter to the Government of 
France with kindness. 

By authority of the King, 

KAAHUMANU II.so 
Honolulu, Nov. 8th, 1837. 

To refute Kinau's accusation of his having concealed his country and his 
priesthood, Father Maigret signed on the 15th an affidavit suggested to him two 
days before by the British consul: 

I, Louis Maigret, do hereby make oath that I never attempted to conceal from 
the authorities at the Sandwich Islands that I was a priest, nor did I ever directly 
endeavour to make it appear that I was not a subject of France. 

Sworn to on board the 

ship Europa at Woahu 

this 15th day of November 1837 

before me His British Majesty's Consul at the Sandwich Islands.21 

The charge that Father Maigret should have tried to conceal his nationality 
appears to be entirely without foundation. By his reserve, he has laid himself 
open to the second imputation. How then can we justify his affidavit? 

Whatever alleged right the Chiefs of the Sandwich Islands may have had 
under the Law of Nations to refuse a residence and permission to preach to 
Catholic priests, such right can but be considered an encroachment of the civil 
government on the inalienable rights of their subjects to freedom of conscience, 

19 Arch. Cath. Mission, V. D. 58a. 

20 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 293. 

21 Maigret's Journal, Nov. 1837. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 117 

and of the divine right and duty of the ministers of the Gospel to preach it to 
all nations. 

The question asked by the rulers, if Father Maigret was a Catholic priest and 
if he intended to spread his doctrine, was none of their legitimate concern, and 
hence he was not obliged to answer it. He may therefore have reasoned that he 
could not be said to have concealed what he was not obliged to reveal. 

The pro-vicar himself gives the following account of the incident : 

"Sometime afterwards the governor of the fort came on board. They de- 
ceived him; and permission to enter was granted. But as everybody on board 
knew very well who I was, and as I had made no secret of it to anybody, the 
Governor soon found out that he had been deceived. Then he told somebody to 
ask me to what nation I belonged and if I was a priest. I answered at once, 
and did not hide anything. My frankness was displeasing to them. Neverthe- 
less, the Government pretended to believe that I had connived with those that 
had deceived it, and this was one of the reasons why I was forbidden to go 
ashore. I protested ; I even thought it necessary to swear that I never denied my 
country, nor had taken any step to conceal to the government of the Sandwich 
Islands my quality of priest and missionary. It was all in vain." 22 

The vessel which Father Bachelot was waiting for to go to the South Seas, 
failed to appear. It became imperative to extricate both M. Maigret and the 
captain who had brought him along from a difficult situation; for the former 
had no more desire of going to China, for which country the vessel was bound, 
than the latter had of retracing his voyage. Father Bachelot accordingly decided 
to accept an offer made by M. Dudoit and purchased the schooner Honolulu, 
belonging to that gentleman and then lying in port. The price, $3000, was to be 
paid in two instalments : $1000 at Honolulu, and the remaining $2000, a month 
after the termination of the voyage. 

The Honolulu was to disembark the two missionaries at Ponape, thence 
continue her trip towards the south, and returning about July or August, retake 
them on board, bringing them via Gambier to Valparaiso, where the schooner was 
to be delivered to her new owners. 23 

They rechristened the vessel "Notre Dame de Paix," and on Nov. 17th, 
Father Maigret was allowed to pass on board. This permission was granted 
only after M. Dudoit had promised to pay a fine if M. Maigret should land 
afterwards without the government's authorization. 24 

The Notre Dame de Paix left Honolulu on the morning of the 23d of 
November. There is an oral tradition that on leaving the Mission premises on 
his way to the vessel, Father Bachelot casting a last glance on the algaroba tree 
he had planted a few months after his first arrival, he addressed the group of 
faithful surrounding him, and uttered the following prophetic words: "Like 
this tree has grown and spread, so will the Catholic religion grow and spread in 
these Islands." Father Bachelot was in ill health at the time of sailing. Lately 
he had sufficiently recovered from a long sickness to be able to pay several 
visits to his colleague on board the Europa. 25 But they had not been twenty-four 
hours at sea when he fell sick again and in a short time became confused in his 
ideas: He fancied he saw and heard the most strange things, and wished to be 
moved continually from one place to the other; the last words which his com- 
panion heard him pronounce, before he fell into this state of delirium, were 
those in which he made a sacrifice of his life to God, and expressed a wish to 
see, before dying, His Lordship of Nilopolis. During the whole time the delirium 

22 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 497. 



118 History of the Catholic Mission in Hatvaii 

lasted, he kept talking incessantly : at one time he fancied himself in the presence 
of his persecutors, and addressed them with the most solemn truths: at other 
times he seemed to converse with his dear neophytes. On the 4th of December, 
Father Maigret administered to him the Last Sacraments, and from time to time 
addressed to him a few words of consolation and encouragement, which he 
appeared to understand. His hands were joined over his breast, his countenance 
calm and serene; his lips were in constant motion, reciting, no doubt, some of the 
prayers which he himself had so often suggested at the deathbed of a Christian. 
Having recited the prayers for the agonizing, his traveling companion received his 
last sigh at two o'clock in the morning on the 5th of December. 

The ship was then at longitude 176 33' East and latitude 13 14' North. 
On the 13th they arrived off Ponape, and on the following day, the remains of 
the first Apostle of the Sandwich Islands were interred in the little island Na, 
(or Napali) near the mouth of the Metalanim harbor. The body was borne by 
two natives from the Sandwich Islands, and two from Tahiti. 20 

The chieftain of Metalanim, the eastern district of Ponape, who just then 
resided on Na, received Father Maigret with the greatest hospitality. He had a 
hut constructed for him near the grave of his companion, and sent him repeatedly 
abundant provisions of breadfruits, yams, and fish. 27 

On Christmas Father Maigret offered the Holy Sacrifice for the first time 
since his landing, in his little shanty; which he continued to do on Sundays and 
f eastdays, but always in a strictly private manner. 

On February the 2d, 1838, feast of the Visitation, the queen with some other 
natives assisted, and the priest, who, since the departure of the Notre Dame de 
Paix, had diligently applied himself to the study of the native tongue, addressed 
them on the unity of God and the Creation. Somewhat earlier he had a long 
conversation with the ichipau zs on the principal mysteries of the Christian 
religion, at which the chieftain had shown feelings of admiration and fear, and 
manifested a desire to receive more information on those subjects ; however, at 
that time the missionary's knowledge of the language was too limited for more 
elaborate instructions. But through continual intercourse with the natives he 
soon obtained a greater facility of expression, and he succeeded in composing 
some short prayers for the use of his hearers. 

The journal tells us in pithy sentences of his consolations and drawbacks, of 
his occupations and little adventures whilst on Na. 

On the 7th of February we are told: "I have cut ten trees of 30 to 40 feet. 
The king and the royal family seem to be sulking. They do not bring me anything. 
Were it not for a provision of yama M. Corgat-' has lately sent me, I would starve 
to death." 

During the month of March the entries are rather more cheerful. 

March 1: "Visit of the king; abundance again. Cut and sawed three trees, 
which will give me ten posts." 

March 4: "I have taught the following prayers to some children: (follows the 
prayer, which seems to consist of some invocations in honor of the Blessed Trinity.)" 

March 5: "Visit of the Court. Spoke of God; taught the prayer." 



26 P. Maigret, Letter of Jan. 16, 1839. 

27 The details concerning F. Maigret's sojourn on Na, are taken from his journal. 

28 Title given to the four independent chiefs of Ponape. 

29 M. Corgat was a Frenchman who had arrived there a few years earlier; he acted as 
pilot, and seems not to have shared the beachcomber's usual dislike for missionaries. See: 
Luther Halsey Gulick by F. G. Jewett, p. 127. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 119 

March 6: "Visit of the king and queen; they know the prayer I taught them 
yesterday. They know moreover the daya of the week, which they pronounce 
about as we do." 

March 8: "The king sends me fish enough for 50 persons." 

Now comes an entry which is perhaps more indicative of optimism in the 
preacher than of religiousness in the catechumens. 

March 12: "Several persons begin to sanctify the Sunday. Yesterday some of 
my neighbors did not work." 

But whatever progress the natives may have been making in Christianity, the 
sickness of a child named Lapalik, appears to have been seized upon as a pretext 
for very un-christian carousals. For on the 6th of April the journal registers the 
following statement: 

"Lapalik ill. Lekant (the queen) is drinking lots of jako and rendering oracles."ao 

And again two days later: 

"They are still drinking jako. The devil is at work." 

The next day the priest tried in vain to influence the chiefs : 

"Received the visit of the king. I rebuked him for being still so attached to his 
superstitions; I also remostrated with the queen. They offered me jako to drink. I re- 
fused. One of the priests says that it is very good; I answered him that it is very 
bad, and I left the house." 

Several items show the missionary as cutting timber or making posts; and 
one wonders what construction he is planning. Finally on the llth of April, the 
preparations are finished and we are informed on successive days : 

"I begin the tomb of M. Alexis (F.' Bachelot) ; 12 sq. feet." 

"I made a cross of 16 feet high." 

"I erected my cross." 

"Begin a small chapel contiguous to the grave." 

Towards the middle of May his chapel is so far completed that he can erect 
the cross on the top of it. He profits by the occasion to explain to the assistants 
the mystery of the Cross. 

About a month later mention is made of an occurrence which intimates Father 
Maigret's strong moral sense : 

"I have wrongly accused a child of having stolen my scissors. I became aware of 
his innocence, and gave him the thing which I had accused him of having stolen." 

During all this time the work on the mortuary chapel went on. However, it 
needed roofing, and at the request of the architect and builder, the natives helped 
him to cover it towards the end of June. It was time for this humble mausoleum 
to be finished, for on July 2d, the Notre Dame de Paix returned from her long 
cruise. 

It took the captain nearly a month to get ready for the new journey. On 
July 29 the ship weighed her anchors, and it was not before December 22, that 
she reached Valparaiso, the end of her long voyage. 

Thus finished the second attempt to introduce the Catholic religion in the 
Hawaiian archipelago. Although unsuccessful, it precipitated the crisis which 
was to bring liberty of conscience even to these distant isles of the Great Pacific. 

30 Jako or Chakau. is the Ponapean word for awa, an intoxicating beverage made from 
the Piper methysticum. 



120 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Notwithstanding the pains Father Maigret had taken to mark the last resting 
place of the first Catholic priest who preached the Gospel in the Northern Pacific, 
the exact spot can no longer be found. 

In 1859 probably, a Protestant missionary of Hawaiian birth, the Rev. Dr. 
Luther Halsey Gulick, planted a coconut tree on the grave of the man, who, 
though under another banner, had struggled for the honor of the same Master. 

In the Friend of February, 1860, he gives the following account of this occur- 
rence : 

A few weeks since I planted a foreign cocoanut on the grave of the Rev. Mr. 
Bachelot, who died in 183 , on his way from the Sandwich Islands to Ascension, in 
company with the present Roman Catholic Bishop of the Sandwich Islands. He was 
buried in a dense cocoanut grove on the island of Na, near the mouth of the weather 
or Metalanim harbor. Though differing widely from him in religious faith, and con- 
demning much in his missionary life, I respect his zeal, and most especially desire 
to honor his devotion to the enterprise of spreading Christianity. Had his successors 
followed up their work in Micronesia rather than at the Sandwich Islands, this field 
would ere this have undoubtedly been their own, in all its extent." 

Today no traces are left either of this foreign coconut or of the mortuary 
chapel. All the trees in the district Panjap-en-Panmei were in 1905 plucked up 
by the roots and swept away by a hurricane. 

The Rev. Father Crescenz O. Cap. of the Ponape Mission, who in 1909 
searched the little island in company with a Protestant chieftain, only found the 
remnants of two wells which Father Maigret had made there during his sojourn; 
other vestiges of the little missionary establishment could not be discovered. He 
met, however, with a native, the son of a Mangarevian boy who used to do 
service as Father Maigret's cook on Na. This man affirmed that in the district 
.Banjap-en-Panmei had stood the missionary's dwelling place. 31 



31 Letter of Rev. Father Crescenz O. Cap. March 4, 1909. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 121 



CHAPTER XL 
The Death-Spasms of Persecution 

An Ordinance Rejecting the Catholic Religion. The Protestant Revival. Prohibi- 
tion Laws. On the Crime of Smoking Tobacco. Anent Baptism and Confession as 
Practiced in the Protestant Churches. More Persecution. The Affair of the Albatross. 
F. Walsh's Literary Activity. H.B.M. Ship the Fly. A Greek Orthodox Funeral. 
Translation of the Bible. Death of Kinau. The 67 Waianae Catholics. A Change of 
Hearts. The Last Confessors. 

At the time of the departure of Fathers Bachelot and Maigret no law existed 
in the Sandwich Islands forbidding Catholic priests to reside there, although Kaa- 
humanu and the King had often expressed their unwillingness to admit them into 
their kingdom. 

It was therefore resolved to make a law, the aim of which it was to prevent 
any further difficulties of the kind such as had been experienced in regard to 
Messrs. Bachelot, Short and Maigret. In accordance with this, the following 
document was issued from the Lahainaluna Seminary press. 

AN ORDINANCE 
Rejecting the Catholic Religion 

As we have seen the peculiarities of the Catholic religion and the proceedings of 
the priests of the Roman faith to be calculated to set man against man in our 
kingdom, and as we formerly saw that disturbance was made in the time of 
Ka,ahumanu I, and as it was on this account that the priests of the Romish faith 
were at that time banished and sent away from this kingdom, and as from that time 
they have been under sentence of banishment until within this past year when we 
have been brought into new and increased trouble on account of those who follow 
the Pope; and as our determination to keep away such persons is by no means 
recent, and also on account of the requests of foreigners that we make it known in 
writing, Therefore, I, with. my chiefs, forbid, by this document that any one should 
teach the peculiarities of the Pope'a religion, nor shall it be allowed to any one 
who teaches those doctrines or those peculiarities to reside in this kingdom; nor 
shall the ceremonies be exhibited in our kingdom, nor shall any one teaching its 
peculiarities or its faith be permitted to land on these shores; for it is not proper that 
two religions be found in this small kingdom. Therefore we utterly refuse to allow 
anyone to teach those peculiarities in any manner whatsoever. We moreover prohibit 
all vessels whatsoever from bringing any teacher of that religion into this kingdom. 

Any vessel that shall bring here a teacher of the Pope's religion or of anything 
similar, and wishes to enter the harbor on business, may enter, subject however to 
these regulations, viz. there shall be no teacher from on board his ship be by any 
means permitted to come ashore, because all such have been strictly prohibited from 
this Kingdom. And if any such teacher should come ashore, he shall be seized and 
returned to the vessel which he left. And the vessel in which he came shall not 
leave, except he shall sail with it. 

And if any shall come on shore without liberty and shall be concealed until the 
vessel in which he came shall have sailed and afterwards shall be discovered, he 
shall remain a prisoner until a proper vessel can be obtained for him to return and 
then he shall go after having paid to the chiefs a fine at their discretion. 

But if it should be impossible for the said person to dwell on board, it shall be 
permitted him in writing to dwell for a season on shore, on his giving bonds and 
security for the protection of the kingdom. 

If the master of the vessel shall refuse to obey this law and shall set on shore the 
teacher prohibited by this act, in contempt of the government, then the vessel shall 
be forfeited to the chiefs of these islands and become theirs, and the cargo on board 
the vessel shall likewise become theirs, and the master shall pay the sum of ten 
thousand dollars, but it may be optional with the chiefs to remit any part of the sum. 



122 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Moreover if the stranger shall present himself as a mechanic, a merchant or of 
any other business, and it shall be granted him to reside here, and afterwards he 
shall be found teaching the doctrine of the Pope or any thing else whereby this king- 
dom shall be disturbed, this law shall be in force against him and he may be retained 
a prisoner or banished, after he shall have paid a fine at the discretion of the chiefs. 

That this law may be extensively known, it shall be printed and published, and 
on the arrival of a vessel, it shall be the duty of the Pilot to carry with him this 
law and give it to the master of the vessel that he may not be ignorant of the law. 
And if the law is not shown to the master of the vessel by the Pilot and any pro- 
hibited person come ashore because the Pilot did not show this law to the master of 
the vessel, the Pilot shall pay to the chiefs one hundred dollars; and the person who 
left the vessel shall be returned on board again. 

If any one, either foreigner or native, shall be found assisting another, in teach- 
ing the doctrine of the Pope's religion, he shall pay to the government a fine of one 
hundred dollars for every such offense. 

KAMBHAMEHA III. 

Lahaina, Maui, 

December 18, 1837. 

By this ordinance Congregationalism was incidentally made the religion of 
the State, and to natives and foreigners no choice was left but between that 
particular brand of Protestantism and some broad Deism. 

To enforce this ordinance the huts of the natives were frequently searched, 
and if any were detected in the exercise of Catholic devotions, they were dragged 
either to the Protestant churches or before the governor. 1 

On the 1st of January, 1838, a party of six neophytes was thus obliged to 
attend the Protestant services. One of them, a woman, was taken to Rev. Mr. 
Bingham, who had sense enough to dismiss her. 

To escape even this material participation in religious services which their 
conscience held in abhorrence, the Catholics left for the distant district of 
Waianae, where the chief was friendly disposed. For a few months they were 
suffered to remain there in peace. 2 

About this time the Protestant churches in the group experienced an important 
revival. The first impulse seems to have come from Rev. Titus Coan, a truly 
zealous missionary who was then gaining converts for his church by the hundreds. 

In a letter dated Dec. 25, 1837, to his friend and colleague, Lorenzo Lyons, 
he writes: "Our meetings are more and more crowded. I preach and talk to 
multitudes every day. One hundred will probably be added to this church on the 
first sabbath in January. Let 1838 be a year of Jubilee to these islands. . . " 3 

The idea was eagerly caught by the missionaries throughout the group. They 
held protracted meetings "and insisted largely on the cardinal points, the ruined 
condition of the sinner and his exposure to everlasting death." 4 

The result of this awakening was, according to Bingham, that "in midsummer 
the aggregate additions to the churches were equal to the three thousand added 
at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, and the two thousand immediately after, 
and that 2,400 more had also been propounded for admission." 5 

The missionaries profited by this state of religious excitement to obtain from 
the chiefs the promulgation of several prohibition laws. One, dated March 13, 
1838, warned the foreigners that six months after date, all grogshops but two 
were to be closed. Only a week later a law regulating the sale of ardent spirits 
prohibited the selling of spirits by any person whomsoever without written license, 

1 Jarves, History, p. 317; Journal of Bro. Melchior, Lettres Lith. I, p. 469-471. 

2 Journal of Bro. Melchior, Lettres Lith. I, pp. 471, 472. 

3 Titus Coan, A Memorial, by Mrs. Lydia Bingham Coan, p. 43. 

4 Bingham, A Residence, p. 521. 

5 A Residence, p. 521. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 123 

providing however that any person selling spirits by the barrel would not be 
amenable to the law. Father Walsh states that on account of this ordinance, 
the sale of liquors greatly increased, through the ingenuity of certain foreigners 
who made barrels of very small size, escaping thereby the necessity of getting a 
license for retailing spirits. 6 

The fourth clause of this law was better devised. It imposed a fine of $10 
for the saloon keeper at whose house a man got drunk, the fine being increased by 
the addition of $10 for every repetition. 

When it was seen that these laws did not obtain the wished-for results, a 
more stringent one was promulgated August 21, 1838, absolutely prohibiting the 
importation of all distilled spirits. 

The missionaries also opposed strongly, but perhaps less judiciously, the use 
of tobacco and coffee. The smoker of tobacco was excommunicated from church 
membership, and stranger yet, he was written up, together with the drinker of 
spirits, to the place which is the habitat of burning spirits, and from whence ever- 
lasting smoke ascends. 

Says the Kumu Hawaii: "Where are you, smoker of tobacco, and drinker of 
rum, and you who drink awa, and the distillations of the sugarcane, the banana, 
the soured potatoes, of vine, and of soured breadfruit. Repent quickly, at present, 
do not procrastinate, do not hesitate, do not doubt, do not be indifferent, do not 
be thoughtless. Arise and watch! And if you do not repent, lo! you will die, 
your body and soul will descend together into the inextinguishable fire." 7 

This severity was inexplicable, even to the editor of the Missionary Herald, 
who, when publishing a report that mentioned the smoking of tobacco as a case 
which called for the discipline of the church, tries to allay the expected stupe- 
faction of his readers by this footnote : 

"The manner of smoking is such as to produce actual intoxication and is regarded 
as a vice similar to the intemperate use of intoxicating drinks in this country."8 

This violent opposition of the early Protestant missionaries to the use of the 
fragrant weed must be kept in mind, when we hear them qualify both Father 
Walsh and his converts as "men. of low habits." 

Father Walsh relates 9 that on May 7, the missionaries declared that all should 
be baptized and -that they also established a kind of public confession in which 
each native accused himself of some fault, in presence of the congregation. 

To understand subsequent controversies about the validity of the baptism ad- 
ministered by the Boston missionaries, and of certain marriages performed by 
them, we must contrast the views of the Presbyterian and Catholic Churches on 
the former of the two Sacraments. 

The Catholic Church holds that Baptism is absolutely necessary to salvation, 
and requires to its validity, besides the intention of doing what the Church does, 
the actual pouring of, sprinkling of, or immersion in water, accompanied by the 
words: I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost. 

The Protestant ministers of Hawaii on the other hand, held that baptism is by 
no means necessary to salvation, 10 and that it did not impart sanctifying grace to 

6 Letter to Mgr. of Nilopolis, Jan. 22, 1838. 

7 Kumu Hawaii, Buke 3, Pepa 20. 

8 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 249. Kotzebue also says: This custom (of smoking) has 
become sp general in the Sandwich Islands .... that young children smoke before they learn 
to walk, and grown-up people have carried it to such an excess, that they have fallen down 
senseless, and often died in consequence." A Voyage of Discovery, 1821, vol. I, p. 306. 

9Annales Prop. Foi, 1840, p. 255; Engl. Edit. p. 364. 
10 Titus Coan, Life in Hawaii, p. 56. 



124 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



the soul. 11 . Even had they attached to the Baptism ceremony the same meaning 
as the Catholic Church, their mode of administering it made it invalid in the eyes 
of Catholics. 

Rev. Mr. Coan thus tells us how he proceeded in administering this sacrament : 

"From my pocket list of about three thousand, 1705 were selected to be baptized 

and received to the communion of the church on the first sabbath of July 1838 

From my roll the names in the first class were called one by one, and I saw each 
individual seated against the wall, and so of the second, and thus until the first row 
was formed. Thus row after row was extended the whole length of the house, leaving 
space for one to pass between these lines 

"After this with a basin of water, I passed back and forth between the lines, 
sprinkling each individual until all were baptized. Standing in the center of the con- 
gregation, I pronounced the words: I baptize you all in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen." 12 

On account of the separation between the act of baptizing and the pronuncia- 
tion of the formula, this mode of proceeding is considered by Catholics as 
invalidating the Sacrament. 

Father Walsh's imputation as to the practice of confession has been denied 
in the Polynesian, 1841, Oct. 23, where Mr. S. N. Castle says: "We can form 
no conjecture as to the origin of the latter (assertion) concerning confession, 
absolution, &c " 

The frequent use of the word "confession" by the Sandwich Island mission- 
aries in their descriptions of the revival, in a sense unfamiliar to Catholics, may 
have misled Father Walsh. A sort of public confession seems nevertheless to 
have been in use, although perhaps not in all the districts. 

Mr. Thurston, a missionary stationed at Kailua, writes to the Missionary 
Herald (1840, p. 229): "The Spirit of God is evidently moving the hearts of 
the people. They are waking up in almost every direction and are coming out 
from their hiding places, and with streaming eyes are confessing their sins, with 
a determination to forsake them, and with resolutions to serve the Lord in 
future." 

Bingham says of the young princess, Naahienaena, that on her deathbed she 
was induced to confess her sin and folly; 15 and of an apostate to the Catholic 
religion he says: "His conforming to the instructions of their Romish teachers 
he has distinctly confessed as the sin of idolatry before our whole congregation 
lately, as freely and as penitently, to all appearances, as any sin or folly of his 
heathen life." 14 

Besides "meetings for those under church censure" which the Rev. Mr. Coan 
mentions, point somewhat in the same direction. 15 And although the last men- 
tioned missionary expressly states that no atonement for sin was made by these 
public avowals, he tells of a young man that had disturbed the services : "He 
became sober, confessed his sins, and in due time united with the church." 16 

However, the fire of persecution that had been smothering for some time for 
want of fuel, blazed up again toward the middle of the year. 

On the 17th of June, six neophytes were arrested, to wit: Lui Keliilolono, 
Paulo Kelili, Hilario Kapo, Ana Kuili, Kalala Oupai, and Kininia Malaaho. 

_11 He Ui no ke Akua a me no Kanaka, 1854, p. 18. 

12 Op. ctt. p. 56. 

13 A Residence, p. 498. 

14 Report to A. B. C. P. M. pp. 12, 13. 

15 Mission. Herald, 1840, p. 247. 

16 Life in Hawaii, pp. 49, 50. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 125 

They were conducted to the fort and on the 20th appeared before the governor 
Kekuanaoa to be examined. 17 

They were of course condemned, according to the then usual argumentation, 
not because of their religion, but because they had disobeyed the laws of the land 
which forbade idolatry. 

It is true, they refused to plead guilty, since their religion during the eighteen 
centuries of its existence had constantly forbidden and combatted idolatry. The 
governor, who was judge, jury and a Presbyterian, 18 informed them that idolatry 
and popery were identical ; and condemning them to prison and hard labor, he had 
them associated with Valeriano, Kimeone and the latter's wife, who were still at 
work as scavengers. 

, Some days later five of these "convicts" were found engaged in manufactur- 
ing mudbricks by a contributor to the Sandwich Island Gazette. 19 

Whilst the Sandwich Island government persisted in persecuting its Catholic 
subjects, Father Walsh, writing repeatedly in the Sandwich Island Gazette, 
either under his initials R. A. W. or some pseudonym, sought to form public 
opinion in behalf of his religious tenets and of those that held them. He was 
ably assisted by the editor of that paper, Mr. Stephen D. Mackintosh, who, 
although himself a Unitarian, professed a great veneration for the Catholic 
Church, and was one of the first to raise in this group the standard of religious 
toleration ; and after this gentleman's departure by John J. Jones, Esq. who suc- 
ceeded him as editor of the Gazette. 

Captain Russell Elliot of H. B. M. Ship Fly, having arrived from Valparaiso, 
also exerted himself in behalf of liberty of conscience, and besought the premier 
to restore freedom to the prisoners who for religion's sake were then in bond- 
age. 21 

More forcible arguments were needed to cure the Hawaiian grandees of their 
ill-advised mania for persecution. 

In reply to a letter of the commander of the Fly on the subject of persecu- 
tion, the premier stated that "when the Roman Catholic Priests came they sought 
out the ignorant, those who despised learning, and those who favored idolatry, 
and found them ready to join their party. They suspended images about their 
necks and practised foolish things. We sent to turn them back, but their hearts 
were rebellious and they would not hear, and there was therefore no alternative 
in our opinion but to punish them. So we have done with all cases of persons 
using idolatrous practices, and such is a law of the land." She also inquired: 
"Perhaps it will be best to expell the British subject who is here, considering he 
is a teacher of that religion. What think you of that? Perhaps it would be right? 
Perhaps not?" 

Answering that communication, the English commander informed her ladyship 
in the most emphatic language, "that Catholics are not idolaters, and that those 
that informed her that they were, had done so either through ignorance or malice, 
and that the less she had to do with such advisers, the better for herself and her 
people. In regard to Mr. Walsh, he cautioned her in the name of the British 
Government to be wary indeed, and never for a moment to suffer the person or 



17 Sandw. Isl. Gaz. June 23, 1838, July 7, 1838. P. Bachelot, Lettr. Lith. I, p. 478. 

18 "Native courts wer.e very informal, the governor of each island constituting both judge 
and jury." Honolulu, by kaura Fish Judd, p. 79. 

19 Sandwich Island Gazette, July 7, 183S. 

21 Suppliment to Sandwich Isl. Mirror, 1840, p. 55. 



126 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

property of an English subject in any manner to be molested in her king- 
dom."" 

This threat of the English captain seems to have impressed Kinau at least to 
the extent that Father Walsh was kept from sharing the fate of his colleagues. 

Moreover, in the beginning of the ensuing year, both the rulers and the mis- 
sionaries quite astonished the foreign residents by an altogether unusual act of 
tolerance. It is true, no Roman Catholics were benefitted by it, but members of 
the Greek Orthodox Church, certainly not less than their Latin brethren devoted 
to the veneration of the Saints and of their images, and who might well have 
come under the wording of the Ordinance "the Pope's religion or anything similar 
the doctrine of the Pope or any thing else." 

On January the 9th, 1839, one of the sailors on board the Russian-American 
Company's ship Nicolai, then off Honolulu, departed this life. In the afternoon 
the remains of the deceased were removed to the shore, and deposited by permis- 
sion in the Seaman's chapel. 

Next morning a procession of officers and sailors accompanied the dead to his 
grave, where the funeral ceremonies were presided over by a priest of the Greek 
Church, who was a passenger on the Nicolai. 

Surrounded by a crowd of natives stood the venerable priest at the head of 
the grave, clothed in his ministerial robes, and holding in his hands the emblem 
of Our Lord's passion. 

Many of the natives conducted themselves in an anything but respectable man- 
ner, shouting in derision during the ceremonies, crossing themselves in scornful 
imitation, and otherwise insulting and disturbing the priest. 23 

Some months later a Mexican gentleman, Camillo Especiano, having died 
suddenly, an application was made to the governor to allow Father Walsh to per- 
form the ceremonies of the Church over the remains of this man who was born 
and raised a Catholic. The request was curtly denied. 

To Don Marin also, the man who had rendered so many and eminent services 
to the Islands, the consolation of receiving the Sacraments from the hands of a 
priest of his faith, had been denied in his dying moments, and the obsequies at 
his grave had been performed by a minister of a sect which he repudiated. 24 

The Kumu Hawaii of January 16, 1839, edited by the Boston missionaries, 
endeavored to explain this inconsistency in. an article which had not the merit of 
guilelessness. 

"Their priest," it says, "who was on board the vessel, prayed according to their 
rites. The kanakas made perhaps a false report that this was a priest of the Pope; 
they said in the streets: Where is this priest who worships idols here? Some said: 
Whence is the priest who worships idols? Many replied: From the Russian man-of- 
war, with the long hair, with the image on his neck. Those people said: That is his 
God. But that is not so. This is a priest of the Greek Church. He is opposed to 
those of the Pope; he (meaning the Pope) does not command them; they are not for- 
bidden to marry; they have not graven images in their churches; hence the ordinance 
of prohibition does not regard them. (Pili ole ka olelo a oukou e papa aku ai iaia.) 
He is not a papal priest." 

The editor of the Kitinu Haitian having presumably studied Church History, 
qf course should have known that the priests of the Greek Church may not con- 
tract marriage, and that a far greater place is given by the Greeks than by the 
Latins to the veneration of images. 

22 Letters of G. P. Judd, Arch. A. B. C. P. M. vol. 137, letter 77. Suppliment Sandwich 
Island Mirror, pp. 55, 56. 

23 Sandwich Island Gazette, Jan. 12, 1839. 

24 Sandwich Island Gazette, Jan. 12, 1839.. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hatvaii 127 

But it did not do to let the natives know that a hundred million schismatics, 
who had from the ninth century been separated from the Roman Church, apart 
from their refusal to recognize the Pope as the juridical Head of the Universal 
Church, and a highly metaphysical difference in the conception of the mystery of 
the Blessed Trinity, held absolutely the same doctrines as the "Palani." 

It might have set the natives a-thinking when they heard that only a relatively 
insignificant and altogether modern part of Christianity stigmatized the venera- 
tion of images as idolatry. 

Moreover, there was a warm spot in Mr. Bingham's heart for the subjects 
of the Czar. In the year 1820 King Liholiho sent his secretary, John Rives, to 
Honolulu to expel a number of foreigners whom probably he considered as unde- 
sirable citizens. The missionaries feared for themselves, and deemed it prudent 
to apprise the Russian governor of Kamschatka of their position, asking him 
if they could find protection and employment as Christian missionaries in that 
part of the world, if they were driven from the Sandwich Islands. 

The governor, Peter Reickord, who, if we may judge by his letter, was not 
very sound of mind, answered that, although their services were not needed, he 
was willing to receive them and offer them all the assistance in his power. 25 

The following year the Russian vessel Otkritie called at Honolulu, and her 
commander presented the missionary with "seven golden ducats and eighty-six 
Spanish dollars" of which he might make the use he thought proper. 20 

Having received such substantial encouragement from the Russians, it would 
have really been too ungrateful not to wink an eye and allow them for once to 
practice their "idolatric" worship on Hawaiian soil. 

Two important events mark the Spring of 1839 : the completion of the trans- 
lation of the Bible into the Hawaiian language, and the death of the premier, 
Kinau. 

During a period of fifteen years the Protestant missionaries had labored at 
the gigantic task of rendering the Sacred Books into a language, which only 
since less than two decades had been reduced to writing. The last hand was 
put to the translation on March 25 ; the printing was completed on May 10. 27 

Kinau, or Kaahumanu II, as she styled herself, died on April the 4th, aged 
32 years, after a sickness of three weeks. If half of the praises given her by 
Rev. Mr. Bingham is deserved, 2S she would still be considering the recent con- 
version from paganism a most accomplished Christian woman. And although 
for Hawaiian Catholics she will always bear the stigma, "Our greatest enemy," 
we may still attribute her persecution to religious zeal, which, however misguided, 
may have gotten its reward from a merciful God, whose justice takes in account 
the circumstances which lessen and excuse from sin, as well as those that aggra- 
vate it. 

Three months after her demise, the king proclaimed the baby princess, Vic- 
toria Kamehamalu II, her successor, during whose minority the Chiefess Kekau- 
luohi was to act as premier. 

This good lady "entered on her public duties with much propriety," says 
Bingham.- 9 

The "propriety" consisted in the arrest of no less than sixty-seven Catholics, 
men, women and children, who by her order were brought to Honolulu from 



25 Bingrham, A Residence, pp. 118, 119. 
2(5 Ibidem, p. 150. 

27 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 188. Bingham, A Residence, p. 531. 

28 Op. Git. pp. 436, 437; 532, 533. 

29 Op. Cit. p. 534. 



128 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Waianae, a valley over thirty miles distant, where for some time they had taken 
refuge. 

When within three miles from Honolulu, one of their number, a native by 
the name of John Kaluahiwa, and 37 years of age, became so fatigued and 
exhausted that it was necessary to leave him at the village of Moanalua. Left 
there without relatives or friends, the poor man expired the evening of the 
same day. 30 

Immediately after their arrival at Honolulu, 31 the prisoners were taken 
before the chiefs, where according to the Sandwich Island, Gazette they had 
to undergo an interrogatory by Mr. Richards, one of the missionaries, who, 
shortly before had severed his connections with the American Board and entered 
the service of the government as translator and political adviser. 82 

When they had pleaded guilty to the crime of "popery," Mr. Richards is 
said to have informed them that they were "not to 1 be reproved or punished for 
repeating Catholic prayers or believing in that doctrine; but because they had 
disobeyed the orders of the king by repeating such prayers and believing in such 
doctrines." 33 

Mr. Richards, probably in response to the Sandwich Island Gazette, denies 
having served as interpreter at the trial or having made to the prisoners any 
remark respecting their punishment, or crime, or anything of that nature, but 
affirms that after a conversation with one of the party he went to see the 
governor, and endeavored to persuade him not to punish them. He received an 
unexpected rebuke. In his own words: 

"I enquired What law have they broken? He (the governor) 

answered, 'the law forbidding the worship of images.' I asked him, was he sure they 
had worshiped images in the sense of that law? He said, he was. I expressed a 
contrary opinion. He re-affirmed it, with great confidence. I told him I thought he 
would do wrong to punish them. He said, 'No, it will not be wrong.' I re-asserted my 
opinion. He then said with considerable spirit, 'If it is wrong, the wrong will rest 
on you,' (using the plural number and meaning the Missionaries). I answered, 'Why 
what do you mean by that?' He replied, 'Have you not always told ua, it was wrong 
to worship images?' I answered, Surely we have, and so we have always told you, 
it was wrong to disbelieve the Bible, and neglect prayer. Why do you not send out, 
and collect all the unbelievers, and prayerless persons, and put them in confinement?' 

"And thus the conversation ended."s-i 

At the end of the interrogatory, all of the prisoners, with the exception of 
thirteen, were suffered to depart. The author of the "Suppliment" states "be- 
cause they promised to attend the Protestant church and obey the laws." Father 
Walsh hereby makes an annotation denying the former part of the statement. 

The remaining thirteen were ordered to the fort, where they were put to 
torture. "The hand of one person was lashed to that of another, and arms 
raised over a partition seven feet high, which passed between each couple, who 
also had their feet in chains. On .Sunday morning, exhausted by fatigue and 
pain, nine were liberated and the succeeding day the remaining four, two men 
and two women, all promised to obey the laws." 35 

Rev. Mr. Bingham claims the merit for their deliverance. He says : "Scarcely 
ten days had elapsed before it was reported that a number of subjects at Waianae, 
called Palani, accused of malamalamakii, image worship, had been called before 

30 Suppliment to Sandwich Island Mirror, 1840, p. 57. 

31 On June 15, 1839. 

32 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 13. 

33 Sandw. Isl. Gazette, 1839, June 22. Sandw. Isl. Mirror, Suppliment, p. 57. 

34 Written statement by Mr. "William Richards, quoted by Wyllie in his Historical Sum- 
mary, n. 32S. 

35 Sandwich Island Gazette, June 22, 1839. 







o 

55 
O 



H 
C5 



O 

W 



CQ 



128 History of the Catholic Mission in Haivaii 

Waianae, a valley over thirty miles distant, where for some time they had taken 
refuge. 

When within three miles from Honolulu, one of their number, a native by 
the name of John Kaluahiwa, and 37 years of age, became so fatigued and 
exhausted that it was necessary to leave him at the village of Moanalua. Left 
there without relatives or friends, the poor man expired the evening of the 
same day. 30 

Immediately after their arrival at Honolulu, 31 the prisoners were taken 
before the chiefs, where according to the Sandwich Island Gazette they had 
to undergo an interrogatory by Mr. Richards, one of the missionaries, who, 
shortly before had severed his connections with the American Board and entered 
the service of the government as translator and political adviser. 02 

When they had pleaded guilty to the crime of "popery," Mr. Richards is 
said to have informed them that they were "not to be reproved or punished for 
repeating Catholic prayers or believing in that doctrine; but because they had 
disobeyed the orders of the king by repeating such prayers and believing in such 
doctrines." 33 

Mr. Richards, probably in response to the Sandwich Island Gazette, denies 
having served as interpreter at the trial or having made to the prisoners any 
remark respecting their punishment, or crime, or anything of that nature, but 
affirms that after a conversation with one of the party he went to see the 
governor, and endeavored to persuade him not to punish them. He received an 
unexpected rebuke. In his own words: 

"I enquired What law have they broken? He (the governor) 

answered, 'the law forbidding the worship of images.' I asked him, was he sure they 
had worshiped images in the sense of that law? He said, he was. I expressed a 
contrary opinion. He re-affirmed it, with great confidence. I told him I thought he 
would do wrong to punish them. He said, 'No, it will not be wrong.' I re-asserted my 
opinion. He then said with considerable spirit, 'If it is wrong, the wrong will rest 
on you,' (using the plural number and meaning the Missionaries). I answered, 'Why 
what do you mean by that?' He replied, 'Have you not always told us, it Avas wrong 
to worship images?' I answered, Surely Ave have, and so we have always told you, 
it was wrong to disbelieve the Bible, and neglect prayer. Why do you not send out, 
and collect all the unbelievers, a.nd prayerless persons, and put them in confinement?' 

"And thus the conversation ended. ""--i 

At the end of the interrogatory, all of the prisoners, with the exception of 
thirteen, were suffered to depart. The author of the "Suppliment" states "be- 
cause the}' promised to attend the Protestant church and obey the laws." Father 
Walsh hereby makes an annotation denying the former part of the statement. 

The remaining thirteen were ordered to the fort, where they were put to 
torture. "The hand of one person was lashed to that of another, and arms 
raised over a partition seven feet high, which passed between each couple, who 
also had their feet in chains. On Sunday morning, exhausted by fatigue and 
pain, nine were liberated and the succeeding day the remaining four, two men 
and two women, all promised to obey the laws." 35 

Rev. Mr. Bingham claims the merit for their deliverance. He says: "Scarcely 
ten days had elapsed before it was reported that a number of subjects at Waianae, 
called Palani, accused of malamalamakii, image worship, had been called before 

Ul Supiilimcnt to Sandwich Island Mirror, 1S40, p. 57. 

11. On June 15, IS.'IO. 

12 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 13. 

',;'. Sandw. Isl. Gazette, 18!i!>, Juno 22. Sand\v. Isl. Mirror, Sunpliment, p. 57. 

i-i Written statement by Mr. William Richards, quoted by AVyJHe in his Historical Sum- 

V. r.. I'.L'S. 

Jo Sandwich Island Gazette, June 22, ]83!i. 



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History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 129 

the chiefs, and that some of them were treated with severity. Addressing a note 
to the Premier, I inquired of her as to the fact, and she returned me the follow- 
ing answer: 

June 18th, 1839. 
Salutations to you, Bingham. 

I have seen your letter. We have exercised that oppression. But it has been 
brought to an end. Henceforth, it will doubtless be the rule to admonish. Love to 
you and Mrs. Bingham. 

KEKAULUOHI.36 

It has been affirmed that on the 17th of June, 1839, the king issued orders 
that no further punishments, should be inflicted, that the chiefs should confine 
themselves to the use of moral suasion in their efforts to reclaim the Roman 
Catholic proselytes, and if any were confined or laboring, they should be set 

at liberty that, if any suffered after this, it was without his knowledge 

or consent." 37 Jarves adds that this decree was issued at Lahaina. 88 He probably 
did not know that the king was not at Lahaina on June 17th. Katiikeaouli and 
suite left Honolulu in the barks Hoikaika and Palua on June the 18th. 89 

If the alleged decree had been published at all, it must have been at Honolulu, 
and it could not have required several days to reach the Fort and the Governor 
residing there, as Wyllie insinuates. 40 

The Sandwich Island Gazette, to which, as a rule, new laws were communi- 
cated for publication, not only does not publish this alleged edict, but the editor 
formally denies having had any knowledge of it. 41 

The foundation of the story is probably the above quoted statement of Mr. 
Richards, who after having narrated his conversation with the governor, adds: 
"Some three or four days after this, I heard the King tell the Governor, in 
presence of several of the Chiefs, to desist entirely from punishing Romanists 
for their religion, but to confine his interpretation of the law to the ancient 
idolatry of this country, but that he might persuade and teach the people on that 
subject, as much as he pleased." 42 

But these directions privately given by the King to some of his chiefs, not 
being promulgated, cannot be considered as an edict of religious tolerance. They 
certainly did not put an end to the persecution of Catholics. 

What may have been the cause of Mr. Bingham's sudden love of religious 
toleration? What may have been the true reason of the chiefs' instantaneous 
veering of policy? 

Dibble attributes it to the efforts of Mr. Richards, and the King seems to 
confirm his statement. 43 

I do not wish to withhold credit from Mr. Richards for his endeavors. But 
the following may explain the sudden conversion of Mr. Bingham and the Chiefs 
to his views. 

On the 16th of June the American whaleship Elizabeth touched at Honolulu, 
not unlikely with letters from the Brethren of Tahiti, which island she had left 
after the middle of May. From her it was learned that the French frigate 
1'Artemise had arrived there April the 17th, and had struck on an unknown reef 

36 A Residence, p. 635. 

37 Castle, In Hawaiian Spectator, vol. 2, No. IV, p. 469. 

38 History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, 1843, p. 317. 

39 Sandwich Island Gazette, June 22, 1839, Marine News. 

40 Note 52 to Perrin's Historical Memorandum. 

41 Suppliment to Sandwich Island Mirror, p. 68, the editor of which was formerly of the 
S. I. Gazette, "Our exertions, after the most thorough inquiry, have proved ineffectual In 
obtaining any proof," he says. 

42 In Wyllle's Historical Summary, pp. 328, 329. 

43 Sheldon Dibble, A History, 1909, pp. 338, 342. 



Plistory of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 129 

the chiefs, and that some of them were treated with severity. Addressing a note 
to the Premier, I inquired of her as to the fact, and she returned me the follow- 
ing answer: 

June 18th, 1839. 
Salutations to you, Bingliam. 

I have seen your letter. We have exercised that oppression. But it has bean 
brought to an end. Henceforth, it will doubtless be the rule to admonish. Love to 
you and Mrs. Bingham. 

KEKAULUOHI.3'! 

It has been affirmed that on the 17th of June, 1839, the king issued orders 
that no further punishments should he inflicted, that the chiefs should confine 
themselves to the use of moral suasion in their efforts to reclaim the Roman 
Catholic proselytes, and if any were confined or laboring, they should be set 

at liberty that, if any suffered after this, it was without his knowledge 

or consent." 07 Jarves adds that this decree was issued at Lahaina. 38 He probably 
did not know that the king was not at Lahaina on June 17th. Kauikeaouli and 
suite left Honolulu in the barks Hoikaika and Palua on June the 18th. 30 

If the alleged decree had been published at all, it must have been at Honolulu, 
and it could not have required several days to reach the Fort and the Governor 
residing there, as Wyllie insinuates.' 10 

The Sandwich Island Gazette, to which, as a rule, new laws were communi- 
cated for publication, not only docs not publish this alleged edict, but the editor 
formally denies having had any knowledge of it.' 11 

The foundation of the story is probably the above quoted statement of Mr. 
Richards, who after having narrated his conversation with the governor, adds: 
"Some three or four days after this, I heard the King tell the Governor, in 
presence of several of the Chiefs, to desist entirely from punishing Romanists 
for their religion, but to confine his interpretation of the law to the ancient 
idolatry of this country, but that he might persuade and teach the people on that 
subject, as much as he pleased. ' M ~ 

But these directions privately given by the King to some of his chiefs, not 
being promulgated, cannot be considered as an edict of religious tolerance. They 
certainly did not put. an end to the persecution of Catholics. 

What may have been the cause of Mr. Bingham's sudden love of religious 
toleration? What may have been the true reason of the chiefs' instantaneous 
veering of policy? 

Dibble attributes it to the efforts of Mr. Richards, and the King seems to 
confirm his statement.' 13 

I do not wish to withhold credit from Mr. Richards for his endeavors, lint 
the following may explain the sudden conversion of Mr. Bingham and the Chiefs 
to his views. 

On the 16th of June the American whalcship Kli/.abeth touched at Honolulu, 
not unlikely with letters from the Brethren of Tahiti, which island she had left 
after the middle of May. From her it was learned that the French frigate 
I'Artc'mise had arrived there April the 17th, and had < truck on an unknown reef 

lit', A Residence, p. 53r>. 

'7 Castle, in Hawaiian Spectator, vol. 2, No. TV, p. -Ii'.! 1 . 

!!S History uf the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, IS-Kj, P. ;',17. 

'!!) Sandwich Island Gazette, June 22, 181!!), Marine News'. 

SO Note 52 to Perrin's Historical Memorandum. 

I] . Supplement !o Sandwich Island .MiiTnr, p. f>8, the cditur c.i' which was formerly of Hie 
S. I. Gazette. "Our exertions, after the most thuroiigh inquiry, have proved ineffectual in 
obtaining any proof," he says. 

42 In "Wyllie's Historical Simimarv, pp. I12S, .'!2!. 

4.'! Sheldon Dibble, A History, lliOit, pp. .'i.'iR. 'Mi!. 



130 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

off Point Venus ; that it was presumed that the damages the vessel had sustained 
would be soon repaired, and that in two or three months she would be ready 
to proceed to her port of destination, which was Honolulu. 

The editor of the Sandwich Island Gazette, in giving this news to his readers, 
made these reflections : 

"What may be the object of the visit of the Artemise to this Island is not known; 
it is possible the Commander may be clothed with power to demand justice for the 
wrongs and insults that have been offered by this people to the subjects and the 
Flag of France. The day of account, we are certain, cannot be far distant, and when 
it does come, we hope that the whole truth will be made manifest; and that those 
who have been instrumental in leading these credulous people into trouble and 
difficulty, will have to bear the burthen of helping them out. We do say, and we 
believe it to be the truth, that the Chiefs and Rulers of this land would never 
have committed the outrages they have, had they not been led on by indiscreet 
advisers, and biased by the ipse dixit of meddling busy bodies, who, with false notions 
of justice and power, have used their ill-merited influence to draw the lords of these 
Isles into a controversy with one of the most powerful nations of the globe. We 
entertain no animosity or ill will towards those who are in power in this land where 
we sojourn, they have our best wishes for their prosperity and advancement, but we 
do hope that the King of the French will teach them a lesson, never to be forgotten; 
that they may in future remember that in their intercourse with the people of foreign 
nations, injustice, inhumanity and oppression will not for a moment be tolerated for 
any cause whatever which may be assigned."^ 

Other French men-of-war had called at Honolulu before and no harm had 
been experienced. But for some time the government of Louis Philippe had 
adopted a vigorous colonial policy, the effects of which were being felt principally 
in the South Seas. 

The preceding year La Venus had called at Tahiti, and her commander, Cap- 
tain Du Petit-Thouars, had demanded and obtained an indemnity of $2,000 in 
favor of Fathers Laval and Caret, French missionaries who in 1836 had been 
forcibly expelled; he had also stipulated that henceforth all French citizens were 
to be received there as subjects of a friendly nation. 45 

At that time the Sandwich Island Gazette had already announced that two 
French ships of war would be dispatched to these Islands to demand the most 
ample satisfaction from the King of Hawaii for the insults and oppression which 
had been extended to the subjects of France. 40 

It was feared that now this announcement was to have its fulfillment. That 
France meant to support its missionaries, even at the cannon's mouth, was be- 
coming apparent. Not that the government of Louis Philippe was animated 
by religious zeal, but the connection between national missionaries and national 
commercial and political influence began to dawn upon the European colonial 
powers. In consequence, France did not think itself fairly treated by countries 
which admitted American and English missionaries whilst rejecting those of her 
own nationality. 

If the Hawaiian Chiefs failed to understand the probable consequences of this 
tendency in regard to their dominions, this could hardly be the case with the 
alert Boston missionaries. 

Hence the news of Laplace's coming may well explain the otherwise, on 
account of its suddenness, inexplicable abandonment of the policy of persecution. 

44 Sandwich Island Gazette, June 22d, 1839. 

45 Dumont d'Urville, Voyage au Pole Sud, vol. IV, p. CO; Missions Catholiques Francaises, 
vol. IV, p. 61. 

46 Issue of Feb. 16, 1830. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 131 

However, the fire of oppression could not thus go out, without flaming up 
once more. 

The 24th of June, six days after Kekauluohi had promised Mr. Bingham 
that no oppression for religion's sake was to be exercised any more, two native 
women were arrested for being Catholics. One of them was about fifty, the 
other thirty years of age. They were conducted to the fort where some petty 
officers interrogated them as to their belief. They were repeatedly ordered to 
abandon the Catholic religion and to embrace the faith of Mr. Bingham, but 
they firmly refused to comply. 

The elder of the two [Juliana Kanakanui, born 1803 on Maui, baptized 
April 5, 1829; married Joakimo Wainui on April 26, 1829, and he having died, 
married again, Akelonio Keawahine, May 6, 1837. Erroneously called Juliana 
Makuawahine in the "Suppliment."] was then drawn up to a withered hau tree 
(Rauwolfia Sandwicensis) her hands placed each side of one of its dead branches, 
about seven feet high, and then shackled with irons, so that she might be said to 
hang by the wrists, as she could barely touch the ground with her toes. 

The other woman [Maria Makalena Kaha, born on Maui in 1809, married 
to Kapuaa, baptized January 23, 1839] was brought up to the eaves of a low 
thatched house, where her arms were forced round one of the rafters about six 
feet in height and then made fast by irons, and she stood with her face so near 
the thatch that it was constantly lacerated by the stubs of grass which she was 
unable to avoid. During the night heavy showers of rain poured down upon 
the helpless women. 

In this situation they were found next morning about eleven o'clock by a 
large number of foreign residents who came there for the purpose of witnessing 
this scene of persecution. 47 

The governor was absent at the time, but knew since the preceding day of 
the arrest of the two women, whom he intended to examine the next morning. 48 

The prisoners having been in that awful position for eighteen hours, without 
drink or food of any description, were in a most pitiful state. 49 

Mr. Dudoit and another foreigner each gave half a dollar to one of the 
woman's relatives who was sitting nearby, and told him to buy the sufferers 
some poi and fish. 50 

Meanwhile one of the white men, Mr. Hooper by name, went back, and 
having met Mr. Bingham, who, just then, returned in his carriage from one of 
the suburbs (Punahou), requested him to come to the fort and assist in liberating 
the two prisoners. 

The missionary expressed doubts as to their being punished for being Catho- 
lics, stating that he had learned from the premier that punishment was not to be 
inflicted on that account. Both went to Kekauluohi's house, where the governor 
also happened to be. Mr. Hooper went back to the fort, whilst Mr. Bingham 
entered the house, apprised the governor of what he had heard and called his 
attention to it. 51 

Mr. Hooper on his return met Rev. Mr. Bishop, another of the Protestant 
missionaries, who having accompanied him to the fort, expressed his indignation 

47 Sandwich Island Gazette, June 29, 1839. 

48 Bingham, A Residence, p. 535. 

49 Sandwich Island Gazette, loc. cit. 

50 Anonymous relation of the case of the two women by an eye-witness. Arch C M 
Honolulu; V. D. 79. 

51 A Residence, p. 535. 



132 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

at the distressing sight, and promised that he would try to have a stop put to 
such proceedings. 

At the time Mr. Bishop made his appearance, a guard began to loosen the 
irons of the elder women; when her hands were free, she staggered, whereupon 
the guard held her, at the same time asperging her with abusive language. At 
that moment another native belonging to the fort came, and led her away, saying 
that she had to go before the governor. 

The foreigners then went to see the other woman freed from her shackles. 
When a guard started taking off the fetters from her feet, it was noticed that 
he was quite a novice at it ; hence Mr. Hooper, seeing him screwing and pounding 
at the forelock, loosened the irons for him. 

The poor sufferers were then led out of the fort to be conducted before the 
governor, the following gentlemen accompanying them: Messrs. S. Reynolds, 
Wm. French, Geo. Pelly, E. Sullivan, E. Stokes, H. Grimes, P. Peabody, Wm. 
Hooper and Jules Dudoit. The American consul, Mr. Brinsmade, who also had 
witnessed the scene in the fort, refused to go with the party. 

These details are taken from an anonymous manuscript, written probably 
for the benefit of Father Walsh by an eye-witness of the proceedings. From 
internal evidence of that document the author must be either Mr. Sullivan or 
Mr. Peabody. 

We quote verbally the rest of the relation, without changing the faulty 
spelling and construction: 

"We had not got far when we met the Govr. who shook hands with all and 
asked where are you all going. Mr. Wm. French said we were going to enquire 
which was the straight road, our backs being turned to the road we came. The Govr. 
pointed and said there is the straight road, pointing to the road we came as much 
as to say, go back, and repeated the words over. With that Mr. French aaked for 
what were them two poor women put in irons for. The Govr. answered and told 
him it was none of his business, his business was to sell or dispose of his articles 
of trade. Then Mr. Hooper spoke up and asked if he ordered them in confinement. 
He answered in the affirmative. And for what said Mr. Hooper. For being follow- 
ers of the church of the Pope and worshiping Idols or graven Images and wanted to 
know what Mr. H. had to do with it and said it was none of his business, that it was 
their business and that he was 'doing and executing the orders of Kouikeouli in a 
sharp and cross manner, but at the same time altering his countenance, that they 
done it to prevent war and bloodshed, saying that it (the worship of Graven Images) 
was the cause of a war between Riorio and Kekuokalani and that Kaahumanu had 
prohibited it at the time Govr. Bold was going to join the Catholic Church. Mr. 
Hooper asked of Kekuanoa, again if it was for their religious opinions they were 
punished he told him positively it was, at the same time said the Govr., let us go 
to the House and discuss the matter over. Mr. Hooper made answer by bidding him 
good morning. The Govr. denied it being his orders to put the prisoners in tortures 
as they were, by that he all bid him good morning and came away. 

The anonymity of the manuscript certainly detracts from its value; however, 
it does not appear what interest the author could have had in misrepresenting 
what he had seen, whilst making a private report of this kind. Although details 
are not by themselves a proof of truthfulness, the v/ay they are given here, 
seems to indicate a desire to tell things exactly as they happened. Moreover, the 
versions of Mr. Bingham and the Sandwich Island Gazette, and naturally also 
the Suppliment of the Sandwich Island Mirror, in the particulars they have in 
common with this document, are in harmony with it. 

Only the missionary author wilfully misrepresents the foreign residents as 
if they had unlawfully taken the prisoners out of the fort. He says: He (the 
governor) quickly despatched a messenger and started himself, and met the two 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 133 

women coming from the fort, under escort of several foreigners, who, unbidden, 
had gone into the fort to release them, concerning whom the author of the Sup- 
plement to the Sandwich Islands Mirror says: "The gentlemen succeeded in 
liberating the prisoners." 52 

Now the editor of that publication used these words, not speaking of the 
taking of the prisoners out of the fort, but of the taking off of the fetters, 
which they obtained by their remonstrances and in which Mr. Hooper assisted. 

In the sentence which Bingham quotes, he suppresses the words: from their 
awful and critical position, and neglects the sentence which follows shortly: 
"After recovering a little, the prisoners were ordered to proceed to the house 
of the Governess." 

In a letter dated October 26, 1839, of the king to P. A. Brinsmade, then U. S. 
consul, he declares that "the confinement of the two women had not been by 
order of the chiefs." This prince, however, being on Maui at the time of the 
arrest, can hardly be admitted as a witness in this case. Besides, all those long 
and methodical letters written over the signature of Kamehameha III, principally 
not excluding his letter to William IV, cs seem to deserve consideration only in 
as far as they are statements made by Messrs. Bingham and Richards. 

On the evening of that day, the two females who had been committed to the 
fort by Kekuanaoa, were dismissed, 54 probably through the good services of 
Mr. Bishop. 

Persecution was not finished however. The nine Catholics condemned to 
hard labor in 1836, 1837, and on June 17, 1838, were yet kept prisoners in two 
little huts which they had constructed for themselves in the eastern vicinity of 
Honolulu, where they were closely watched by an officer of the government. 55 

On the 6th of July a contributor to the Sandwich Island Gazette, signing 
himself Philanthropus (probably Father Walsh) insisted that the Protestant mis- 
sionaries should obtain the liberation of these nine sufferers. 

His request was not heeded. Nevertheless, their sufferings were coming to 
an end. Three, days later, on the feast of Our Lady of Peace, a ship was 
described rounding the point of Diamond Head ; a signal gun was heard booming 
o'er the deep. It announced the dawn of religious freedom to the Sandwich 
Islanders. The French frigate 1'Artemise was riding on the blue waters of 
Honolulu harbor. 



52 A Residence, p. 535. 

53 Bingham says that the Letter to the King of England was arranged by the native 
secretary, John II. (Report to A. B. C. F. M., p. 25.) He probably knew also the person 
who had dictated the document to that wight. 

54 S. I. Gazette, June 29, 1839. 

55 S. I. Gazette, July 6th, 1839. 



134 History of the Catholic Mission in Haivai-i 



CHAPTER XII. 
L'Artemise 

The Manifesto. No Protection for Missionaries. Committee of Vigilance. Armis- 
tice. The $20,000 Guarantee. Grant of Religious Liberty. Military Mass. The Com- 
mercial Treaty. An Apology for Laplace. Whatever we have done to others, do not 
do it to us. The U. S. East-India Squadron. A Diplomatic Roman Candle. 

On the morning of July the 9th, 1839, 1'Artemise had arrived in Honolulu 
roadstead. 1 She was soon boarded by M. Jules Dudoit who, on account of his 
many services to French subjects, had been appointed consular agent for France 
by Captain Du Petit-Thouars, and now furnished Captain Laplace with such 
information as the commander needed before acquainting the island authorities 
with the aim of his visit. 

According to Laplace himself, the native authorities so well understood the 
reasons of his coming that even before the vessel had established any communi- 
cations with the shore all the Catholics who were then still employed in the 
performance of public works, held prisoners for their conscience's sake, were 
immediately set at liberty ; although as a fact they were liberated only three days 
later. 2 

However, the commodore was not to be deceived by this apparent yielding 
before the storm, nor by the offers of refreshments which were made to him, 
but which he declined until all difficulties should have been regulated. 

Fearing lest some hoped for or fortuitous foreign intervention might jeopar- 
dize the success of -his mission 8 , he dispatched after a few hours an officer to 
the chiefs with the following lengthy document: 

MANIFESTO addressed to the King of the Sandwich Islands by the naval Captain 
Laplace, Commander of the French frigate l'Art6mise in the name of his government. 

His Majesty the King of the French having commanded me to come to Honolulu 
in order to put an end either by force or by persuasion to the ill-treatment of which 
the French are the victims at the Sandwich Islands. 

I hasten first to employ the latter means as being more in harmony with the 
noble and liberal political system pursued by France towards weaker nations, hoping 
that I shall thus make the king and the principal chiefs of these islands understand 
how fatal to their interests the conduct is which they pursue towards her, and which 
may cause disasters to themselves and their country should they persist in it. 

Misled by perfidious counsels, deceived by the excessive indulgence of which my 
country has given evidence in their favor for several years, they doubtless do not 
know how powerful France is, and that there is no power in the world which is 
capable of preventing it from punishing its enemies; otherwise they would have 
endeavored to merit its good will, instead of displeasing it as they have done by 
ill treating the French; they would have faithfully kept the treaties instead of vio- 
lating them, as soon as the fear whereby bad intentions had been constrained, had 
disappeared with the man-of-war which had caused it; in fine, they would have under- 
stood that persecuting the Catholic religion, tarnishing it with the name of idolatry, 
and expelling, under this absurd pretext, the French from this archipelago, was to 
offer an insult to France and to its sovereign. 



1 Laplace says the 19th, which is an error for the 10th. All the dates given by that com- 
mander for his stay at the Hawaiian Islands, must be advanced by one day in order to get 
the local time; he having passed the date-line when coming from the West. 

2 Circumnavigation, vol. V, p. 439; Sandw. Isl. Gaz. July 13, 1839; on the margin of which 
Father Walsh states that they were liberated on the 12th of July. 

3 Circumnavigation, V. p. 531. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 135 

It is without doubt the formal intention of France, that the king of the Sandwich 
Islands be powerful, independent of every foreign power, and that he consider her 
his ally; but she also demands that he conforms to usages established by civilized 
nations. Now among the latter there is not one that does not permit in its territory 
the free exercise of all religions; and, however, in the Sandwich Islands the Catholics 
are not allowed to exercise theirs publicly, whilst the Methodists enjoy there the 
most extended privileges; for the latter all favors, for the former nothing but the 
most cruel persecutions. Such a. state of affairs being contrary to international 
law, insulting to Catholic nations, cannot last any longer, and I am sent to put an 
end to it. Consequently, I demand in the name of my Sovereign: 

1. That the Catholic worship be declared free throughout the islands which are 
subject to the king of the Sandwich Islands. The members of this communion shall 
enjoy there all the privileges granted to Protestants. 

2. That a site for a Catholic church be given by the government at Honolulu, a port 
frequented by the French, and that this church be ministered by priests of their 
nationality. 

3. That all Catholics imprisoned on account of religion since the laat persecutions 
inflicted upon the Catholic missionaries be at once set at liberty. 

4. That the king of the Sandwich Island deposit in the hands of the captain of 
I'Artfimise the sum of twenty thousand dollars as a guarantee of his future conduct 
towards France, which sum will be restored to him by the government of that 
country as aoon as it shall judge that the clauses of the accompanying treaty shall 
have been faithfully executed. 

5. Finally that the treaty signed by the king of the Sandwich Islands, as well as 
the sum mentioned above, be conveyed on board I'Arte'mise by one of the principal 
chiefs of the country, whilst the batteries of Honolulu do salute the French flag with 
twenty-one guns, which will be returned by the frigate. 

These are the equitable conditions, at the price of which the King of the Sandwich 
Islands will conserve the friendship of France. I am pleased to believe that under- 
standing how necessary to the conservation of his people it is to be at peace with 
everybody, he will hasten to accept them, and imitate the praiseworthy example of 
the queen of Tahiti, who has granted the free exercise of the Catholic religion in 
her possessions. But, if contrary to my expectations, it should be otherwise; if the 
king and principal chiefa of the Sandwich Islands, misled by bad advice, should 
refuse to sign the treaty which I present, war would immediately commence, and all 
the devastations, all the calamities which will be the unhappy but inevitable conse- 
quences, will be imputed to themselves alone; also they will have to pay the damages 
which the foreigners, injured under these circumstances, will have a right to claim. 

Honolulu, July the 10th (for the 9th), 1839. 

The naval captain commanding the French frigate I'Artemise. 

LAPLACE.4 

A written agreement embracing the clauses enumerated in the manifesto was 
subjoined and its ratification demanded before July the 12th (July llth, local 
time) at noon; if not, hostilities were to be commenced at once. 

The officer who carried this ultimatum ashore was also the bearer of letters 
for the British and American consuls, in which the French commander offered 
"asylum and protection on board I'Artemise to those of their nationality who, 
under the circumstances, apprehended danger on the part of the natives." 5 

The communication to the American consul contained the following exception : 
"I do not, however, include in this class the individuals who, although born, it 
is said, in the United States, form a part of the Protestant clergy of the chief 
of this archipelago, direct his counsels, influence his conduct, and are the true 
authors of the insults given by him to France. For me they compose a part of 
the native population and must undergo the unhappy consequences of a war 
which they shall have brought upon this country." 6 

4 Translation from the French treaty as quoted by Laplace in his Circumnavigation, vol. 
V, p. 531 et seq. 

5 Sandwich Island Gazette, July 13, 1839. 

6 Hawaiian Spectator, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 448. 



136 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

When the contents of these letters became known, a meeting was at once 
held by the foreign residents. They appointed a committee of vigilance which 
was to make such arrangements and inquiries as the exigencies of the state of 
affairs might require. 

The committee sent a letter to Laplace, asking him for the loan of fifty 
muskets, one hundred pistols and fifty cutlasses wherewith to defend themselves 
against the evilly disposed natives. In another letter, addressed to the Kuhina-nui, 
they inquired on what assistance they could depend in any measure which might 
be advisable to take, in order to protect their lives and property from any attacks 
of the native population. 

They finally circulated a paper among the white residents requesting that 
they pledge themselves to co-operate with each other for mutual defense if 
necessary. On the 13th one hundred and thirty foreigners had already signed 
that circular, and it was expected that two hundred names would be obtained. 
Since it was not then the whaling season, and no foreign vessels were in the port 
apart from the French man-of-war, we have here, when adding those of the 
missionary establishments, the number of white male adults then at Honolulu. 

Captain Laplace in answering declared himself unable to provide them with 
the requested means of defense, since all his men were to be employed in the 
attack on the town, and in the defense of the frigate, but he stated also that 
he had prepared forces sufficiently strong to make the French the masters and 
the protectors of the town at the same time. 

Kekauluohi in her turn answered that, if any natives should plunder from 
them, she gave them into their hands during those days to determine their 
merits, promising to meet out just punishment to the offenders, once the present 
perplexity would be over. 7 

The Protestant missionaries having received communication of Laplace's letter, 
met on the llth of July, and resolved to apply to their consul, Mr. P. A. Brins- 
made, for protection for themselves, "forty unoffending citizens of the United 
States and their families." 

The consul offered them an asylum within the enclosure of his consulate, and 
in another letter stated that he did not know that other or better protection could 
be promised them than an unimpaired testimony to their citizenship, under the 
broad seal of the United States. 8 

However, in the afternoon of the 9th, the chiefs sent M. Dudoit to Captain 
Laplace asking him to grant an extension of time for complying with the terms 
of the manifesto, until the king, who was then on Maui, could be informed of 
the situation. 

The time was accordingly extended till Monday, the 15th, and a schooner 
was allowed to proceed and fetch the king, under condition, however, that a 
hostage were sent aboard I'Artemise as a pledge for the return of the schooner 
and for the governor's faith not to make any new preparations for defense until 
the armistice was ended. 

Haalilo, the king's private secretary, was first sent in that quality, but the 
next morning his place was taken by another chief whose presence annoyed the 
commander as much as that of the secretary had pleased him. 9 

Meantime everything remained quiet, the natives not having the slightest 

7 See Sandwich Island Gazette, July 20th, 1839, for these and further particulars as to 
the activity of the Committee of Vigilance. 

8 See the Correspondence of the Missionaries and their consul, as reported in the Ha- 
waiian Spectator, vol. II, no. 4, p, 448 et sea. 

9 Circumnavigation, vol. V, pp. 440, 441. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 137 

inclination to be slaughtered in a useless combat. The chiefs did not even wait 
either for the expiration of the armistice or for the king's arrival, but resolved 
to put an end to the general uneasiness which pervaded all classes by acquiescing 
in all the demands of the French. 

The $20,000 was for the most part borrowed from the foreign residents. Of 
these, some were unwilling to lend the government any money for this purpose, 
being influenced by a wish that the money should be taken from the Protestant 
missionaries. 10 

Having collected the amount the governor, in colonel's uniform, accompanied 
by the chiefs Haalilo and Kanaina, carried it to 1'Artemise, together with the 
treaty signed by Kekauluohi and himself. 

This was done on the 13th of July at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. The treaty, 
however, bears the date of the 12th, so that this must be considered as the day 
on which religious liberty was granted to Hawaii. 

As the barge carrying the embassy proceeded to the frigate, the fort saluted 
the French flag with twenty-one guns, which on the party's arrival on board was 
returned by an equal number. 

They were received with every mark of respect by Laplace, surrounded by his 
staff. The commander then affixed his signature to a duplicate of the treaty, 
and after having partaken of a slight repast, the governor and his retinue re- 
turned to the shore, whilst thirteen guns boomed forth in his honor. 11 

The king arrived the next morning at 9 o'clock and immediately landed. 

Laplace had stipulated that the treaty should be sealed by the celebration 
ashore of a military Mass on Sunday, the 14th of July. 

In a large straw house which had served as a palace to the late King Liho- 
liho, a temporary altar had been erected. About the hour of ten a body of 120 
soldiers and about 60 seamen landed and with the naval band of l'Artemise lead- 
ing the way, marched to the aforesaid palace. Somewhat later the commander 
himself landed for the first time, escorted by his staff. He was welcomed at 
the pier by a large number of foreigners, and in their company followed his 
troops. 

At 11 o'clock Father Walsh offered the Holy Sacrifice, which was attended 
not only by the military and the white residents, but also by the liberated 
Catholic natives, who now in the sweetness of their religion's triumph, forgot 
the sufferings of the past. 

In the afternoon Laplace applied for an audience with the king, which was 
granted the following day, and during which Kauikeaouli confirmed the signa- 
ture affixed to the treaty by his chiefs, and also promised to sign a commercial 
convention which the French commander had proposed. 12 

Of this convention, two clauses were much objected to by the missionary 
element, especially the sixth article : 

They read as follows : 

Art. IV. No Frenchman accused of any crime whatever shall be judged otherwise 
than by a jury composed of foreign residents proposed by the Consul of France, and 
accepted by the government of the Sandwich Islands. 

Art. VI. French merchandise, or known to be of French production and especially 
wine and brandies, shall not be prohibited, nor pay a higher duty than 5 per cent 
ad valorem. 



10 Father Walsh, Letter to Father Short, Aug. 29, 1839. 

11 Laplace, Circumnavigation, V., pp. 458, 459. 

12 Laplace, Circumnavigation, V. P. 463, and p. 477. 



138 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Whether or not this convention was forced upon the king is a question 
we have no interest to settle. 13 It was actually signed on the morning of July 17. 

During his short stay Laplace made frequent visits at the Catholic Mission 
establishment, where the French consular agent had then his residence, and he 
seems to have made it a point to show on all occasions a marked deference to 
Father Walsh. 14 

On the morning of the 20th 1'Artemise sailed for the Northwest coast of 
America. 

The proceedings of her commander at the Sandwich Islands have received 
much adverse criticism at the hands of several Protestant authors. 
Although we hold no brief in his defense, we may say briefly: 

1. That Laplace acted neither with precipitation nor arbitrarily, but under 
instructions of his government, which he had received during his stay at Sydney. 

2. The French government of that time, hardly religiously inclined, did not 
force the Catholic religion on the natives, since no one was forced to embrace 
it; it simply forced despotic rulers to grant to their subjects that freedom of 
conscience which they had every right to demand, and which, but for French 
intervention, they would have been long in obtaining. 

3. In forcing Catholic priests upon the Hawaiian chiefs the French govern- 
ment meant merely to promote its business interests. That this was the aim 
of Laplace's proceedings may be easily seen from his statements on page 336 
et seq. of his Circumnavigation. 

On his arrival at Valparaiso he asked of the Prefect Apostolic that Father 
Walsh be removed and that only French priests would be employed at the 
Islands, saying, "that although the Irish are not religiously English, they are 
politically English, and on that account should not be trusted." 15 

4. Whether the means he employed were in accordance with moral law may 
be discussed ; they can hardly be said to be an infringement of the laws of nations. 

The law of nations is not unchangeable like moral law, on which, however, it 
ought to be based. Neither is it made in the study or lecture room of university 
professors, but it is modified, developed and interpreted, after the bayonet and 
the cannon have done the debating. 

5. The measures taken by the French government to protect its industries 
at the Hawaiian Islands may be well called "equitable" and inspired by "a noble 
and liberal political system," when compared with the opium outrage the English 
inflicted upon China not a year later. 10 

Nor were the seven men-of-war which accompanied the American Commodore 
Perry, when in 1854 he opened Japan to American commerce, a mere honorific 
escort. 

However, was not the Mikado free to trade with whomsoever he wanted, free 
to refuse an entry to foreigners into his country, if Vattel, and not the cannon 
mouth had been the chosen arbiter? 17 

Although no actual harm had been inflicted on them by the French the 
Protestant missionaries felt sorely aggrieved on account of the exemption made 
by Laplace concerning them. They seem not to have been aware that the com- 
mander measured to them with the measure they had applied to the Catholic 

13 Cf. Laplace, op. cit. V. p. 492; Jarves' History of the Sandwich Islands, p. 
Supplement to the Sandwich Island Mirror, 1841, p. 68. 
14 P. Walsh's Letter to F. Short, Aug. 29, 1839. 

15 Letter of F. Short to F. Walsh, Jan. 1, 1840. 

1C See Encyclopedia Britannica, CHINA. 

17 Vattel, Droit des Gens, livre II, 25 and 94. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 139 

priests. 18 If French priests in Hawaii were to be considered as outlaws, dis- 
qualified from enjoying the privileges of other Frenchmen, why should American 
clergymen not have been judged equally incapable of the privileges of American 
citizenship ? 

But nobody ever likes the Golden Rule to be turned around. 

Accordingly, the missionaries brought their grievances before their govern- 
ment in the form of a memorial to Congress. They were now supposed to leave 
the matter for the action of that body. But when up till October their desire 
for an official vindication had not been gratified, and on the 9th of that month 
the U. S. East Indian Squadron came to anchor at Honolulu, they once more 
agitated the matter, and requested Commodore Read to appoint a court of inquiry, 
to which to submit the question, whether the Mission, as a body, or as individuals, 
were in any way the authors or the blamable causes of the persecutions against 
the Catholics at the Sandwich Islands. 

The commodore having ignored their letter, they addressed him eight days 
later with a repetition of their request, insisting that the stay of the squadron 
should be prolonged if this were necessary to procure them the satisfaction they 
longed for. 

After a delay of four days Commodore Read answered rather sarcastically : 

'* If you asik me what steps you are to take to prove your innocence 

of what you are pleased to call charges, and do away if possible with the prejudice 
which may exist at Honolulu, my answer is, that you have already informed your 
government of all the circumstances, of the case, and that, if our rulers 'deem an 
inquiry necessary, they will, no doubt, direct it to be made. 

"In the meantime I would recommend the utmost forbearance as the best and 
only mode of disarming your opponents of any resentment they may feel " 

Some more communications were exchanged between the Missionaries, their 
consul and the commodore, and when, after all, the latter remained determined 
not to inquire into grievances which it was out of his power to redress, sixteen 
of his officers thought themselves entitled to read their commander a lecture, 
and published the whole correspondence, prefixing to it a letter wherein they 
expressed their sympathy with the American clergy. 

This publication, of course, did not change in anything the merits of the case 
under dispute, nor did it nullify any reports concerning the missionaries sent 
abroad through the medium of the Sandwich Island Gazette or its successor, 
the Sandwich Island Mirror. 19 

The joint letter, in the publication of which the sixteen officers indulged, was 
merely, as they qualified it themselves with the frankness characteristic of 
sailors, "a most unqualified (i. e. incompetent) testimony." 2 

The Missionary-Memorial reached Congress in clue time. It was presented 
by a Governor Vroom to the House of Representatives on the 18th of May, 
1840, and was referred on his motion to the Committee of Foreign Affairs. The 
Committee made no report during that session, but referred the matter to the 
Department of State, which took no action on the subject. 21 

In February, 1841, Mr. Baird obtained an audience of King Louis Philippe 
to whom he presented a letter of the Prudential Committee on the affairs of 
the Missionaries versus Captain Laplace. Mr. Baird having been permitted by 

18 Cf. Bingham, A Residence, p. 514; Sam'l N. Castle in Hawaiian Spectator, vol II, 
no. 4, p. 462; et alii. 

19 Cf. Bingham, A Residence, p. 582. 

20 See for the Visit of the B. I. Squadron: An Account of the Visit of the French Frigate 
1'Artemise to the Sandwich Islands. July, 1839. 

21 Letter of Gov. P. D. Vroom, June 5, 1841, to Rev. Wm. J. Armstrong. 



140 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the king to state the case in a few words, Louis Philippe expressed his regret 
that the chief of the Sandwich Islands had not at once permitted the Catholic 
missionaries to remain there and do what they could, without infringing the laws, 
to promote their religion. He said that he did not see why they could not have 
allowed this; that he thought that both the Catholic and the Protestant religion 
were infinitely better than none; that, being a Catholic himself, he could not 
do anything to oppose Catholic Missions, but that he sincerely desired that the 
Catholic and Protestant missions might go on everywhere together in a spirit of 
harmony and good will. He assured Mr. Baird that he should certainly read 
the letter and the documents, and give the whole subject his most serious attention. 

The agent of the Prudential Committee also called on M. Guizot, the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs, but as this was the fourth cabinet since that which sent 
Laplace to the Sandwich Islands, Mr. Baird avowed that the whole affair had 
something of an air of antiquity about it, and expressed a fear that this might 
prevent M. Guizot of doing anything to satisfy the cravings for revenge of Mr. 
Bingham and his colleagues. 

The matter seems to have been dropped then and there. 22 



22 Letter of Mr. Baird to Rev. Ruf us Anderson, Feb. 27, 1841. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 141 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Episcopate of Bishop Rouchouze 

Land Tenure. Fasts and Feasts. Catholics Again Annoyed. Declaration of 
Rights. First Publications. Zeal of Converts. Arrival of Mgr. Rouchouze and Com- 
pany. A Protestant Missionary Tries to Convert the Priesta. Visit of La Pylade. 
Foundation of Kailua Mission. The Lahainaluna History of the Church. Building 
of the Cathedral. Bingham Leaves for America. Armstrong, His Successor. Public 
Controversies. Needs of the Mission. Voyage of Mgr. Rouchouze to France. The 
Fate of the Marie-Joseph. . 

"In the Hawaiian Islands, previous to the year 1839, the control of the land 
was firmly established in the ruling chiefs, who reserved what portions they 
pleased for their own use, and divided the rest among the leading chiefs subject 
to them. The latter held almost despotic sway over their special domains, ap- 
portioning the land among their followers according to the whim of the moment 
or the demands of policy, or farming it out under their special agents, the 
konohikis, whose oppressive severity in dealing with the actual cultivators of the 
soil was notorious. Thus the occupancy of land was entirely subject to the will 
of the ruling chief, who had not only power to give, but also to take away at 
his royal pleasure. 

"The tenants were hardly recognized as having civil rights, although they 
enjoyed freedom of movement and were not attached to any particular lands as 
belongings to the soil. If a man wanted a piece of land to live on and cultivate, 
he had to pay for it by a heavy rent in the shape of regular weekly labor for 
his landlord, with the additional liability of being called upon to assist in work 
of a public character, such, as building a heiau (temple) , or making a road or 
fishpond seawall. With all this, the tenant was liable to be ejected from his 
holding without notice or a chance of redress. 

"This want of security in the profits of land cultivation led many to attach 
themselves to the persons of the chiefs as hangers-on, whereby they might be 
at least fed in return for the desultory services which they were called upon to 
perform in that capacity. These hangers-on were called hoopilimeaai, i. e., ad- 
hering for food." 1 

This peculiar state of Hawaiian society was the cause of the exceptionally 
lenient laws of fasting and abstinence which are still in force throughout 
Polynesia. 

In the different apostolic vicariates in the Pacific Ocean, which were once 
included in what was called the Vicariate of Oriental Oceanica, only nine days 
of fasting and abstinence have to be observed by the faithful, to wit: the seven 
Fridays of Lent, Holy Saturday and the Vigil of Christmas. 

The .reason for this leniency, as indicated in a Rescript of the Congregation 
of the Propaganda of June 16, 1834, is "dcpendentia insularum a suis principibus, 
turn quoad labores, turn quoad aliwenta," that is, "the dependence of the islanders 
on their chiefs for work as well as for food." 

We may in passing enumerate the feast days of obligation to be observed 
in the Hawaiian Islands. They are the following six : Christmas, Circumcision, 
Ascension, Assumption, All Saints and the Immaculate Conception. 

1 Sanford B. Dole, Papers of Hawaiian Historical Society, No. 3, pp. 5, 6, 10, and 11. 



142 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

The faculties given to the Vicar-Apostolic, and which he communicates almost 
entirely to the priests of his vicariate, are very extensive, including that of 
granting dispensation from the impediments of consanguinity and affinity, even 
in the first degree when mixed with the second, and in mixed marriages. 

A radical change in the abnormal state of Hawaii land-tenure was effected 
by a Declaration of Rights, signed by the king on the 7th day of June, 1839. 
The draft of this bill had been made by Rev. William Richards, assisted by the 
natives, Boaza Mahune and Jona Kapena; 2 it was discussed and amended in 
the council of the chiefs at Honolulu and finally approved by the king. 

Eight days late the Editor of the Sandwich Island Gazette wrote: "We hear 
that some new laws and regulations have been enacted for the good of the 
people; they have not yet been promulgated 3 

This seems to indicate that the usual promulgation by the town crier had not 
been made. 

However, a summary of the new laws was brought to the notice of the 
foreign community by the Hawaiian Spectator in its July number. 

The Declaration did not guarantee religious liberty, as Professor Alexander 
erroneously states in his Brief History. 4 If in that month of June, 1839, the 
king seriously meant to grant this boon to his subjects, he had a fair opportunity 
of inserting a clause to that purport in this document. 

It is important to take notice of several other stipulations of the annexed 
laws. 

Section 3 removed most of the former taboos on the fisheries, particularly 
those without the coral reefs which line the shores. Of these taboos we shall 
have an opportunity to speak more in detail in the XIV and XV chapters of 
this history. The governors of each island were forbidden by section 11 to enact 
new laws without the consent of the government generally; and by the 6th 
section permanent -possession of their lands was secured to landholders while 
they continued to pay the rent. 

In August, only a month after the departure of 1'Artemise, the Catholics 
had an occasion to invoke the benefit of the last quoted section. 

The natives living on the lands of the chief Paki, in Koolau, a district of 
the island of Oahu, were told by a member of the Protestant church that Paki's 
wife, Konia, had ordered that all those who should embrace the Catholic religion, 
must give up their lands and all the property they possessed. 

On the 20th of August the threat was carried out, and twenty-two Catholics 
were expelled from their lands. The same day they marched over in a body 
to Honolulu, where they arrived at sunset. On their arrival at the mission, 
Father Walsh thought that they had come to ask for catechisms, and as he went 
to get some, they entered the chapel. The priest, having followed them thither, 
gave them an instruction, and at the termination thereof was acquainted with 
what had happened. 

He at once informed M. Dudoit, who lost no time in investigating the matter 
with Paki and Konia. Both denied any responsibility in the affair, and charged 
the "ekalekia" churchmember with having usurped their authority. When, on 
the next morning, the king was told of this annoyance, he manifested his dis- 
pleasure, and said that he had given full liberty to all his chiefs and subjects 
to embrace whatever religion they thought proper. 

2 S. M. Kamakau, Moolelo Hawaii, helu 112. 

3 Sandwich Island Gazette, June 15, 1S39. 

4 p. 229. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Haivaii 143 

The Catholics returned then to their homes, having received the assurance 
that they would not be molested for their religion in the future. 5 

Another instance of petty annoyance occurred at a place thirteen miles distant 
from Honolulu. There a Protestant native _had a house belonging to a Catholic 
catechumen destroyed, under pretext that the latter intended to make a Catholic 
place of worship out of it. When the king was informed of this act of wanton 
destruction, he ordered the house to be rebuilt by those that had demolished it. 6 

These petty persecutions proved greatly favorable to the Catholic cause and 
were immediately followed by a considerable increase in the number of catechu- 
mens, who till then had been retained by a fear that the king would not stand 
by the French treaty. 

At Honolulu the chapel and mission yard were habitually crowded with 
natives, who came to assist at Mass and to listen to the instructions. 

Father Walsh, who about that time had suspended in his little chapel three 
images, representing the Crucifixion, the Ecce Homo and the Resurrection, took 
occasion thereof to explain thoroughly the Catholic doctrine anent the veneration 
of the Saints and their images. 7 

Every day new catechumens were enrolled, and it became necessary to enlarge 
the chapel. Up till that time, the chapel seems to have been, not the two-story 
adobe house which stood on the spot where now the statue of Our Lady of 
Peace is erected, but a one-story building. 

When Father Walsh in his letter to Father Short speaks about the twenty- 
two Catholics from Koolau, he says : "They retired to our little chapel (the 
house in which Mr. Dudoit lived)" 8 And in another letter to the same of 
October 26, he writes: "We have built a house about 39 by 21 feet which com- 
municates by folding doors to the large room where Mr. Dudoit lived. This, 
together with a ranai (lanai or veranda) contains a large congregation." 

Among those that visited the mission, partly from curiosity, partly from a 
desire to be instructed, were several chiefs, especially Liliha, Boki's widow. It 
was hoped that she would embrace the religion of her late husband. Unfortun- 
ately she died rather suddenly, on August the 25th. Her funeral gathered many 
partizans of the old regime from the other islands. Many of them called at 
the "Hale Palani" and were presented with little catechisms in the native language, 
the reading of which prepared the field for the catechists and priests, and 
meanwhile removed much of the old prejudice. Writes Father Walsh: "I have 
distributed over 500 copies of the first part of the instructions which were 
written by you and Mr. Bachelot, and printed at Macao. The chiefs have taken 
copies of it. The King's people have taken several copies and are delighted 
with it. They have already discovered that the adoration of images is entirely 
prohibited by Catholics, and that the Pope does not look upon himself to be 
equal to God; that it is not with him to give salvation, and that it can be 
obtained without giving the sums of money which are mentioned in Hoike Honua 
by the calumniators of our Holy Religion." 

The catechisms here spoken of, being the first publications in the Hawaiian 
language by the Catholic missionaries, deserve a special mention. 

They had been composed conjointly by Fathers Bachelot and Short, and 
were printed in 1831 at Macao, China; they were commonly called He Akua 
Akahi (There is one God) and He Ninau (The Question). 9 The fascicules, 

5 Letters of P. Walsh to F. Short, Aug. 29, 1839, and F. Maigret, Oct. 2G, 1830. 
G Letter of F. Walsh to Mgr. of Chalcedoine, Oct. 30, 1839. 

7 Letter of F. Walsh to F. Maigret, Sept. 5, 1S39. 

8 Letter August 29, 1839. 



144 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



by 5j4> were jointly put into one cover, which bore on its front page the 
title which we hereby reproduce: 
The translation is as follows: 

AN INSTRUCTION 

to men in the things relating to God; according to the interpretation of God's 
Word given by the Pontiffs of the Church of Jesus Christ, from the times of Jesus 
Christ till now. 

"Go and teach ye all nations." 

" . . . . Behold I am with you till the end of the world." 

Math. XVIII: 19, 20. 

"Stand firm, and hold the traditions which you have learned, whether by word 
or by our epistle." II Thess. II: 15 (for 14). 

The first part has 20 pages, and bears the title: O KE AO ANA KRISTIANO 
(Christian Doctrine). The first lesson begins with the words: He Akua alcahi; there 
is one God, which were commonly used to designate the booklet. 

It is divided into twelve paragraphs or lessons, one of which was to be recited 
every morning and evening. The first four lessons develop the Apostle's Creed; the 
Capital Sins and the Theological Virtues together with the 10 Commandments are 
given in the fifth lesson; the following three paragraphs give a short explanation 
of the Commandments and in the 8th, the six precepts of the Church are also 
indicated. In the 9th and 10th lessons we have the enumeration of the Sacraments 
with a definition of each of them. The llth paragraph treats of prayer, and has 
the Our Father and Hail Mary, whilst the last chapter contains an exhortation to 
assist at Mass, and winds up with the Acts of Faith, Hope, Charity and Contrition. 

Only one copy of this booklet is known to exist: it is in the Archives of 
the Motherhouse of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, at Braine-le-Comte, 
bound in a collection of autograph letters, vol. II, No. 27. 

The second part has 48 pages. The subtitle on page 1, He Ninua (for 
Ninau) ma ke Ao Ana Kristiano, has become the principal title in a second 
edition, published -at Paris in 1841. 

It is divided into thirty-three lessons, fifteen of which are consecrated to 
the explanation of the Apostles' Creed, twelve to the Commandments of God 
and of the Church, one to the Sacraments, three to prayer, while one treats 
of the Sacrifice of the Mass. 

Only four copies of this booklet are known to exist. These two catechisms 
are written in rather imperfect Hawaiian, and moreover contain a considerable 
number of typographical errors. Hence all the copies have corrections in the 
handwriting of Father Walsh 10 , except the copy in the Arch. M. H,, which has 
corrections in Father Bachelot's handwriting. 

A little publication of 48 pages, 5% by 3^ inches, issued in 1841 from the 
press of Migne, Paris, together with the new edition of "He Ninau ma ke Ao 
ana Kristiano," and which has for title "He Ninau hoike no na Kakerema ahiku, 
na Aleki Bakclo i kakau a i hoopono pono hou ia ma kekahi vahi," i. e. "A 
Catechism of the Seven Sacraments, written by Alexis Bachelot and corrected in 
some places," seems to have had also an earlier edition, of which no copy is 
known to exist. 

From the lesson on Matrimony contained in this publication, it does not 
follow that the first Catholic missionaries considered that marriages concluded 
between heretics are invalid, as might appear from what Rev. Lowell Smith 
writes in the Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 371: "He (Father Walsh) tells the 

9 Annales de la Propagation de la Poi, VIII, pp. 22, 23. 

10 Letter of F. "Walsh to F. Short, Aug. 29, 1839. Annales de la Propagation de la Poi, 
1833, p. 106. 



144 History of the Catholic Mission, in Hawaii 



> by 5J4, were jointly put into one cover, which bore on its front page the 
title which we hereby reproduce: 
The translation is as follows: 

AN INSTRUCTION 

to men in the things relating to God; according to the interpretation of God's 
Word given by the Pontiffs, of the Church of Jesus Christ, from the times of Jesus 
Christ till now. 

"Go and teach ye all nations." 

" . . . . Behold I am with you till the end of the world." 

Math. XVIII: 19, 20. 

"Stand firm, and hold the traditions which you have learned, whether by word 
or by our epistle." II Theas. II: 15 (for 14). 

The first part has 20 pages, and bears the title: KE AO ANA KRISTIANO 
(Christian Doctrine). The first lesson begins with the words: He Akua akahi; there 
is one God, which were commonly used to designate the booklet. 

It is divided into twelve paragraphs or lessons, one of which was to be recited 
every morning and evening. The first four lessons develop the Apostle's Creed; the 
Capital Sins and the Theological Virtues together with the 10 Commandments are 
given in the fifth lesson; the following three paragraphs give a short explanation 
of the Commandments and in the Sth, the six precepts of the Church are also 
indicated. In the 9th and 10th lessons we have the enumeration of the Sacraments 
with a definition of each of them. The llth paragraph treats of prayer, and has 
the Our Father and Hail Mary, whilst the last chapter contains an exhortation to 
assist at Mass, and winds up with the Acts, of Faith, Hope, Charity and Contrition. 

Only one copy of this booklet is known to exist: it is in the Archives of 
the Motherhouse of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, at Braine-le-Comte, 
bound in a collection of autograph letters, vol. II, No. 27. 

The second part has 48 pages. The subtitle on page 1, He Ninua (for 
Ninau) ma ke Ao Ana Kristiano, has become the principal title in a second 
edition, published at Paris in 1841. 

It is divided into thirty-three lessons, fifteen of which are consecrated to 
the explanation of the Apostles' Creed, twelve to the Commandments of God 
and of the Church, one to the Sacraments, three to prayer, while one treats 
of the Sacrifice of the Mass. 

Only four copies of this booklet are known to exist. These two catechisms 
are written in rather imperfect Hawaiian, and moreover contain a considerable 
number of typographical errors. Hence all the copies have corrections in the 
handwriting of Father Walsh 10 , except the copy in the Arch. M. H., which has 
corrections in Father Bachelot's handwriting. 

A little publication of 48 pages, 5j4 by 3J4 inches, issued in 1841 from the 
press of Migne, Paris, together with the new edition of "He Ninau ma ke Ao 
ana Kristiano," and which has for title "Pic Ninau hoikc no na Kakcrcma ahiku, 
na Alcki Bakclo i kakan a i finopono pono lion ia ma kckahi valii," i. e. "A 
Catechism of the Seven Sacraments, written by Alexis Bachelot and corrected in 
some places," seems to have had also an earlier edition, of which no copy is 
known to exist. 

From the lesson on Matrimony contained in this publication, it does not 
follow that the first Catholic missionaries considered that marriages concluded 
between heretics are invalid, as might appear from what Rev. Lowell Smith 
writes in the Missionary Herald, 1840. p. 371: "lie (Father Walsh) tells the 

!) Annalcs do la Propagation de la Foi, Ylll, ]>p. 2^, 21!. 

10 Letter of F. Walsh to P. Short, Any. :.'!>, ISM. Annnlc-s de la Propagation de la Foi, 
1S33, p. 100. 




OUR LADY OF THE MOUNT 
Kalihi-uka. near Honolulu 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 145 

people that they have never been legally married, and that we missionaries are 
living in adultery." 

Such an opinion would have been erroneous, considering that the decree 
Tametsi of the Council of Trent, was not in force in the Sandwich Islands, 
nor in the parts of the United States the Protestant missionaries hailed from. 

It is stated indeed that a common law marriage, contracted between baptized 
persons, if they could have obtained the blessing of a priest, would be sinful. 
Hence, even if in this term "baptized persons," Father Bachelot had meant 
to include heretics, it is not said that the marriages between them would be 
invalid but simply illicit. However, it is probable that only Catholics were 
intended, since the Prefect-Apostolic may have held the baptism of the 
Hawaiian Presbyterians and Congregationalists as invalid or at least doubtful. 11 

Father Walsh did not limit his zeal to the distribution of catechisms; in 
the words of Rev. Mr. Smith, which at once indicate the activity of the 
Catholic missionary and the pessimism with which the Protestant ministers 
regarded their own results, "he spared no pains to infuse the leaven of Romanism 
in the minds of the half -convicted people." 12 

He himself writes to Father Short: "I have very little time to spare either 
for writing or for reading. Sick calls are very numerous, and sometimes I have 
to go a great distance to baptize persons in periculo mortis" 

In his efforts he was ably seconded by the Catholic natives, whose zeal 
in making others partakers of their own happiness, is forcibly described by 
Rev. Mr. Bishop. He writes : "With a zeal worthy of a better cause, no part 
of this island (Oahu) has been left unexplored by the native Catholics to 
find proselytes for their system. These labors have been attended with some 
success, in raising up a party opposed to their former spiritual guides, and in 
drawing off our congregations, by getting up meetings of their own in every 
neighborhood where a sufficient number can be collected." 14 And again: "Num- 
bers who have long and perseveringly withstood the word of God and continued 
in impenitence are now flaming papists, going about the country seeking prose- 
lytes on the promise of health to the sick and life and salvation to all, and 
denouncing us as blind deceivers of the blind." 1 c 

Whilst thus the Catholic mission, unencouraged by the chiefs, but left free, 
went on increasing, so to say, by its own impetus, the Protestant mission's 
progress was suddenly stopped, not so much perhaps through the Catholic 
competition, as through the withdrawal of the compulsory backing of the 
government. 

"The present state of feeling among the people is quite unlike anything 
that I have ever seen before," writes one of the missionaries in the Missionary 
Herald. "Books are in very little demand; schools very poorly attended; 
teachers leaving their work, and going to other employments, because we cannot 
support them, and the people can not or will not do it. I hope, however, this 
state of things will, ere long, pass away; I hope and trust it may." 10 

Although the number of catechumens daily increased, Father Walsh was not 
too hasty in admitting them to baptism; neither was he so difficult as some of 

11 Cf. Annales de la Prop, de la Foi, VI, p. 104 et seq. ; also, chapter XI, p. . . of this 
volume. 

12 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 371. 

13 Letter to F. Short, Sept. 5th, 1S39. 

14 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 372. 

15 Annual Reports to A. B. C. F. M., 1841, p. 167. For these faithcures see Annales de 
la Propagation de la Foi, 1842, p. 378, and Missionary Herald, 1840, pp. 372, 373. 

16 Rev. Mr. Emerson in Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 374. 



$<&':$!* mr^Tp^^t&f^^ 

: c: i',. F'.. fe'd >*- .-.V- ;, . -rns-!... 



^fe\- ili^t^'. ^* t^^/^v^r ~-:HV-;;-",:2$>2j?'<' 




OCR LADY OF T1IK MOUNT 
Kalihi-uka. n ;ir Honolulu 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 145 

people that they have never been legally married, and that we missionaries are 
living in adultery." 

Such an opinion would have been erroneous, considering that the decree 
Tametsi of the Council of Trent, was not in force in the Sandwich Islands, 
nor in the parts of the United States the Protestant missionaries hailed from. 

It is stated indeed that a common law marriage, contracted between baptized 
persons, if they could have obtained the blessing of a priest, would be sinful. 
Hence, even if in this term "baptized persons," Father Bachelot had meant 
to include heretics, it is not said that the marriages between them would be 
invalid but simply illicit. However, it is probable that only Catholics were 
intended, since the Prefect-Apostolic may have held the baptism of the 
Hawaiian Presbyterians and Congregationalists as invalid or at least doubtful. 11 

Father Walsh did not limit his zeal to the distribution of catechisms ; in 
the words of Rev. Mr. Smith, which at once indicate the activity of the 
Catholic missionary and the pessimism with which the Protestant ministers 
regarded their own results, "he spared no pains to infuse the leaven of Romanism 
in the minds of the half -convicted people." 12 

He himself writes to Father Short: "I have very little time to spare either 
for writing or for reading. Sick calls are very numerous, and sometimes I have 
to go a great distance to baptize persons in periculo mortis"' 13 

In his efforts he was ably seconded by the Catholic natives, whose zeal 
in making others partakers of their own happiness, is forcibly described by 
Rev. Mr. Bishop. He writes: "With a zeal worthy of a better cause, no part 
of this island (Oahu) has been left unexplored by the native Catholics to 
find proselytes for their system. These labors have been attended with some 
success, in raising up a party opposed to their former spiritual guides, and in 
drawing off our congregations, by getting up meetings of their own in every 
neighborhood where a sufficient number can be collected." 11 And again: "Num- 
bers who have long and perseveringly withstood the word of God and continued 
in impenitence are now flaming papists, going about the country seeking prose- 
lytes on the promise of health to the sick and life and salvation to all, and 
denouncing us as blind deceivers of the blind. " ir> 

Whilst thus the Catholic mission, unencouraged by the chiefs, but left free, 
went on increasing, so to say, by its own impetus, the Protestant mission's 
progress was suddenly stopped, not so much perhaps through the Catholic 
competition, as through the withdrawal of the compulsory backing of the 
government. 

"The present state of feeling among the people is quite unlike anything 
that I have ever seen before," writes one of the missionaries in the Missionary 
Herald. "Books are in very little demand ; schools very poorly attended ; 
teachers leaving their work, and going to other employments, because we cannot 
support them, and the people can not or will not do it. I hope, however, this 
state of things will, ere long, pass away; I hope and trust it may." 11 '' 

Although the number of catechumens daily increased, Father Walsh was not 
too hasty in admitting them to baptism ; neither was he so difficult as some of 

11 Cf. Annalcs do la Prop, cle la. Foi, VI, p. 104 et soil. : also, chapter XI, ji. .. oC this 
volume. 

12 Missionary Herald, 18-10, p. 371. 

13 Letter to F. Short, Sept. 5th, 3S3<i. 

14 Missionary Herald, 18-10, p. 372. 

15 Annual Reports to A. B. C. F. M., IS-ll, p. lt!7. For these t'aithenres see Annalcs do 
la Propagation de la Foi, 1S42, p. ,'!7S, and Missionary Herald, 18-10, pp. 372, 37:'.. 

I(i Rev. Mr. Emerson in Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 374. 



146 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the Protestant ministers. What he required was a thorough instruction in the 
Catholic doctrine ; for the improvement of their morals he trusted to the repeated 
reception of the sacraments of Penance and Holy Communion, well knowing 
that the Church is not a gathering of perfect men, but a training school of 
holiness. 

On the 26th of October he wrote to Father Short: "I intend preparing 
from a hundred to 150 for baptism shortly. They know the "He Akua Akahi" 
and a great many of them a part of "Ka Ninau," but it is necessary to ground 
them in the sense of the words of these books, lest any of them might be 
seduced by the elect. For this purpose I ask them several questions on the 
Christian doctrine, to which several of them give very correct answers." 17 

The majority of these catechumens seem not to have been able to pass 
their examination on the appointed day, for on the 16th of November, only 
25 men and 37 women received baptism. 18 

Apart from these 62 adults, Father Walsh administered the Sacrament to 
133 children, 30 men and 45 women at different times between the proclamation 
of religious liberty and the arrival of Mgr. Rouchouze on May 14th of the 
following year. The total number of those that had been baptized in the islands 
up till that date by the members of the Catholic mission amounted to 550. 19 

Meanwhile Father Columba Murphy had remained quietly at Honolulu, 
where he does not seem to have exercised the ministry, probably studying 
theology under Father Walsh's direction. He left on la Clementine towards 
the end of October, 1839, and having touched at Valparaiso, arrived at Man- 
gareva on March 26 of the following year. From him Mgr. Rouchouze 
appears to have learned for the first time about the happy results which the 
visit of L'Artemise had brought about in the Sandwich Islands. La Clementine, 
having to return thither, the prelate eagerly seized the opportunity of visiting 
that important division of his vicariate. He consequently left Mangareva on 
the 5th of April, 1840, accompanied by Fathers Louis Maigret, Columba 
Murphy and Armand Chausson; but on passing through the Marquesas Islands 
he took from there Fathers Ernest Heurtel and Dositheus Desvault, leaving 
Messrs. Murphy and Chausson to fill their places. 

The 15th of May the vessel came to anchor at Honolulu. 20 The news 
of the Bishop's arrival at once spread through the village. On the shore, 
which was thronged with crowds of the curious, the company was cordially 
welcomed by Father Walsh, who conducted them to his little chapel where 
they were awaited by over three hundred catechumens and neophytes. After 
the singing of the Tc Deum they passed into the yard where those of the 
faithful who had suffered most during the persecution were presented to His 
Lordship. 21 

On the following Sunday Mgr. Rouchouze celebrated a solemn pontifical 
Mass ; the crowd which thronged the chapel and the premises was estimated 
at 5,000 people. 

May 29, two. hundred copies of an Hawaiian alphabet were printed for the 
use of the Catholic schools, which the priests were anxious to open as soon 
as possible. 22 



17 Letter, Oct. 26, 1839. 
18 Honolulu Baptism Records. 

19 Ibidem. 

20 F. Maigret's Diary. 

21 Annals Propagation Faith, 1842, p. 270. 

22 F. Maigret's Diary. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 147 

On the vigil of Pentecost, which happened on June 5th, ninety-two, adults 
were solemnly christened by. the Vicar- Apostolic. The new missionaries were 
not hampered by the ignorance of the language as Fathers Bachelot and Short 
had been. Knowing the dialects of Mangareva and the Marquesas, they rapidly 
acquired a working knowledge of Hawaiian, in which idiom Fathers Maigret and 
Dositheus were able to preach within three weeks after their arrival. 23 They 
were thus free to give rein to their zeal; nor did they work in vain; at the 
close of the year 1840, 2049 persons had been admitted to baptism on the 
island of Oahu, counting from the day the Edict of Tolerance was promulgated. 

Moreover, a new mission had been founded on the Big Island. But before 
we speak of this extension of missionary activity, we would like to mention 
a spirited effort by one of the younger Protestant missionaries to convert 
the members of the Catholic mission to the Protestant tenets, which, could he 
have succeeded, would have stopped the Catholic propaganda better than ban- 
ishment, forced labor or floods of misrepresentation. 

On June 13th the Reverend Lowell Smith, pastor of Kaumakapili Church 
at Honolulu, called on Father Maigret. We have the following account of the 
interview by Mgr. Rouchouze: 

"One of these days, one of them (of the Protestant missionaries) came and 
asked to have a talk with Father Maigret. He was a young man, who intended 
to enlighten us, and who regarded us simply as blind ones. He claimed that 
we are idolaters, pitied greatly the condition we were in, and promised to send 
books to Father Maigret. The latter engaged himself to read every one of 
them to the last line, provided that the minister was equally to read those 
which we would lend him. 

"It having thus been agreed, he returned the next day armed with I do not 
know which work, and for a long time discussed images, the Bible and con- 
fession. Finally, giving up all hope of converting us, he left, deploring the fate 
of those poor Roman Catholics who would have virtue if they were not idolaters." 

The prelate continues: "Mr. Bingham, having been informed of the affair 
is said to have conceived a favorable impression of our moderation and 
tolerance, but he blamed the imprudence of his young companion for having 
advanced himself so far in the controversy. 

"The young minister seems really to be in good faith, and it is possible 
that among them some persons are in that case. We, also, judge them to be 
pitied rather than to be blamed. Moreover, they are said to lead a mortified 
life, eating only vegetables and milkfood. Almost all of them have the same 
physiognomy; they are lean, pale and lank; they speak little, whilst their coun- 
tenance is modest, recollected, alwavs mysterious and somber. 

"Their principal occupation is the translation of the Bible ; all their preaching 
consists in the reading of the Divine Book. One of them, however, who has 
recently arrived from the United States, had it printed that the Bible has 
converted but few people, and that the greatest advantage it till then had fur- 
nished was limited to being a reader for the children, and that consequently 
catechisms are preferable for the people." 24 

A few days previous to the visit of this missionary, a French man-of-war, 
the Pylade, had arrived. On Sunday the officers and a part of the crew 
assisted at the celebration of a military Mass. The king and his retinue also at- 
tended, and at the close of the ceremonies His Majesty called upon the Bishop. 

23 M. Maigret's Diary. 

24 Lettres Lithographiees, I. p. 684. 



148 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

It was now thought that the time had come to establish a mission on the 
Big Island, and Fathers Walsh and Heurtel were consequently put in charge 
of this undertaking. They embarked for Hawaii on the 23rd of June, and on 
their arrival at Kailua three days later were well received by the governor, 
Kuakini, who on the same day sent them a present of fish. A few days after- 
ward he put a stone building, which was in a somewhat dilapidated condition, 
at their disposal. A young chief (Leleiohoku), a son of the late Kalanimoku, 
also showed himself very favorable to the newcomers, and did much to advance 
their cause. 25 

Kuakini himself was at that time under a sentence of excommunication, 
Father Walsh says, for wearing flower wreaths and such like worldly adorn- 
ments. 26 

Rev. Mr. Forbes, who was one of the missionaries in charge of the Kona mission, 
does not enumerate the wearing of wreaths among the causes which call for church 
discipline. It may therefore be that the reason of the Governor's disgrace was that 
he had whiled away his time in playing cards; perhaps he had even indulged in 
that pernicious habit of smoking tobacco, thereby unduly risking his life, which was 
yet so necessary to the nation. The very extraordinary account a missionary, given 
of the effects of tobacco smoking, may be read in the Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 156. 
The account is well-nigh incredible; however, it must be said that Hawaiian tobacco 
is exceedingly heavy and strong. 

In August the suspended chieftain was restored to church-membership, not 
repenting though of his former wickedness, but expressly stipulating that he 
would continue to adorn his soul's temple in native style. 27 

Although curiosity and an inclination for novelty caused their chapel to be 
crowded on Sundays, and even the chiefs attended the services, the two priests 
could not flatter themselves with much success during the first few months. At 
the repeated request of Father Walsh, the Bishop came over to stimulate the 
good cause by his presence. Withal, at the end of the year they had registered 
only fifteen baptisms, of which twelve were of adults and the rest of infants, 
whilst four had been administered in danger of death. 28 

They found it very difficult to make an impression on the people, the 
reason hereof appearing to be that the minds of the natives had been prejudiced 
against the "papists" by the reading of a Church history written in the 
Hawaiian language by the Rev. J. S. Green. 

When reading the following extracts from this curious booklet, strangely 
labeled a "History," one will readily understand why the natives were timid to 
embrace the "Pope's religion." 

After having told his readers on p. 31, how the first Pope came into 
existence in the year of Our Lord 606 (ignoring the sixty-six predecessors of 
Boniface III for convenience's sake), the Hawaiian Eusebius explains in a few 
pithy sentences how that wonderful Roman Priest, living on through the 
centuries when everybody around him died, succeeded in bringing and keeping 
all Christendom under his sway. 

"At that time (A. D. 606) the sinfulness of the world was exceedingly great. 
Truly devout people were few in number, and these lived Jar from Rome. God had 
not given the Holy Ghost; therefore the people were unconverted to righteousness. 
They were confirmed in sloth and in obstinacy of heart, and most of the people 
of that time acted sinfully. For this reason tliey were, ready to 1 follow the Pope. 



25 Lettres Lithographiees, 1. p. 714. 

26 Letter to Mgr. Rouchouze, Aug. 14, 1S40; to F. Maigret, June 2fl, 1839. 

27 Letter of F. Walsh, Aug. 14, 1840. 

28 Kailua Baptism Records. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 149 

"About some things the Pope did to increase his power: 

1. He forbade men to read the word of God. 

2. He tried to proselytize the people of all lands. His servants went to all 
countries to baptize the ignorant people in order to make them his* And if they 
refused and did not want to become his servants, the Pope's servants made ioa,r 
upon them and vanquished them. In this way his followers increased, exceedingly. 

3. The Pope filled his churches with statues and approved of the people who 
prayed to (mamuli, after) them. 

4. The Pope consented that many become monks; they lived alone in caves and 
in holes and in the desert, passing their time in idleness. They were slaves of 
the Pope. 

5. The Pope allowed men to go and seek for the bones of the Apostles and of 
pious people; he allowed them also to seek the true cross of Jesus, and all kind of 
things; and he allowed them to sell those things that they might be worshipped by 
men. All Judea was searched; and if anyone found some old bones of men or of 
animals, they brought them to Rome, and sold them for very Mg money. 

6. For the money which ignorant people gave him the Pope forgave men their 
sins and allowed them to commit sin. The Pope said that God had given him power 
to forgive all sins; consequently many murderers, fornicators, thieves and all kind of 
evildoers went frequently to him, gave the Pope money, and he told every one of 
them, as follows: "Your sins and your crimes are forgiven." 

On account of these evil proceedings the Pope got immensely rich; and many 
sinners became his servants. 

7. The Pope announced to men that he had the power to deliver the souls 
of those that remain in the inextinguishable fire of hell. Many then went to him, 
asking him to 'deliver the souls of their parents, of their children, of their relations 
and of their friends; and they gave great sums of money to the Pope."2 

All this was certainly very wicked, but 

"8. Here is something else the Pope did to increase his power. He built a great 
prison. And if it was thought that somebody had sinned against the Pope, they 
cast him quick in that prison, and his goods were confiscated in favor of the Pope; 
he (probably the offender of the Pope) died finishing his days in that house."30 

It is hardly imaginable that the Roman monster of iniquity could have 
pushed his abominations any further, however, on page 53 we find 

"Something else the Pope did to make his church stronger. He persecuted all 
those that did not worship in accordance with his wishes. So he did in all the 
countries of Europe. It is thought that 50,000,000 (fifty million) men perished in 
the persecution. The majority of these people lived in Italy, Holland, Spain, France, 
Germany and England." 

These "50,000,000" victims of the Pope are not a product of the printer's devil. 
Armstrong gives proof of the bad faith with which these figures were produced by 
himself and his colleague when he writes in the Nonanona, Jan. 4, 1842, p. 4: 

"ON THE PEOPLE KILLED BY THE PAPISTS FOR RESISTING THEM. We 
read that 200,000 were killed within seven years in the time of Pope Julius. In 
three months 100,000 were killed in France because they opposed the Pope. Of the 
Waldensera 1,000,000 were killed. Within 30 years 900,000 were put to death by the 
Jesuits in Europe. The Duke of Alva caused 30,000 to be hanged. In Ireland 150,000 
were slain at the same time. Some learned people figure that the number of people 
killed by the Papists in 1,400 years amounts to fifty million men. People of Hawaii, 
what do you think of the Papist religion? Does it seem good to you? . . . ." 

As if it were bad enough to make the Popes responsible for all the people 
slain in the wars and revolutions which raged in Europe for fourteen centuries, 
and to accuse peaceful priests with wholesale slaughter, the poor Catholic Irish 
victims of Cromwell and William of Orange must be made to swell the number 
of the Pope's slaughtered enemies, unless perhaps, forgetting the hundred 

29 He Moolelo no ka Ekalesia o Jesu Kristo, Lahainaluna, 1835, pp. 32, 33. 

30 Ibidem, p. 34. 



150 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

thousands massacred by these defenders of the Protestant faith, those Protestants 
are meant who in 1641 fell under the swords of the exasperated Irish whom 
unjustly they had robbed of their property. 

It is really refreshing after all this to be informed on the following page 
that "the church of Rome is not so strong any more as it used to be." 31 

There we find also some light anent that prison which the Pope had built for 
his enemies. We had thought that perhaps the castle of San Angelo was 
meant, but it appears to have been the Bastille of Paris, for among the causes 
of the weakening of the Papacy is also enumerated: 

"The rebellion of the French against their princes, and the overthrow of the 
great prison. It was Bonaparte who humiliated the Pope and who destroyed the 
great prison (hale paahao nui) in Europe." 

Whilst the priests at Kailua struggled laboringly to eradicate the prejudices 
which the reading of this and similar books had created, their mission on Oahu 
was steadily progressing. The chapel at Honolulu had since long been insufficient 
to contain the always increasing number of neophytes. 

It was therefore resolved to start the building of a spacious stone church 
of 115 by 50 feet, and on the 22nd of June, 1840, a contract was made with 
a Mr. F. J. Greenway, whereby this gentleman agreed to do the specified 
"carpenter's and mason's work and to find all the materials to this end and 
completion of the church for the sum of $14, ISO." 32 

On the 9th of July, a date so dear to the members of the Catholic mission, 
the ground was broken, and on the 6th of August, the cornerstone was laid 
by Mgr. Rouchouze in presence of the king, Governor Kekuanaoa and the. officers 
of the French sloop-of-war Danaide, which happened to be in port. 33 "The 
cornerstone was laid in the corner where stands (in 1858) the side altar of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, at the men's side; for there the building terminated 
before." 34 

In agreement with the treaty of the preceding year, a piece of land had been 
granted for the purpose, the site of which was, according to Rev. Lowell Smith, 
"some thirty-five or forty rods southwest from our new meetinghouse," 35 
i. e., the old Kaumakapili church on Beretania street. It is the lot called Pakea, 
at the mauka-Waikiki corner of Hotel and Smith streets. 

It was, however, resolved not to build the cathedral on that lot, but on the 
place already occupied by the mission since 1828, and to erect the sanctuary on 
the site of the early chapel. "If nothing changes, our actual little chapel, which 
we may regard as the cradle of Catholicism in Oceania, will be the sanctuary 
of the church we are going to build." 36 

In a dairy of a lay brother we read: "They started working on the new 
straw chapel and school, in order afterwards to demolish the old chapel and to 
erect the sanctuary and steeple in its place. New preparations to enlarge and 
lengthen the church are being made." 37 

This temporary chapel and school was finished December 11, 1841, and on 
the 30th of that month a beginning was made with the digging of the founda- 
tions for the sanctuary and steeple. 38 After much interruption and difficulty, 

31 Ibidem, p. 54. 

32 Greenway's Specifications. 

33 Maigret's Diary. 

Si P. Maigret, Haimanava, 1840, August 6. (Presently the altar of St. Joseph.) 

35 Missionary Herald, 1840, p. 371. 

36 Letter of F. Maigret to Bishop of Calcedoine, June 22, 1840. 

37 Bro. Calixte's Diary, Nov. 24, 1841. 

38 Ibidem. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 151 

on account of Mr. Greenway's bankruptcy, the cathedral was completed in 
August, 1843, and solemnly blest and dedicated to Our Lady of Peace on the 
15th of that month. 80 

The above given quotations sufficiently show that the chapel built by Father 
Bachelot in 1828, "the cradle of Catholicism in Oceania," was demolished in 
December, 1841 ; hence the square two-story adobe house which stood where is 
now the statue of Our Lady of Peace, is not what it was claimed to be, the 
first Catholic church in the Hawaiian Islands. Neither is it altogether right 
to say that the chapel which was replaced by the present cathedral was. For 
one of the three grasshouses spoken of in Chapter IV was used as a chapel 
for over five months before 1828. When they moved to the present mission 
premises they set apart half of their new dwelling as a chapel, and dedicated 
it to the SS. Hearts. It could contain 40 persons, and in it, two partitions 
were made with mats to serve as sacristies. 40 The house here spoken of was 
finished Jan. 11; the Fathers slept in it for the first time three days later. 41 

Before the laying of the cornerstone had told Hawaii that Catholicism had 
come to stay, Reverend Mr. Bingham had quit the field. For the sake of his 
wife's impaired health, he obtained permission to visit his native land, and 
embarked August the 3d, never more to tread the Hawaiian soil. 

It was Mr. Bingham's intention to return to the mission of which he was 
the founder. But as after several years the health of Mrs. Bingham failed to 
improve, he asked and received towards the beginning of 1846, a release from 
his connection with the American Board. In the year 1863, friends of 
Protestant missions in different parts of the United States united in securing 
for him an annuity, by which he was enabled to pass a comfortable old age. 
He died November 11, 1869. 42 

For the man's animosity against Catholics and the several failings it made 
him fall into, we should perhaps not judge him harshly. If one has studied 
Church history in the Centuriators of Magdeburg, and. theology in a New 
England college of the beginning of the XIX century, he cannot be expected to 
see in the Catholic Church anything but "the woman drunk with the blood of 
the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs" (think of the 50,000,000!) "of 
Jesus . . . the habitation of devils, and the hold of every unclean spirit, and 
the hold of every unclean and hateful bird." 43 

Mr. Bingham's temper was a domineering one, and caused him to be dis- 
liked by his own brethren. Mr. Rufus Anderson says of him : 

"Two successive kings, and the chief men and women who ruled in his time, 
deferred unconsciously to the moral power he was exerting upon them, and the strong- 
minded, strong-willed Kaahumanu was very much like him, after her conversion, in 
the best features of her mind and character. It is believed that in matters of religion 
there was generally a mutual sympathy and cooperation between them. The traits 
of character, which sometimes embarrassed the deliberations when he was in council 
with his brother missionaries, and which perhaps prevented his acquiring a large 
personal influence among the churches of his native land, were among the things 
required in the peculiar circumstances of his position, in the first twenty years of the 
mission. . . . 

"It was scarcely possible for Mr. Bingham, if returned to the Islands, to resume 
his old relations, and work with the ease and freedom of olden times. Missionaries 
were no longer insulated and independent forces. A Christian commonwealth had 



39 Relatio Vicarii Apostolici Ins. Sandw. ad S. Congr. de Prop. Fide December, 1864, p. 2. 

40 Bachelot's Letter to Condrin, April 14, 1828, and March 19, 1828. 

41 Letter of Short to Cummins, April 15, 1828. 

42 Letter of Rufus Anderson to Sandw. Isl. Mission, Jan. 22, 1846; and Rufus Anderson's 
History of the Mission of the A. B. C. F. M. to the Sandwich Islands, 1872, pp. 232, 235. 

43Apoc. XVII:6, and XVIII:2. 



152 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

arisen, and a community of interests. It was understood to be the belief of Mr. 
Bingham himself, that, after so long an absence, he would not be able to accommodate 
himself to the new state of things."44 

Mr. Bingham's place at Honolulu was taken by the Rev. Richard Armstrong 
(in Hawaiian, Limaikaika) , a man not less saturated with prejudice than his 
predecessor. A graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary, he had arrived in 
the Sandwich Islands in May, 1832 ; the following year he left for the Washing- 
ton Islands where he remained less than a year, and on his return to his former 
mission, he was stationed at Wailuku on the island of Maui. He was the author 
of a controversional tract entitled "Hoikepope" which we may translate as "An 
Arraignment of the Pope." This pamphlet is as bad a misrepresentation of 
Catholic doctrines as was ever printed. "Catholics say that the pope is impec- 
cable; he absolutely cannot commit sin," is a fair sample of the rest. 

By the foundation of an Hawaiian semi-monthly paper, called "Nonanona" 
(The Ant), and worse yet by his becoming minister of Public Instruction, he 
was to be one of the most implacable adversaries the Catholics ever had in the 
Islands. But for him, Catholics and Protestant might have lived together in 
peace, and worked conjointly at the uplifting of the Hawaiian race. 

Public controversies were soon in order: two instances are related by 
Father Dositheus in the Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, vol. Ill, pp. 
272 et seq. 

If these discussions were not without acrimony, they also served to allay 
much prejudice. At the end of his relation of the second conference with Rev. 
Mr. Bishop, Father Dositheus says : "I was pleased at perceiving that this 
minister showed a moderation which I did not expect. He concluded by advis- 
ing his disciples not to insult our Christians. I, on my side, gave the same 
recommendation to our neophytes, and we parted good friends." 

Soon we see priests and ministers visiting each other and even dining 
together. The relations with the king and chiefs grew also more and more 
cordial. 

On November 9, 1840, arrived a first reinforcement, consisting of Fathers 
Martial Jan, Denys Maudet, Mr. Barnabe Castan, and the laybrothers Vincent, 
Calixte Lecomte and Juste Faribault. They arrived in the ship Philanthrope, 
Capt. Jayer. 45 

Mr. Barnabe was not a priest yet, but was ordained by the Bishop of 
Nilopolis during the month of December. 46 

The mission was firmly established now, but the work of extension was 
hampered by many wants. The schools were in need of books, the churches in 
need of ornaments and vestments that the ceremonies might be conducted with 
suitable solemnity; money, the sinew of propaganda as well as of war, was 
lacking entirely, though much needed for the building of the cathedral and 
other churches, for schools and for the support of the missionaries. Moreover, 
albeit there were now seven priests besides the Bishop, their number was far 
too small to evangelize successfully the whole archipelago. 

These considerations prompted Mgr. Rouchouze to undertake a voyage to 
France there to obtain the means of filling these several wants. He embarked 
on the 3rd of January, 1841, accompanied by two native boys from the Sand- 



44 History of the Mission of the A. B. C. F. M. to the Sandwich Islands, 1872, pp. 233-235. 

45 F. Maigret's Diary. 

46 Mr. Maigret, Haimanava, p. 7. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 153 

wich Islands, and two from Mangareva, probably with the intention of educat- 
ing them in France either for the priesthood or for catechists. 47 

Having successfully carried out his enterprise, the Bishop was ready to re- 
embark for his missions towards the end of 1842. He embarked at St. Malo 
on the 15th of December on the brig Marie- Joseph in company with six priests, 
one subdeacon, seven laybrothers, ten sisters and Evarist, one of the aforemen- 
tioned Mangareva boys. 

The Marie-Joseph was a brig of 128 tons which had been built that same 
year. She was commanded by a Captain O'Sullivan and had a crew consisting 
of twelve men. 48 

The last time anything was heard of the vessel was from the Island of St. 
Catherine, off the Brazilian coast, under date of February 11, 1843. There the 
party landed to bury one of the sisters and the young native. 

Recently it has been stated that on the Marshall Islands a tradition exists 
concerning the arrival of a French vessel having on board a bishop, priests and 
sisters. The passengers would have come ashore and approached the natives 
with various demonstrations of friendship, which were met with a rain of 
arrows. The captain wanted to repell the attack by a fusillade but the Bishop 
forbade him, saying : "We would kill them uselessly ; this were not fitting for 
missionaries who come to bring these people a message of peace." They then 
knelt down in prayer and were massacred, the captain and his sailors escaping, 
it is thought in a boat. 49 

The preceding story is on the authority of a white man by the name of 
Fleming who had lived on the Marshall Islands, and had married there a native 
woman. 

Another version of perhaps the same story was collected by a Catholic mis- 
sionary who in 1910 visited the Arno atoll. According to it, a small boat with 
eight white people should have come to the atoll about the time the Marie- 
Joseph met her fate. The visitors had black beards; one seemed older than 
the rest, as his beard was getting grey, whilst another was judged much 
younger than his companions, on account of his budding whiskers. Two of the 
strangers remained in the boat whilst the others were conducted by the natives 
to a place where they could drink, as it was thought that they were looking 
for water. When numerous boats filled with natives arrived from the various 
islands in the atoll, the two men in the boat became alarmed, and gave a signal, 
whereupon the ones on shore made for the boat with great hurry. The natives 
then followed and attacked them, and killed the whole party of eight. In the 
pockets of the slain ones were found pearl beads, and in the boat two bags of 
tobacco, bags full of clothing among which were long black garments, some 
hatchets, a harpoon and some soap. 

The event had been recorded by the inhabitants in a song, in which the 
word "missionary" occurs. This attracted the attention of the priest and in- 
duced him to inquire about the facts. The natives said that they had taken 
the "missionare" to be the name of the oldest man of the visiting party. 

These details were had . from the mouth of one of the murderers, who in 
1910 was thought to be between 80 and 90 years, and said that the thing 
occurred before the birth of his wife who actually was 60 or 70 years. 50 

The Fleming story is obviously not a native tradition of the massacre. 

47 P. Maigret's Diary. 

48 Annales des Sacres Coeurs, 1910, p. 111. 

49 Annales des Sacres Coeurs, 1910, p. 7C. 

50 H. Linckens, Auf den Marshall Inseln. 1911, pp. 46-50. 



154 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

What did the Marshall-islanders of the 40's know about the French, bishops, 
priests and sisters? How could they understand the conversation between the 
victims ? 

As far as the second narrative is concerned, it is so highly improbable that 
the Marie-Joseph or any of its boats should have reached the Marshall 
Islands, that the mere details of pearl beads and long coats do not seem to 
warrant identifying the massacred crew with passengers of the lost French 
vessel. 

March 13, 1843, a French vessel was seen at 51 deg. lat. south, and 62 deg. 
long, west, which is somewhere to the Northwest of the Falkland Islands, so 
to say, at the entrance of the Strait of Magellan. 51 

The Marie-Joseph had been at anchor off Desterro, St. Catherine, for 
about two weeks during the month of February. It is therefore presumable 
that the French ship mentioned above, is no other but the one which carried 
the unfortunate Vicar-Apostolic and his companions, and that she was wrecked 
in that perilous Straits of Magellan where so many vessels before her had 
found a briny grave. 52 



51 Annales de la Propagation de la Poi, XVII, p. 152. 

52 For a description of a tempest in that Strait t see Dumont d'Urville, Voyage autour du 
Monde, II, p. 540. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 155 



CHAPTER XIV 
The School Question A Struggle for Life 

School law of October 15, 1840. Catholic Principles on Education. Reasons for 
Catholic opposition against Hawaiian Common Schools. Father Maigret's Policy. 
His Normal School. Schoolbooks. The Centuries. Success of Catholic Schools. 
School law of May 21, 1841. Oppressive Taboos. The Embuscade. French Demands. 
Dionisio of Molokai. Catholic Pupils Punished. King advocates Harmony. The 
Friend on F. Maigret's Normal School. The Ahuimanu grant. Department of Public 
Instruction. Admiral Tromelin, the Poursuivante. French Outrage. Further conces- 
sions. No Privileges asked. 

At the Annual Meeting of the A. B. C. F. M. of 1837, the following rule was 
adopted : "It shall be the duty of the Prudential Committee to ( affix a limit 
to the annual expense of each mission." The expenses for the current year 
were restricted to $30,000 for the Hawaiian Mission. 1 Somewhat later the 
Protestant missionaries were informed that $35,000 would be the limit which 
their expenses would not be expected to exceed. 2 In another letter secretary 
Anderson wrote: "I also send you a copy of the paper on limiting the expenses 
of the missions, which was submitted to the Board, as I happen to have such 
a copy by me, and the information may be useful. You will do well to be 
prepared for the worst, and yet hope for the best." 3 And again: "The more 
the natives help themselves, and the more disposition they manifest to do so, 
the more encouragement will there be to help them and you, with funds and 
men." 4 

The Protestant missionaries, thus urged and constrained to cut down their 
expenses, deliberated in their general meeting, which was held at Honolulu dur- 
ing the months of May and June, 1840, on the means of this urgency. One 
of the means devised was to put the burden of the schools on the shoulders of 
the nation without losing control of education. 

A committee of three was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Armstrong, 
Dibble and Andrews, to confer with the King and chiefs on the subject of 
education. It was, however, voted that 50 dollars be appropriated to each 
station for common schools. 5 

It is perhaps a mere coincidence that as a committee of three missionaries 
appointed in 1828 had started the campaign against the Catholics, so now also 
a similar committee was to be the first cause of a series of annoyances which 
caused much mental suffering to the Catholic priests, and a good deal of bodily 
suffering to many of their neophytes. 

The promulgation of a school law on October 15, 1840, had certainly a 
closer relation with the missionary committee than that of mere coincidence, as 
we may well infer from the following extract : 

"It was known that the government had, for more than a year, had before them 
a project of a law for the encouragement of education. The better and more intelligent 
class of the people were ready to second the will of the government on the subject. 

1 General Letters, Oct. 30, 1837, p. 1. 

2 General Letters, May 22, 1839. 

3 Ibidem, Oct. 8, 1839. 

4 Ibidem, Dec. 14, 1839. 

5 Extracts from the Minutes of the General Meeting, p. 20. 



156 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

The thing, however, moved slowly. The friends of education, waited for the chiefs to 
take the lead. The teachers feared that nothing would be done . . . ... 6 

For the understanding of the history of this period, it is necessary to give 
some rather lengthy extracts of this school law. The following are transla- 
tions from the Hawaiian text: 

Art. 1. Whenever there is any number of parents having fifteen or more children 
of a suitable age to attend school, if they live near each other, in the same village, 
or in the same township, it shall be their duty to procure themselves a teacher, which 
they shall do in the following manner: 

The tax-officer shall give notice by a crier of the time and place at which all 
the male parents of the township, district or village shall meet, and they shall choose 
three of their number as a school-committee for that place. If the number of children 
in any place be less than fifteen, then their fathers shall unite with another company 
nearby. 

Art. 2. Said school-committee shall then go to some neighboring missionary, 
and together they will look out for a teacher. If there are only a few children, one 
teacher will be sufficient, but when there are many children, let there be two teachers, 
and if there are very many, three or more teachers may be appointed. The school- 
committee may act in this according to their judgment. 

Art. 3. When they (to wit, the missionary of the place, the teacher and the 
school-committee) have found a teacher, they will confer as to his salary, and after 
they have reached an agreement, the school-committee shall tax the people according 
to the need of the teacher or teachers of that place. They shall proceed as follows: 
They select a piece of uncultivated laud, and going to the landlord of that place, 
they show it to him. Then, that land is transferred to the King for the benefit of 
the teacher. 

Art. 4. That land shall be cultivated in the following way: Three public labor- 
days (la paahao) of the King will yearly be set apart for the teacher; also three days 
of the landlords, and three days of the people. The teacher shall say what kind of 
work has to be performed on the land. 

And if any one, either vagrant or resident, does not go to work on the appointed 
days, he will have to pay a fine of one quarter. 

The male pupils also shall work for the teacher, each six hours a week. However, 
children under eight years and sickly ones, are not obliged to work. 

Art. 5. Another reward for the teachers is the following: They need not go to 
the public work of the King and the landlords. Neither will they have to pay the 
poll-tax, whilst they remain in charge of the school. Their wives also enjoy the 
same privileges. ... If no land can be found, the school-committee and the missionary 
will look for means to support the teacher. The committee shall tax the people, 
the landlords and the chiefs, as they shall find it proper, so that all equally contribute 
to education. 

Art. 6. It would not be just that all teachers receive the same salary. Very able 
teachers, who work assidiously, and have many pupils, ought to have a high salary. 
But he who has less capacity and works less, let him have also less wages. Nor 
should anybody be considered a teacher in accordance with the law, unless he has 
received a teacher's certificate from the teacher of the Laha-ina High scliool (an arch-* 
Protestant, private institution, Author) or from the school-superintendents. 

Art. 8. Wherever the children suffer from the lack of good schools, the school- 
committee shall confer with the people of the place, and the latter shall make a school 
according to the directions of the committee. As this is a work which is not only 
for the benefit of the chiefs but of the citizens as well, it will not be done on public 
work days. 

If any one does not go to work on the days appointed by the school-committee, 
he shall be fined in the same way as those who absent themselves from the public 
works. 

Art. 9. The following children are obliged to go to school: all those from 4 till 
14 years of age. And if any one has a child that ought to go to school, and is yet 
under eight years, and the father does not send it to school, that father shall have to 
work nine days during the year, on the land of the teacher. This is the fine ignorant 
people have to pay for their children. 



G Annual Letter of the Hawaiian Mission, 1841, June. Reports A. B. C. F. M. 1842, p. 172. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 157 

But if it be a big child over eight years of age, and does not go to school, then, 
that child will have to work for the teacher two days every week. This is the fine 
for children who are too lazy to attend school. However, there will not be school all 
the days of the week. There are only five school days: Saturday being a restday. 

Art. 11. If a teacher does not do his work well, if he is lazy or of bad morals, 
then he will be judged by the school-committee and the missionary of that place. If 
they think it proper to suspend his pay or to dismiss him entirely, they are free to 
do so ... 

Art. 15. The pupils of the high school of Lahainaluna are exempted of taxes and 
of the work for the chiefs, and all pupils that attend school regularly, and study 
geography, reading and the other branches taught in the schools of the school- 
committee, those pupils shall not be required for the work of the King and of the 
landlords, until they reach the age 'of 18 years. 

Art. 16. Thus this law stands for the moment, but if at the time the chiefs and 
deputies meet, they think it proper to cut or add some, they may do what they think 
fit. 

This law will become obligatory on the day of its promulgation in a place or 
country, and if not promulgated, it will become obligatory for all Hawaii, on the 1st 
day of January, 1841. 

Made by the Chiefs of Hawaii at Lahaina, Maui, 
October 15, 1840, A.D. 

KAMBHAMEHA III. 
KEKAULUOHI.T 

The clauses regarding the interference of the missionary of the place in 
the appointment and removal of teachers, might well have been made to 
embrace the Catholic priests, who were, to say the least, as much entitled to 
be called missionaries as the ministers of the Protestant faith. In fact, how- 
ever, only the latter were meant. These were thus certainly greatly privileged 
above their Catholic rivals, and this discrimination was considered by the lat- 
ter as a violation of the French treaty of July 12, 1839, art. I, which read: 

The Catholic religion is declared free in all the islands subject to the King of the 
Sandwich Islands; the members of this communion shall enjoy all the privileffes 
granted to Protestants. 

Apart from this discrimination, the school law appears fair on the face of 
it, its only aim seeming to be to promote the causes of education. 

Why then, did the Rev. Mr. Smith, speaking of these school laws, say at 
the very beginning: "I apprehend that the Papists will refuse to comply with 
the law, and perhaps will make difficulty." 8 

He foresaw that the Catholics would object vigorously, because he knew 
well that that school law had been framed as a weapon against them. These 
so-called "common schools" to which attendance was made obligatory, were of 
such a nature that no Catholic could conscientiously send his children thither. 

Before showing that the Hawaiian common schools of the early forties, 
were, merely and emphatically Protestant sectarian schools, it may be expedi- 
ent to state here the Catholic principles concerning school education. 

At the basis is the great axiom which Leo XIII formulated in one of his 
letters on the school question: 

"The character and circumstances of the times in which we live, demand 
that the instruction of the youth be a religions one ; for it is certainly not law- 
ful again to pronounce over the child Solomon's sentence, and unreasonably and 
cruelly to cut it in two, separating his intellect and his will ; for as the former 

1 Ke Kumti Kanawai a me na Kanawai o ko Hawaii Pae Aina, 1841. (These are the so- 
called Blue-Laws, thus called on account of the blue paper of the cover.) pp. 47-52. 

8 Letter Dec. 7, 1841, Missionary Herald, 1841, p. 360. The date stands for April 7, 1841, 
as the letter was written shortly after the departure of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, 
which sailed from Honolulu on April 6, 1841. 



158 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

is cultivated, the latter ought to be directed to acquire virtuous habits and man's 
last end. He who cultivates the mind and neglects the will, thereby turns 
instruction into a pernicious tool in the hands of the wicked." 

It is practically impossible entirely to separate the intellectual evolution of 
an individual from the formation of his will, and consequently, it were absurd 
for Christians to think of dissociating the conduct of the present life's actions 
from their last and supernatural end. 

Now, as the Catholic Church has received from Christ the mission to con- 
duct all men who have been regenerated through the waters of baptism to 
eternal felicity, and to assist them during this mortal life in such a way as may 
be conducive to the attainment of that end, it follows that it is the Church's 
office and duty to require schools which answer her purpose. 

She consequently refuses her approval to any school which does not offer 
the following conditions : 

1. The teachers she wishes to be endowed with orthodoxy of faith, 
integrity of morals and due science, that their teachings and examples may not 
only be free from the dangers of error, but also embrace the above double ele- 
ment. 

2. The books used should not only be exempt from anything opposed to 
faith and morals, but ought to contain such matters as are positively helpful 
to a Christian education. 

3. As to the method employed in teaching it is not sufficient that it be 
free from all attacks against faith and morals, but moreover, that apart from 
the time which is set apart for express religious teaching, every opportunity be 
seized upon to inculcate the knowledge and love of supernatural truth. Here 
may be mentioned: pious emblems, pictures, statues and other things which 
are useful in the intuitive method. 

3. From the part of the children, who are admitted in the schools, there 
must at least be no danger of perversion, and due caution must be employed in 
regard to difference of sexes and sects. 9 

These four indispensable conditions were not provided by the common 
schools created or rather revived by the school law of October 15, 1840. 

The teachers were not only not orthodox in the Faith, but as a rule militant 
Protestants, being, whenever obtainable, pupils of the Lahainaluna high school. 

This will become evident from the following quotations. Rev. Mr. Gulick, 
speaking of his district, (Koloa, Kauai) writes: 

"In October last (1840) we succeeded in getting a competent and faithful 
teacher, a graduate of the seminary at Lahaina." 10 And in the same letter 
speaking of a somewhat later period : "Two (of the teachers) are respectable 
graduates from the seminary at Lahaina. One of these is pious and a very 
useful elder in the church. Two of those not graduates are professors of 
religion, and one of them also an elder, and I think he exerts an excellent 
influence. Both of these elders hold religious meetings, which appear to be 
profitable to those who attend." 

Rev. Mr. Hitchcock, a missionary on Molokai, had in his district "a pupil of 
the high school, who was in charge of the station (at Kalaupapa) and was 
teacher of the school." That teacher also held meetings on the Sabbath. 11 

It was but natural that the Protestant missionary, having to appoint, 

9 Mgr. Julius De Becker, Oral Course of Canon Law. 

10 Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 283. 

11 Missionary Herald, 1841, p. 193. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 159 

together with the school committee, teachers for the common schools, should 
only take those of his own flock ; and as none of the members of the committee 
would have dared to gainsay him, he was evidently the sole one to make the 
appointments, or to judge how much wages a teacher should be given, or 
whether he should be punished or removed. 

In as far as the character of these Protestant teachers is concerned, it 
suffices to say that in their General Letter to the A.B.C.F.M. embracing the 
year 1841, the missionaries declared that "even the best classes of our church 
members are far from what they should be, and even from what we once 
hoped they would attain to by this time. We must still complain of a great 
lack of stability, fixedness of purpose in serving the Lord, tenderness of con- 
science, and in short, of that maturity of Christian character which gives firm- 
ness and power to a church." 12 

As for the books employed in the schools, Mr. Armstrong tells us that 
"The (Protestant) Bible is made prominent in the week-day as well as the 
Sabbath-schools," and he adds, "It is encouraging to observe how rapidly the 
children advance in Christian knowledge. Many of them are quite at home in 
both the historical and doctrinal parts of the Bible. This is the best safe- 
guard against popery and any other heresy. As fast as the children learn to 
read and attend school regularly, a portion of the Scriptures is put into their 
hands, and the teachers are required to have them read daily in their schools." 13 

Mr. Armstrong further made it a point to furnish every child that could 
read with a copy of the New Testament, and also endeavored to teach the 
children the shorter catechism systematically and thoroughly. 14 

Other anti-Popery literature was evidently occasionally put into the hands 
of the pupils, and certainly both teachers and books of the Hawaiian common 
schools of that period were calculated to inspire the pupils with hatred of and 
contempt for Catholics. Thus those schools were filled with an atmosphere 
wherein no Catholic child could live and develop without inescapable danger 
to his faith and morals. 

They were then not even mere neutral schools, which would have been bad 
enough from the Catholic standpoint, but decidedly Protestant sectarian schools, 
to which Catholic parents might not send their children under any pretext. 

No wonder then that Mr. Smith apprehended that the Catholics were going 
to refuse compliance with a law that rendered such schools obligatory for all. 

Neither had he underrated the tenderness of the Catholic conscience, where 
matters of such all-absorbing importance were concerned. 

The expected resistance did not long remain in abeyance. The law was 
to become of universal application on the first of January, 1841. A fortnight 
later, Father Maigret wrote to the Archbishop of Chalcedoine, Superior- 
General of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts : 

"The Calvinists continue to make every exertion to prevent the progress of 
the Catholic religion. With this view they have just dictated to the Chiefs of 
these islands laws tending to place all the authority in the hands of the 
pupils of the Protestant high school which had been established some years ago 
at Maui, the permanent residence of the king and the regent. All those who, 
henceforth, will be charged with teaching, must come from this school, or at least 
be approved of by those who direct it. 



12 Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 473. 

13 Missionary Herald, 1841, p. 266. 

14 Missionary Herald, 1843, p. 259. 



160 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

"At the time of our arrival these establishments, of which the ministers 
made such a boast, were scarcely any longer frequented by the natives. Since 
then they have taken it into their heads to make a decree that all parents 
should be obliged to send their children to them, under penalty of a fine in 
case of non-compliance with the rule. The sectarians thought that the Catholic 
priests, recently landed in these islands, being little accustomed to the language, 
and having no other elementary books except the catechism of Father Bachelot, 
would not be able to give lessons to the natives, and that the children of our 
neophytes would be thus taken from us. In this decree the chiefs speak 
certainly of missionaries, but not of us, whom they seem to consider as nothing. 
I, who believe myself to have as much right to instruct and keep a high school 
as the Protestants, have assembled our Catholic youth, and have named masters 
in different quarters of the island. The following is the formula of the diploma 
which I have delivered : 

" 'Greeting to thee, N. In virtue of the treaty of the 13th of July, 1839, and of the 
law published by the chiefs of these isles, the 15th of October, 1840, I establish thee 
master of the Catholic school of ' 

"I await the issue of this step; if the chiefs do not oppose it, so much the 
better ; if they raise up difficulties, I shall answer that I believe that, according 
to the conventions which grant us the same privileges as the Protestants, I 
have the right to act as I have done. In spite of all these annoyances, the 
number of our neophytes is continually increasing; we have already in the 
single island of Oahu more Christians than we count in the Gambler isles." 15 

On a visit to the island of Hawaii towards the middle of February, the 
Pro-vicar also gave out some diplomas to the teachers of the Catholic schools, 
which the priests took care to organize whenever they saw a possibility. 

The King seemed to approve of the course Father Maigret was taking, for 
he declared his willingness to grant a piece of land, if a Catholic high school 
should be established. 16 

Without waiting for this grant, Father Maigret started a Normal school 
on the premises of the mission at Honolulu. 17 " When we say Normal school, 
we mean simply a school to turn out teachers, knowing just a little more than 
they were expected to teach their pupils. For some time the majority of the 
teachers, either Catholics or Protestants, did not reach even this low standard. 18 

Having now teachers, it was not so very difficult to get schools. The 
construction of a grass house necessitated neither much work nor large 
expenses, once there was land to build upon ; and that the priests hoped to 
obtain in the way indicated by the law. Moreover, in a mild and equable 
climate as is enjoyed in the Hawaiian group, school buildings were then no 
indispensable necessities for instructing the youth. 

Of greater inconvenience was the lack of books. Till then the priests had 
only Father Bachelot's catechism to put into the hands of their pupils, and 
even these only in insufficient quantity. In Kona, Hawaii, for instance, a 
Catholic school of twenty pupils had only one book in common, which prob- 
ably passed from hand to hand. 19 

In another letter of April 5, 1841, this missionary acknowledges the recep- 
tion of 57 pamphlets, which, says he, he is going to distribute to the children 

15 Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, vol. Ill, pp. 278, 279. 

16 Letter of Father Desire Maudet, Apr. 19, 1841, in Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 715. 

18 Missionary Herald, 1842, pp. 283, 343, 354. Letters of Father Ernest Heurtel, Aug. 20, 
1841, and Aug. 19, 1842. 

19 F. Ernest Heurtel's Unpublished Letters, Feb. 14, 1841. 




RT. REV. STEPHEN ROUCHOUZE, BISHOP OP NILOPOLIS 

FATHER ALEXIS BACHELOT 
RT. REV. LOUIS MAIGRET, BISHOP OF ARATHIA 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 161 

who abandon the schools on account of the lack of books. It is not known 
whereof this pamphlet consisted; it was perhaps the "Alphabet" or Speller, 
printed in 1840, May 29. 

To provide for the urgent need of school books Fathers Maigret and 
Dositheus busied themselves in the beginning of April, 1841, with composing 
a French-Hawaiian grammar and a geography; they had then also translated 
some portions of the Old and New Testament. 20 

That grammar must have been different from the "Langue Havaiienne," a 
grammar of eight pages, published March, I860, which, according to Father 
Maigret's diary, had been written by him between February 16 and March 19 
of that same year; and different also from a French-Hawaiian grammar and 
dictionary, "Notes Grammaticales sur la Langue Sandwichoise," which had been 
printed at Paris in 1834, and was written by Father Bachelot. 21 

We have a geography printed in 1851. (He Vahi Hoikehonua), but do not 
know whether an earlier edition existed. 

Father Maigret composed also in verse, and in the native tongue, several 
abridgments of history. One of these was called the "Kenekuria" or the 
Centuries. The pupils soon knew it all by heart, and sang it at every moment 
to different airs, which they changed at pleasure. The children of the Calvinist 
schools having learned some verses from continually hearing them, took 
pleasure in repeating them in the ears of their teachers, "which," says Father 
Martial Jean, "was not very pleasing to these sectarians, particularly when 
they gave out the couplets of Luther and Calvin." 22 

These verses served more as reminders of what had been taught orally, 
than as instructions by themselves ; for they certainly do not contain much 
information, nor anything which could give much annoyance to the Protestant 
teachers. There are nineteen stanzas, each of four verses, every stanza purport- 
ing to relate the principal events of the period, although the discovery of 
America has been registered in the sixteenth stanza, perhaps because there 
was no room for that event in the preceding one. 

We give here these verses with their translation, as an illustration of the 
educational methods then in vogue 

1. O ka poe apotolo, 1. (In this century lived) the Apostles 
Nero ke Alii no; Nero was the cruel emperor; 
Simona ka vahahee; Simon Magus (also lived then;) 
Luku Jerusaleme. (And in the same century) Jeru- 
salem was destroyed. 

2. Inaki, Tarajano; 2. (Then lived) Ignatius and Trajan; 
Polikape, Jutino; Polycarpus and Justin; 

Poe koa make vai, The soldiers who were martyred in 

Poe motana kekahi. the water. 

And the Montanist (heretics). 

3. Ma Pari Dionisio, 3. At Paris we have now Dionisius, 
Ma Lione Ireneo, And at Lyons St. Ireneas; 
Kipiriano, Agata, Ciprian, Agatha, 

Perepetua, Susana. Perpetua and Susannah (should be 

mentioned). 

4. Helena, Konetatine; 4. Helena and Constantino, 
Pakome, Hilarione; Pacomius and Hilarion; 
Poe Ario, Donate, The Arians and Donatists, 
Makedonio, Basile. The Macedonians, and Basilius. 



20Lettres Lithographiees: F. Barnabe Castan, Apr. 10, 1841. 

21 See Preface to .said booklet 

22 Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, vol. IV, p. 293. 




RT. REV. STEPHEN ROUCHOUZE, BISHOP OF NILOPOLIS 

FATHER ALEXIS BACHELOT 
RT. REV. LOUIS MAIGRET, BISHOP OF ARATHIA 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 161 

who abandon the schools on account of the lack of books. It is not known 
whereof this pamphlet consisted; it was perhaps the "Alphabet" or Speller, 
printed in 1840, May 29. 

To provide for the urgent need of school books Fathers Maigret and 
Dositheus busied themselves in the beginning of April, 1841, with composing 
a French-Hawaiian grammar and a geography; they had then also translated 
some portions of the Old and New Testament. 20 

That grammar must have been different from the "Langue Havaiienne," a 
grammar of eight pages, published March, 1860, which, according to Father 
Maigret's diary, had been written by him between February 16 and March 19 
of that same year ; and different also from a French-Hawaiian grammar and 
dictionary, "Notes Grammaticales stir la Langue Sandwichoise," which had been 
printed at Paris in 1834, and was written by Father Bachelot. 21 

We have a geography printed in 1851. (He Vahi Hoikehonua), but do not 
know whether an earlier edition existed. 

Father Maigret composed also in verse, and in the native tongue, several 
abridgments of history. One of these was called the "Kenekuria" or the 
Centuries. The pupils soon knew it all by heart, and sang it at every moment 
to different airs, which they changed at pleasure. The children of the Calvinist 
schools having learned some verses from continually hearing them, took 
pleasure in repeating them in the ears of their teachers, "which," says Father 
Martial Jean, "was not very pleasing to these sectarians, particularly when 
they gave out the couplets of Luther and Calvin." 22 

These verses served more as reminders of what had been taught orally, 
than as instructions by themselves; for they certainly do not contain much 
information, nor anything which could give much annoyance to the Protestant 
teachers. There are nineteen stanzas, each of four verses, every stanza purport- 
ing to relate the principal events of the period, although the discovery of 
America has been registered in the sixteenth stanza, perhaps because there 
was no room for that event in the preceding one. 

We give here these verses with their translation, as an illustration of the 
educational methods then in vogue 

1. ka poe apotolo, 1. (In this century lived) the Apostles 
Nero ke Alii no; Nero was the cruel emperor; 
Simona ka vahahee; Simon Magus (also lived then;) 
Luku Jerusaleme. (And in the same century) Jeru- 
salem was destroyed. 

2. Inaki, Tarajano; 2. (Then lived) Ignatius and Trajan; 
Polikape, Jutino; Polycarpus and Justin; 

Poe koa make vai, The soldiers who were martyred in 

Poe motana kekahi. the water. 

And the Montanist (heretics). 

3. Ma Pari Dionisio, ?>. At Paris we have now Dionisius, 
Ma Lione Ireneo, And at Lyons St. Ireneas; 
Kipiriano, Agata, Ciprian, Agatha, 

Perepetua, Susana. Perpetua and Susannah (should be 

mentioned). 

4. Helena, Konetatine; 4. Helena and Constantine, 
Pakome, Hilarione; Pacomius and Hilarion; 
Poe Ario, Donate, The Arians and Donatists, 
Makedonio, Basile. The Macedonians, and Basilius. 



20 Lettres Lithographiees: F. Barnabe Castan, Apr. 10, 1841. 

21 See Preface to said booklet. 

22 Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, vol. IV, p. 293. 



162 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 



5. Netorio, Eutike; 
Joane Kiritome; 
Hieronimo, Paula, 
Geremano, Genovepa. 

6. Benedito a me Remi; 
Huli raai Visigoti; 
Huli mai ko Farani ; 
Huli mai Beretani. 

7. Mahometa ma Medina, 
Herakilio; ke Kea; 
Ka poe Monotelite; 
Makimo; Gereturude. 

8. Mauri ma Sepania, 
Huli ko Alemania; 
Ka poe vavalii kii; 
Huli mai Bulugari. 

9. Ka Halekipa ma Pari 
Ko Suede hull mai; 
Ko Danemareke hoi; 
Ko Noremania hoi. 

10. Malu ka Ekalesia; 
Heva nae na kanaka; 
Huli nae Polonia; 
Huli hoi ko Rusia. 

11. Loaa no hua mele; 
Kaavale ko Helene; 
Ma Farani he vi loa; 
Ka malu o ke Akua. 

12. He mau kaua eha; 

Me ka poe Mahometa; 
He poe monako koa, 
Berenarado me Toma. 

13. He mau kaua eha 

Me ka poe Mahometa, 
Dominiko, Farakiko. 
Ka poe Augutino. 

14. Kanahiku makahiki, 
Noho Pope ma Farani; 
Papalua koniohana, 
Beregite, Katarina. 

15. Na Husita vahahee, 
Kanalua o Helene, 
Pio Kotatinopoli, 
Pio loa na Mauri. 

16. Lutera me Kalavina, 
Aoia Amerika, 
Kaavale Beritani, 
Malu ole ko Farani. 

17. Mahuahua ka poe, 
Akamai me ka ike; 
Vinikenete Saneta, 
Lui umikumamaha. 

18. Mahuahua ka poe 
Kaalele i ka pule; 
Kipikipi ko Farani, 
Make Lui i ka pahi. 



5. Nestorius and Eutiches; 
John Chrysostoni ; 

Jerome and Paula; 
Germain and Genoveva. 

6. Benedict and Remigius; 
Conversion of the Visigoths; 
Conversion of the Franks; 
Conversion of the Britons. 

7. Mohammed enters Medina; 
Heraclius and the Cross; 
The Monothelitists. 
Maximus and Gertrude. 

8. Spain conquered by the Moors; 
Conversion of Germany. 

The iconoclasts. 

Conversion of the Bulgarians. 

9. The Hotel Dieu at Paris. 
Conversion of Sweden; 
Conversion of the Danes; 
Conversion of the Normans. 

10. The Church is enjoying peace; 
The people became sinful; 
Conversion of Poland; 
Conversion of Russia. 

11. Invention of musical annotation; 
Rupture with the Greeks; 
Great famine in France; 

The Truce of God. 

12. Four wars 

Against the Mohammedans; 
The military Orders; 
Bernard and Thomas. 

13. Four other wars 

Against the Mohammedans; 
Dominic and Francis; 
The Augustinian Order. 

14. The Pope remains in France 
For some seventy years; 

The schism of the West; 
Bridget and Catharine. 

15. The heretical Hussites; 
The Greeks are in doubt. 
Capture of Constantinople; 
The final defeat of the Moors. 

16. Luther and Calvin; 
Discovery of America; 
Rupture with England. 
No peace in France. 

17. Increase of people 
Of learning and art; 
Saint Vincent; 
Lewis the Fourteenth. 

18. There is an increase 
Of impious people; 

The French Revolution; 
Lewis dies on the guillotine. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hazuaii 163 

19. Bonapate lanakila, 19. Bonaparte is victorious; 
Pio.ia ma Rusia; He is defeated in Russia; 

Kipi Amerika Kona, Rebellion in South America; 

Kipikipi Sepania. Revolution in Spain.23 

Whether these different compositions were printed in 1841 or simply multi- 
plied by writing and distributed to the pupils, I have been unable to ascertain. 
The Catholic Mission press was not installed before November, 1841, but the 
printing may have been done at Howard's establishment. 

It does not appear probable that, having this accommodation at hand, Father 
Maigret should have had recourse to the weary and unsatisfactory process of 
copying hundreds of booklets by hand. 

The Protestant schools, which, before the school law, were little more than 
a name, 24 or as a missionary writer puts it, "were in a feeble state," 25 revived 
during the latter half of the year 1840. 

This change in the educational situation is well painted in a letter of the 
Rev. Mr. Ives, missionary at Kealakekua, in which he suggests at the same 
time the connection which existed between the Missionary Committee on Educa- 
tion and the school laws of 1840. 

"Last July our schools were barely in existence. The chiefs had compelled 
all our teachers, except three from the mission seminary, to work for them one- 
fourth of the time. There was not a boy also in the field that was supposed 
to be over fourteen that was exempt from this heavy burden. The parents 
were forbidden by the tax-officer from giving to the teachers, either by monthly 
concert or otherwise. Under all this discouragement the schools could with 
difficulty be kept in existence. The new school laws, which came into force 
last January, were as life from the dead. We have had to contest the matter 
inch by inch with the underchiefs, but by enforcing from the pulpit the duty of 
submission to the higher authorities, and by enlightening the teachers and people 
into their rights, we have been enabled to make the new laws bring out among 
us some glorious results. The fields which, nine months ago, brought forward 
to the examinations only 246 children, now produces S29." 26 

However, as a consequence of the position taken by the Catholic priests, this 
progress of the Calvinist schools received a sudden check. 

Says Rev. Mr. Lyons: "Two schools in my field (Waimea, Hawaii) are 
altogether broken up through the efforts of the Papists. The children have 
been drawn into their net, and they were at work in several other school 
districts, striving to produce the same havoc." 27 

"The Papists have been making strenuous efforts to break up the schools, and 
in one or two instances they have succeeded. One school of about 80 pupils 
has been entirely broken up for the present." This was on the same island 
in the district of Kau, and Rev. Mr. Paris is the one to give us this bit of 
information. 28 

That on the other islands the Catholic resistance against the anti-Catholic 
schools was equally successful appears from a General Letter to the 
A. B. C. F. M. 

"During the last year, in s.ome of the districts, children have been drawn away 
from school by the influence of the popish priests. Wha.t number of children may 

23 From Mele Evanelio, Honolulu, 1880, pp. GO-62. 

24 Willces, Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, II, p. 173. 

25 Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 157. 

26 Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 152. 

27 Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 243. Letter of Sept. 13, 1S41. 

28 Missionary Herald, 1843, p. 174. Letter of Jan. 20, 1842. 



164 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

have gone to them we have no means of ascertaining accurately. At an examination 
of their schools on the island of Oahu, some months since, they numbered 700 
children. Not all these have been scholars in our schools, though many of them 
probably had. 

On the island of Kauai the brethren report one or two schools, where, by promises 
and presents from the Roman Catholic priests, the children, with three or four 
exceptions, have been induced to go to the papists. 

Under such circumstances we greatly feel the need of more and better qualified 
teachers in our common schools. The papists are pressing us hard on every side, 
and are unwearied in their efforts to draw children and youth away after them."20 

From the preceding quotations it becomes evident that, thanks to Father 
Maigret's bold and resolute action, the law worked quite differently from what 
its framers had intended. 

On account of the continual friction occasioned by this school law, it was 
amended by the Chiefs in their assembly at Lahaina, on May 21, 1841. The 
new law was to become obligatory for any place on the day it was there promul- 
gated, and universally throughout the group on September 1st of that same year. 

"The "missionary" was entirely eliminated from its stipulations, and the 
school agent put into his place. 

The clause of art. 6, respecting the granting of teacher's certificates was made 
to read : 

"No person is by this law considered a teacher, unless he have a teacher's 
certificate from the general school agent." The faculty of granting such cer- 
tificates was thus taken away from the principal of the Lahainaluna Seminary, 
but at the same time Father Maigret's pretensions to this privilege were denied. 

In article 15, the clause exempting the scholars of Lahainaluna from the 
money tax was retained, without granting the same boon to the pupils of the 
Catholic normal school. 

Two new articles were added, the latter of which determined the qualifica- 
tions required from those who applied for a teacher's certificate. It read: 

"18. Furthermore, it shall not be proper for the general school agent to give the 
teacher's certificate to ignorant persons, nor to persons known to be vicious or 
immoral. If a man can read, write and understands geography and arithmetic, and 
is a quiet and moral man, and desires a teacher's certificate, it shall be the duty of 
the school agent to give him one, and not refuse." 

Under this law it became possible for Catholics to have schools and teachers 
of their own, with the means to support them. The only clause to which the 
Catholics might object as not wholly, granting them the perfect equality of the 
two cults before the law, guaranteed by the French treaty, was that the pupils 
of the Honolulu Catholic high school were not given the same exemption from 
the money tax as the Lahainaluna scholars. This, however, appears a matter 
of but little importance. 

However, if the purely legislative part of the law may be considered as fair 
and wise, the punitive sanction which is contained in art. 9 appears not only 
out of proportion to the offense, but a flagrant violation of the natural rights 
of man, and consequently highly unjust and tyrannical. It states : 

". . . . If any man have a child of a suitable age to go to school, but below 
eight years of age, and do not constantly send him to school, then that parent 
shall not be freed from the public labor of the king and the land agent on the 
labor days, whatever may be the number of his children." 



29 Missionary Herald, 1842, p. 476. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 165 

This part of the punishment is in no way objectionable. But the article 
continues : 

"Nor shall he be permitted to cut on the mountains such kind of timber as the 
king gives to the people. All those kinds of timber are taboo to the parents who 
send not their children to school. Nor shall those parents fish on those fishing 
grounds which the king gives to the people. Those parents have a preference for 
darkness, therefore, let the taboos of these times of darkness apply to them. 

"But if a child be over eight years of age, and <do not go to school, then the 
fault shall not be considered as the parent's only, but the child's also. That child 
shall go to the public labor of the king and land agents on all labor days " 

These taboos on the mountain and on the sea, condemned the family against 
whom they were pronounced practically to starvation, as they made the necessities 
of life inaccessible. 

Nor does the clause in art. 16 seem to be either wise or just, which forbids 
any man who is unable to read and write to marry a wife, nor a woman who 
is unable to read and write to marry a husband; for even granting that the 
civil authorities have a right to establish diriment impediments of marriage for 
their non-baptized subjects, which right is certainly to be denied them respecting 
Christians, 30 it does not appear that the knowledge of reading and writing in 
the subjects is of such paramount benefit to the State, that subjects unwilling 
to acquire such knowledge, 'might be rightfully punished by depriving them of a 
primordial right of nature. 

The impediment applied only to those who were born since the beginning 
of Liholiho's reign, and if a person's inability to read and write was not the 
consequence of laziness, but of some other legitimate cause, then it was the 
duty of the Governor to grant a marriage license. 31 

If all the parts of the Hawaiian machinery politic had been in nice working 
order, this school law might have given satisfaction to the Catholic missionaries. 
But outside of Honolulu, the petty chiefs in the districts, and sometimes even 
the governors of the islands, did not entirely realize the change from their erst- 
while more arbitrary powers to those described and limited by the Constitution 
^and the newly framed laws. Hence, they did not always watch over the execu- 
tion of the new school law with fairness. 

The priests from their side ascribed whatever freedom they and their Christ- 
ians enjoyed to the power of France, and expected in the future too to receive 
no favors nor justice from the Hawaiian rulers except through the intervention 
of that same power. Hence they communicated to Mr. Dudoit, the French consul, 
whatever annoyances they experienced in the fulfilment of their ministry. They 
even fostered perhaps a secret hope that France might annex the Islands, whereby 
the Catholic religion would have supplanted Calvinism in Hawaii as the official 
religion of tjie State. We may here thank a wise and kind Providence for having 
safeguarded these beautiful isles from annexation by France, which would have 
ruined them both commercially and religiously. 

On the 22nd of August, 1842, the French sloop of war "Embuscade" arrived, 
in command of Captain Mallet, 32 and at her very arrival caused some uneasiness 
by not firing the usual salutes. The captain, called on Governor Kekuanaoa, and 
informed him that the French government had taken possession of the Marquesas 
Islands in July, and that there were complaints of violations of the convention of 
1839, which he had been sent to investigate. 

30 Cf. De Becker, De Sponsalibus et Matrimonio, 1896, pp. 41-43. 

31 Art. 17 of the same law. 

32 Maigret, Journal, Aug. 22, 1842. Jarves, History, p. 336. Wyllie says Aug. 24, Historical 
Summary, p. 307. 



166 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

On August 31st, the commander and his staff assisted at an examination of 
one thousand Catholic school children. 

The following day he sent to the King, who had arrived at Honolulu during 
the night of the 30th, a letter of which the following is a translation : 

Sloop of War Embuscade, 
Harbor of Honolulu, Sept. 1, 1842. 

Sir: I have the honor to inform your Majesty that since the Treaties of July 12th 
and 17th, 1839, French citizens and ministers of the Catholic religion have been in- 
sulted and subjected to divers unjust measures, concerning which your Majesty has 
not probably been informed. Subordinate agents, ignorant or ill disposed, and without 
any special order from government, have thrown down churches, threatened the 
priests, and compelled their disciples to attend Protestant places of worship and Pro- 
testant schools. To effect this they have employed a course of treatment repulsive to 
humanity, notwithstanding the Treaty of July 12th, signed by your Majesty and the 
commandant of the French frigate Artemise, grants free exercise to the Catholic 
religion, and an equal protection to its ministers. 

Persuaded that your Majesty has no intention that Treaties entered into with 
sincerity and good faith should be annulled, and also that it is incumbent on you to 
treat all religions with favor; therefore I shall demand that you will adopt such 
measures as shall defend the adherents of the Catholic faith from all future vexations. 

I demand then of your Majesty. 

1. That a Catholic high-school, with the same privileges as the high-school at 
Lahainaluna, be immediately acknowledged, and that a lot of land be granted to it by 
government according to promise. 

2. That the Catholic schools be under exclusive supervision of Catholic kahukulas 
(inspectors), nominated by kahunas (priests) of the same faith, and approved by your 
Majesty; and that the kahukulas enjoy without infraction all the privileges granted by 
law. 

3. That the kahunas have power to fill temporarily all vacancies that may occur 
in consequence of the death, absence, or loss of office of any of the kahukulas. 

4. That, for the future, permission to marry be given by Catholics nominated by 
the kahunas and approved always by the government of your Majesty; and that in 
case of absence, death, or loss of office, the kahunas have power to grant provision- 
ally permission themselves. 

5. That hereafter Catholics be not forced to labor upon schools of a different 
faith, and that the relations of children who may embrace the Catholic religion be not 
ill treated on this account. 

6. That severe punishment be inflicted upon every individual, whatever may be 
his rank, or condition, who shall destroy a Catholic church, or school, or insult the 
ministers of this religion. 

Furthermore I demand of your Majesty, that you will confirm to the French 
mission the land which was given to it by Boki, when regent of the kingdom, which 
land has always been considered as belonging to said mission; and also that you 
legalize the purchase of land made by his Lordship, the Bishop of Nicopolis, by a 
sanction which will confirm it to his Lordship and to his heirs forever. 

I will not conclude what relates to the Catholic clergy without praying your 
Majesty to give me proof that the Abbe Maigret has signed a writing, by which he 
acknowledges himself a British subject. Should this prove a mere calumny, invented 
for the purpose of ruining a French priest in the estimation of the people of these 
isles and that of your Majesty, I demand that the author of this calumny, John Ii, the 
Inspector General, retract in writing, declaring either tha.t he lied about it, or that he 
was deceived. As a Frenchman, I deem it important to be fully satisfied upon this 
point."33 

The rest of the document has to do with the duties on French wines and 
spirits. 

In these demands more seems to be asked for the Catholic priests than they 
were entitled to, even on the strength of the treaty, which guaranteed equal priv- 
ileges for the members of the two religions: "The members of this communion 

33 Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 307. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 167 

shall enjoy all the privileges granted to Protestants." Four days later, the 
Hawaiian Government sent the following courteous but spirited reply: 

Honolulu, Oahu, Sept. 4, 1842. 

To S. Mallet, Captain of the French sloop of War, Bmbuscade. 
Greeting: 

We have received your letter dated the 1st instant, and with our council assembled, 
have deliberated thereon, and we are happy to receive your testimony that, if there are 
instances" of difficulty or abuse in these islands, they are not authorized by this govern- 
ment, and we assure you that we hold in high estimation the government of France 
and all its estimable subjects. It is the firm determination of our government to 
observe the Treaties with all nations; but the written laws are a new thing; the 
people are ignorant, and good order can only be preserved on the part of the govern- 
ment by affording the protection of the laws to all who will appeal to them at the 
proper tribunals. 

On the introduction of the Roman Catholic religion it was understood that tolera- 
tion was to be fully allowed to all its priests and all its disciples, and this has been 
done as far as lay in our power, and no one can prove the contrary. But it is impos- 
sible to put a stop to disputes and contentions between rival religions, and the evils 
and complaints which result from them. 

The laws favor literature, and as soon as the French priests are ready to found a 
high school for the purpose of imparting it to their pupils, and teachers are ready, it 
shall find a location. 

The school laws were formed to promote education in these islands and not sec- 
tarianism; and no one should ask the government that they be altered to favor any 
particular sect. Any man qualified for teaching, being of good moral character, is 
entitled to a teacher's diploma; this by reason of his acquirements, not his sect. No 
priest of either sect can give diplomas. Likewise marriage is regulated by law, and 
no priest of either sect can perform the ceremony, except the parties obtain a certi- 
ficate from the governor, or his officer; and why should the laws be altered? Difficul- 
ties often arose on the subject, and we should regulate our own people. 

The laws require the people to labor on certain days; some for the government 
and some for the landlords to whom the labor is due according to law; and the kind 
of labor is regulated by those to whom the labor is due. 

The laws are not fully established in all parts of the islands, and probably an 
ancient custom has been practised by which the owner of land would pull down the 
house of one who built thereon without his cheerful consent; but if the owner of the 
house complains to the judges, they should grant a trial; and if no satisfaction is 
obtained, then the governor will grant a trial; and if that decision is unjust, an appeal 
must be made to the supreme judges, who will sit twice a year. 

The ground occupied by the French priests in Honolulu is held by the same tenure 
as that of the priests of the Protestant religion, and some other foreigners; and 
negotiations have been commenced, which it is to be hoped will give equal justice to 
all. 

When John li arrives from Kauai, that case will be adjusted, and if he denies the 

charge which you have presented, a trial will be granted 

Please inform him (Admiral Du Petit Thouars, commander of the French forces in the 
Pacific) also, that we have sent ministers to the king of France to beg of him a new 
Treaty between us and France. 

Accept for yourself the assurance of our respect and our salutation. 

KAMEHAMEHA III. 
KEKAULUOHI.34 

This communication was sent on the ensuing morning, and shortly after 
Mr. Dudoit called on the rulers to request an interview with the King. Mean- 
time Father Maigret had been requested to translate the document from the 
Hawaiian language into French. When the priest came in bringing the transla- 
tion of the letter, the Captain read it, and on perceiving that Ministers had been 
sent to Europe, he bowed politely, and said that his time was short, and he could 

34Wyllie's Historical Summary, pp. 308, 309. 



168 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii ' 

not enter upon business as he wished, but would leave everything to be settled by 
the Consul. 35 The Embuscade left on the 8th of September. 

It appears that the efforts of Captain Mallet were not entirely ineffectual, for 
a fortnight later, Father Maigret wrote to the Superior-General of his Congrega- 
tion: 

"For the moment our expectations grow more intense; it would appear that the 
demands of Captain Mallet have been effective. The Government is going to give us 
a lot whereupon to establish a high school. Moreover, since the departure of the 
French frigate we have presented ten of our pupils for examination as teachers, and 
they have passed all of them. Finally, I just now received a letter from Kauai, which 
informs me that things have changed for the better; our pupils are not annoyed any 
more. and the inspectors have visited the Catholic schools, and have expressed their 
satisfaction."36 

The very same week, however, a sad incident happened on Molokai, which 
damped the high spirits of which the Pro-Vicar gives proof in this letter. The 
catechist of that island, a native by the name of Dionysius, had been arrested for 
refusing to help work at the construction of a Protestant church. Two policemen, 
whilst tying his hands and feet together in order to carry him on their shoulders 
suspended from a pole, broke his spine. After having carried him for about 
three-quarters of a mile, the awful state to which they had reduced him dawned 
u-pon them. They loosened his ties, and brought him home, where he vomited 
blood abundantly. 37 

Soon, as the Catholics persisted in their interpretation of the treaty, the fric- 
tion became again general. 

"At the end of 1842," writes F. Desvault, "the scholars of Mr. Maigret were 
put in irons, because they demanded the execution of the agreement entered into ; 
they wished to enjoy the privileges of the pupils of Lahainaluna, and to be exempt 
from paying taxes ; and to release themselves from prison, they had to pay double 
tax. It continues to be impossible for us to obtain a single diploma. Several 
times we have presented candidates, who, in the judgment of the governor, of 
the king himself, and of all the strangers .who had assisted at the examination, 
were very well instructed: the inspector continually refuses them." 38 

The provisional cession of the islands to England on February 25th, 1843 
(they were again restored to their rightful sovereign on the 31st of July, 1844) 
did not improve the situation ; the Catholics continued to experience several annoy- 
ances on the different islands on which the mission had been implanted by this 
time, and of which we shall have an occasion to speak more in detail in the next 
chapter. 

However, towards the end of 1843, the King made a trip around the islands. 
He improved the occasion to tell his subjects that he himself belonged to the 
Protestant religion and was sorry to see many of them embracing another faith. 
At the same time, however, he issued a proclamation wherein he declares it to be 
his will that all his subjects dwell together in harmony: Protestantism is indeed 
the religion of the State, but all other Christian denominations are to be toler- 
ated; all that smacks of persecution is against his will; when his ambassadors 
return from Europe, some changes will perhaps be made in the laws on schools 
and marriages, but in the meantime the existing laws will have to be kept. 39 

35."Wyllie's Historical Summary, p. 312. 

36 Letter of Sept. 22, 1842; in Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I. 

37 Journal Bro. Calixte, Sept. 29, 1842; Letter Maigret, Dec. 5, 1842, in Lettres Lithogra- 
phiees, Vol. I. 

38 Letter of Dec. 29, 1843. 

39 Letter of F. Maigret, Dec. 16, 1843, In Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 169 

This action of the King was effective, as may be seen from a later letter of 
Father Maigret wherein he says: 

"We are not annoyed for the moment. We have about a hundred schools; 
and on Oahu and Kauai, nearly all our teachers have their diplomas. On the Big 
Island it is not exactly the same, but I hope that the difficulties will be smoothed 
down." 40 

No lot had as yet been granted to the Catholic Mission for its so-called 
High School; this institution, however, was about that time in a flourishing con- 
dition, as we may infer from an article by Robert C. Wyllie, in the Protestant 
Honolulu newspaper, "The Friend" of Aug. 1st, 1844, an article moreover com- 
mendable for its evident spirit of fairness and tolerance. 41 

"Rev. Abb6 Maigret's School. This school is kept in several humble apartments 
adjoining the Catholic church to which I have already referred, and close to the abode 
of the Reverend Abb6 himself. It consists of about three hundred scholars of both 
sexes, who are matriculated as belonging to it, but they do not all attend every day. 

"There are six native teachers and as many divisions of the school. The abb6 
superintends the whole six divisions. The female children are kept by themselves 
under native teachers of their own sex, and so it is with the male children; both being 
divided into classes according to their age, and the progress they may have made. 

"The Government of late has made a small allowance for the support of the 
native teachers. Their pay, I understand, varies from three to eighteen cents per day, 
according to the qualifications of each. The Abb6 himself is wholly supported by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Catholic Faith, or that of Picpus, to which he more 
immediately belongs. All the services, whether in the school, before the altar, in 
administering the Sacraments of his church, or performing the rites of marriage or 
interment, are rendered without any charge to those who belong to his communion. 

"The course of education pursued embraces the elementary part of education, 
with geography and history. The holy scriptures, according to our Protestant transla- 
tion are prohibited, but not so the translation authorized by the Church of Rome. . . 

"Religious instruction forms an important part of the course of education pursued 
by the Rev. Abb6 Maigret. He told me that the four Gospels had been translated into 
the native language, and will be put into the hands of his pupils as soon as they can 
be printed. The rest of the scriptures are to follow, whenever they can be translated 
and printed. 

"If I understand him rightly, there are in all nine Catholic priests on the islands, 
and the baptized members of their communion amount in all to 12,500, besides those 
who are under preparatory training. In the whole islands they have about 100 schools 
with upwards of 3,000 scholars. The education is in the native language, except in 
one branch where it is given in French. The Abb6 himself gives lessons in that langu- 
age in the village to those who attend for that purpose at his residence, although they 
may not be of his faith " 

On November 10th, of 1845, the King finally fulfilled a promise often reiter- 
ated, by granting to the Catholic Mission a portion of land "for the purpose of 
teaching scholars the use of letters, such as reading, arithmetic, writing, geo- 
graphy, and such like studies tending to mental improvement." It was stipulated 
in the grant that "when the scholars should be well versed in the above they 
should be taught some foreign language, calculated to improve their minds, such 
as the Latin or French languages, together with ancient and modern history 
according as the scholars shall be fitted to proceed." 

The document further stated that "this place shall become a site, with all its 
privileges for a seminary before mentioned, according to the law of the 
Hawaiian Islands and on the terms above stated." 42 



40 Letter of Aug. 7th, 1844, in Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I. 

41 Notes on the Shipping, Trade, Agriculture, Climate, Diseases, Religious Institutions 
. . of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands. 

42 Land Claim, No. 43. 



170 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

This land, called "Ahuimanu," is situated in Heeia, district of Koolau, on the 
island of Oahu. Its entire area was 216 1/2 acres of which 126 acres were 
inaccessible bluffs. The remaining 90 acres are made up of relatively flat and 
very fertile land. Improvements on the land were started on the 4th of December 
following the grant, 43 and school seems to have begun not long afterward. Father 
Dositheus Desvault was the first director of the establishment. 

About this time the Hawaiian King began to entrust the government of his 
realm to white men, whom he selected either from among the Protestant mission- 
aries, or from the somewhat adventurous but able laymen who occasionally were 
thrown upon his shores by the wander-spirit, and whose education fitted them 
better than his own subjects to cope with the many difficulties caused by the 
rapid evolution of the country and its increasing relations with foreign nations. 

One of these white men, John Ricord, framed an Act to organize the executive 
departments, which was passed by the House of Nobles and Representatives, and 
approved by the King on the 27th of April, 1846. By this Law five executive 
departments were created ; to wit : Interior Affairs, Foreign Relations, Finance, 
Public Instruction, and Law. 

The Protestant religion is declared to be the religion of the government, not 
so, as to connect the ecclesiastical body with the body politic. All men in the 
kingdom are allowed freely to worship the God of the Christian Bible according 
to the dictates of their own conscience. The minister of Public Instruction shall 
not officially interfere with the feelings and conscience of either parents or chil- 
dren, nor make any exception or show any official partiality towards one denomi- 
nation of Christians to the prejudice of another in the conferring of offices or 
teachers' licenses. 44 The islands were divided for the purposes of education into 
21 districts ; at the head of each was to be a superintendent having the power to 
appoint sub-agents. It was provided that in these appointments the wishes, 
opinions and conveniences of a major part of the interested parents were to be 
consulted. 45 

The school superintendents, together with the sub-agents, were empowered to 
erect and repair school houses, to contract with and to employ teachers, and to 
require to this end of the tax collectors and the overseers of the labor tax any 
amount of labor, or in lieu thereof the commutation therefore in money or prop- 
erty. 46 

The same superintendents had power to allot land not otherwise appropriated 
to the teachers and schools of their district, for the teachers' private use, occu- 
pancy and usufruct (ibid.) whilst the labor tax was to be used especially for the 
support of the established schools and to the maintenance and support of the 
licensed teachers. 47 

Private schools were to be lawful and the pupils visiting them were considered 
to comply with the requisites of the law, and to be equally exempt from taxes 
and impressment as if such pupils were sent to the government schools. 

The teachers of those private schools, if persons of moral standing, were not 
obliged to have a teacher's certificate. Moreover, all select schools, seminaries of 
learning, or any other literary institution might obtain from His Majesty in 
private council charters of definite incorporation, and could thereby obtain some 
government endowment in money or other resources. 48 

43 Letters of P. D. Desvault, March 26, 1846; and J. B. Hebert, April 18, 1846, In Lettres 
Llthographiees. 

44 Second Act of Kamehameha III, part IV, sect. 5 and 7. 

45 Ibidem, ch. Ill, sect. 1 and 2. 

46 Ibidem, Ch. Ill, sect. 6. 

47 Ibidem, sect. 9. 

48 Ibidem, Ch. Ill, sect. XII, XVIII; Ch. IV, sect. I. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 171 

The labor tax of which mention is made in this law, consisted in the 
performance of manual labor for government purposes. The year was divided 
for that purpose into thirteen lunar months. On Tuesdays, Wednesday and Fri- 
days of the first week in each lunar month, all tenants under landlords were to 
labor each for his own particular lord, and all persons not occupying land, and 
not especially exempted by statute were to labor for government. (Teachers, 
ministers of religion and parents having at least three children were exempted 
from the labor tax.) In the second week the tenants were to labor for their 
landlords on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, and all from whom public labor was due, 
on Fridays for the Government. 49 

By the same law the Minister of Public Instruction was empowered to set 
apart a suitable site and adequate parsonage grounds for the erection of parish 
churches, and other land for the use and support of the clergyman, the church 
and parsonage erected by the voluntary contributions of the faithful to be con- 
sidered nominally as government property, whenever "any adult male persons, 
not less in number than 50 individuals, living in the same vicinity, and adopting 
similar doctrines and tenets of religious belief, and like form of Christian wor- 
ship," petitioned for permission to erect a church and for a grant of land. 50 

The marriage laws were also amended, and the formerly required literary 
proof was done away with. All ministers of the different Christian denomina- 
tions were allowed to perform the marriage rite, on presentation by the parties of 
a license obtained from the governor or his substitute. 51 

In his correspondence with the French commissioner, Mr. Perrin, 52 Mr. 
Wyllie reports that "by a circular of the late lamented Mr. Richards (the first 
Minister of Public Instruction) of the 25th of September, 1846, the school 
inspectors were instructed to consult equally with Catholic and Protestant mis- 
sionaries, respecting the appointment of Trustees for each school, and to appoint 
either a Catholic or a Protestant for Trustees, according as the scholars were 
Catholics or Protestants." And further: "In the appointment of Teachers, 
should he be a Catholic Teacher, then converse with the Catholic missionary, and 
the Trustee of that place; and if he is a skillful teacher and the scholars are 
numerous, let his wages be increased ; and if his skill be small, and his scholars 

few, let his wages be reduced If the scholars are Protestants, then converse 

with the Protestant missionary." 

There is some difficulty in this quotation, as school trustees were first created 
by the law of July 11, 1851, four years after the death of Mr. Richards, who died 
Nov. 7, 1847. 

However, this new school law and the circular of the Minister (the same 
Mr. Richards who was a member of the Protestant mission and later became 
secretary to the King) show the determinatiqn of the Hawaiian government to 
give a square deal to their Catholic subjects. All the grievances of the Catholics 
were done away with. According to returns laid before the Legislature in April, 
1848, Catholic schools were actually somewhat privileged over the Protestant ones, 
as it was found that each scholar of the Catholic schools had received of the 
Government funds on an average, annually $0.94, and each scholar in the 
Protestant schools only $0.91. 5S 

Withal a good deal of friction continued to exist, partly perhaps because the 

49 Ibidem, Ch. Ill, part of Act, ch. II, sect. I and II. 

50 Ch. V, sect. I and II. 

61 First Act of Kamehameha, ch. IV, art. I, sect. I and II. 

52 Appendix to Mr. Wyllie's Eeport to the Hawaiian Legislature, session 1851, p. 103 ff. 

53 Ibidem, p. 103. 



172 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

school inspectors and others did not adhere to their instructions, 54 and partly 
because the French consul, Mr. Dillon, did all he could to inspire the priests with 
a feeling of distrust toward the Hawaiian government, probably with a view to 
create difficulties which might provoke French intervention, and possibly an- 
nexation. 55 

The members of the Catholic Mission were of the opinion that they would 
have no peace until Catholic school inspectors were appointed for the Catholic 
schools. Mr. Wyllie was inclined to grant them their wish, and in a letter to 
Mr. Judd, Minister of Finance, dated May 12th, 1846, suggested that the Legis- 
lature should consider in their wisdom, whether it would conduce to that charity 
and concord which ought to prevail among all denominations of professing Christ- 
ians, to allow the Catholic school masters to have their own Inspectors, the same 
as the Protestant teachers. 56 

A resolution that in every district two separate committees be chosen from 
among the school trustees of each denomination to solve the difficulties which 
might arise between Catholics and Protestants, was proposed by Mr. Armstrong 
and approved by the Privy Council, but not carried into effect owing to the alarm 
of the government, created by Mr. Dillon's seeking to make religion and educa- 
tion matters of diplomatic interference. 57 

However, on June 12, 1848, a law was passed authorizing the Minister of 
Public Instruction to appoint "other school superintendents different from the 
ones mentioned" in the Act organizing the Executive Departments. This was evi- 
dently done to enable the Minister to appoint Catholic superintendents for the 
Catholic schools. He seems not to have thought it expedient to use the authority 
bestowed upon him by law. 

In April, 1849, Mr. Dillon wrote to the French admiral for a naval force to 
support the demands which vainly he urged upon the Hawaiian government in 
favor of French subjects and French commercial interests. On the 12th of 
August, 1849, Admiral De Tromelin arrived in the frigate "Poursuivante," and 
was joined next day by the steam corvette "Gassendi." Ten days later he sent 
the King a dispatch containing ten demands drawn up by Mr. Dillon, three of 
which related to the Catholic Mission, but none of which seems to warrant armed 
interference. 

3. The subjection of Catholic schools to the direction of the chief of the French 
mission, and to special inspectors not Protestants, and a treatment rigorously equal 
granted to the two worships and to their schools. 

8. The punishment of certain school-boys, whose impious conduct had occasioned 
complaint. 

9. The removal of the Governor of Hawaii for allowing the domicile of a priest to 
be violated or the order that the Governor make reparation to that missionary. 

The day previous to the delivery of these ten demands which the Admiral 
himself styled an "Ultimatum," he had been refused an audience with the King. 
This refusal greatly hurt the feelings of the gallant commander, and when on the 
25th the King sent in a negative reply to the Ten Demands, he sent his troops 
ashore. They took and dismantled the fort, spiked and broke the guns, poured 
the powder into the sea, and behaved very disgracefully, whilst the fact that they 

54 On Dec. 1st, 1848, Mr. Armstrong 1 , the successor in office of Mr. Richards, wrote to Mr. 
Wyllie: "The instructions contained in these circulars, have not been perfectly adhered to by 
the inspectors and others, in all respects, it is true; and this can be no matter of surprise 
to any one acquainted with Hawaiians; but where they have been departed from, the parties 
aggrieved have always the right to appeal, which is very simple and costs nothing." Appendix 
to Wyllie's Report, 1851, p. 106. 

55 Ibidem, pp. 112, 113. 
66 Ibid. pp. 104, 105. 

57 Ibid. p. 105. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 173 

met with no resistance, and the demands were of a rather petty nature, made the 
whole expedition an extremely ludicrous affair, perfectly unworthy of an admiral 
of "la Grande Nation." 

The 5th of September the two men-of-war left, with the impossible Mr. 
Dillon on board and with their admiral probably much lessened in his own esteem. 

I. have found no traces in any documents perused by me that the Catholic 
.missionaries "greatly abetted Mr. Dillon in the concoction of his charges against 
the government of unfair dealings towards France;" as they are accused of by 
Manley Hopkins, Hawaii, p. 315. They certainly wished the Catholic schools to 
be inspected by Catholic inspectors, nor does this desire appear unreasonable, as 
without it the schools might easily fall away from the Catholic standard. As for 
the affair of the school boys who had created a disturbance in the religious 
services held by Father Michael Coulon, and had been dismissed by the native 
judge for want of proof, this Father hardly seems responsible for the insertion 
of this trifling affair in the famous ultimatum, for Mr. Wyllie says in regard to 
this case: 

"All that Mr. Dillon asked for, on the 16th of April, 1849, with reference to 
the complaint of the Abbe Coulon, was to be informed what measures would be 
taken to prevent such acts as he had complained of. That was all the Rev. Abbe, 
who with a moderation worthy of his clerical character had declined appearing 
before the native Judge, had required him to do." 58 

It was doubtless a mistake of the French priests to bring their difficulties 
before their consul, rather than before the Courts of the country which were 
open to them. 

The successor of Mr. Dillon, Commissioner. Perrin, again presented the 
identical demands of his predecessor, on the 1st of February, 1851. The 3rd 
demand was modified in the following way : 

A treatment rigorously equal, granted to the two worships, Catholic and Protestant. 
The direction of instruction confided to two Superior Committees formed in each of 
the two religions. 

The submission of the Catholic Schools to Catholic Inspectors. The proportional 
division between the two religions of the Tax raised by the Hawaiian Government for 
the support of Schools. 

The government answered that this third demand would be taken by them in 
the light of friendly suggestions for the consideration of the Legislature, so far 
as the perfect equality of Catholics and Protestants . . . might leave anything to 
be provided for. 59 

As a consequence we find in the Session Laws of 1851, "an Act to provide for 
the more efficient management of the Public Schools." 

"Whereas, it is the right of parents, as far as possible, to have a voice in the 
management of schools, wherein their own children are educated: and whereas the 
exercise of this right will be likely, not only to prevent arbitrary dictation on the 
part of school inspectors, but increase the interest that all parents should feel in 
the public schools: 

"Therefore be it enacted . . . that it shall be lawful for all the fathers and 
guardians of the children connected with any public school in this kingdom, to meet on 
the last Monday in December of each year, and elect by ballot, a plurality deciding, 
from their own number, a local committee of two trustees . . . whose duties and 
privileges shall be the same as those of the school-subagents, or luna-kulas hereto- 
fore; and in addition to co-operate with the school inspector of the district in carrying 
into effect the school-laws, and whose sanction shall be necessary to the validity of a 



58 Appendix, etc. p. 189. 

59 Annual Reports to Hawaiian Legislature, 1851, pp. 187, 188. 



174 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

teacher's license, to his dismissal from office for any cause, and to the agreement of 
his wages."60 

We have treated the History of the School Question with much detail, as it 
shows how the Hawaiian Government has solved this important actual question. 

Whatever defects remained in the system, it recognized the right Catholics 
have to a fair and just proportion of the funds appropriated for the common 
schools, as long as with it they do the same thing that is done in the common 
schools. For if in denominational schools the secular branches are taught to the 
satisfaction of the State authorities, the schools should be compensated for doing 
that portion of the task which the State has assumed. 

By making this claim, Catholics do not ask for any favors or special privileges ; 
they do not ask that the State, neutral in religious matters, should spend its reve- 
nues for the teaching of religion, but they claim their constitutional rights as citi- 
zens, to have a proportionate share in the privileges which the State bestows, there 
where they bear a proportionate share in the paying of taxes and faithfully ful- 
fil their civic duties. 



GO Approved by the King, July llth, 1851, Laws, 1851, p. 57. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 175 



CHAPTER XV. 

Branching Out 

Foundation of the Mission on Kauai. Koloa. Moloaa. Opposition. First Bap- 
tisms. Mission Established on Niihau. The Mighty Apela. Schools. Rowdyism 
The Mission on Maui. Passing Visits. The Catechist KanuL The Catechist Helio. 
David Male's Missionary Methods. Ludicrous Incidents. Father Desvault's Visit. 
The Demonstration "Paakaula." Work on the King's Plantation. A Case of Telepathy. 
Kamakau's Raid. Arrival of Priests. Growth of the Mission on Hawaii. New Post 
at Waimea. Puna and Hilo. Division of the Island into Missionary Districts. Kau, 
an Unfallowed Field. Calvinism or Starvation. Both Rejected as Unpalatable. 
Reverses. Praise from the Enemy. Father Charles at Hilo: A Dreadful Foe. The 
Secret of Success. 

The arrival on the 9th of October, 1841, of Fathers Stanislas Lebret and 
Joachim Marchal, made it possible to reenforce the personnel of the Mission on 
the Big Island, and at the same time to recall Father Walsh from a mission 
which he had successfully implanted. He arrived at Honolulu on November the 
12th, 1 which place he again left on the 21st of the following month in order to 
propagate the Faith on the Island of Kauai. He landed at Koloa the next day, 
and was at once introduced to Captain Hudson and Mr. Pratt, the latter of these 
two gentlemen putting a horse at his disposal to facilitate his travels. There 
were perhaps already some Catholics on the island at that time, for Father Walsh 
states that after having made the acquaintance of the just mentioned gentlemen, 
he was conducted by the natives to the house of one Jakopo Pehu. 

His first solicitude was for the establishment of a modest Catholic school, 
and only after having successfully accomplished this, did he begin the erection 
of a temporary altar, that he might be able to celebrate the Holy Mysteries on 
the ensuing Christmas Day. "I have celebrated the first Mass that has ever been 
celebrated to my knowledge on the Island of Kauai, and founded the mission of 
St. Raphael the Archangel." Thus the missionary jots down on December the 
25th, 1841, this event memorable for himself and the Hawaiian Catholic Mission. 

On the first day of 1842, Father Walsh went to pay his respects to Governess 
Kekauonohi, who received him "as well as expected," which probably means : as 
coolly and officially as possible. 

Next day he again celebrated Mass and gave instructions to a large con- 
course of people, and recorded the names of several catechumens. The zealous 
priest evidently did not believe in slow development, but rather in sowing the 
good seed broadcast to the winds. After a stay of only a month at Koloa, he 
started for Hanalei, on the north coast of the island. Having arrived at that place 
on the 19th of January, he examined with interest the silk industry which Mr. 
Titcomb was conducting there. He made the acquaintance of several white 
persons, but for the moment does not seem to have had any opportunity for mis- 
sionary work. On the day following he undertook the return trip to Koloa, and 
having passed the night at Moloaa at the house of Luapele, the konohiki of the 
place, he took down the names of thirty-four natives, who declared themselves 
desirous of studying the Catholic Faith. On the 21st he came back to Koloa, 
where he found a collaborator in the person of Father Barnabe Castan, who had 
arrived there the previous clay. A week later he again left, this time to examine 

1 Lettres L/ithographiees, vol. I. p. 773. 



176 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the western P ar t of the island. At Hanapepe several catechumens were enrolled. 
They begged that Father Barnabe should be sent to instruct them further. This 
Father Walsh promised to do, but on his return to Koloa he found there a 
number of persons from Moloaa, who so strongly insisted that the young priest 
should establish himself in their village, that Father Walsh thought best to yield 
to their entreaties. As a guarantee they took along part of the luggage of their 
newly appointed pastor, 2 who joined them on the 8th of February, and having 
neither church, nor school, nor dwelling place, took up his residence in the house 
of the friendly kohohiki. 3 A school, however, was soon started, and with it 
began the opposition. On the 18th of February, Father Barnabe reported to his 
superior that the school inspector, who also was tax collector and judge, had 
tabooed the sea and the mountain for those parents who were about to send their 
children to the Catholic school; they were not even allowed to take from their 
land the taro they themselves had planted. 4 

Father Walsh at once betook himself to the Governess, and informed her of 
the school inspector's proceedings. She declared she had not heard of those 
incidents before, that at Koloa no such taboo existed, that she had given contrary 
instructions to the said official, and was going to remonstrate with him con- 
cerning it. 

Having received a letter from her to the inspector, Father Walsh went over 
to Moloaa to look into the grievances. He found that several catechumens 
had been harassed the week previous to his arrival, by the petty overseers, that a 
policeman had been deprived of his position for having attended the Catholic 
services, and that a work overseer had been similarly discharged. 

On his return to Koloa, the priest passed the night at Hanamaulu. There an 
old man, named Kaihe, informed him that the people were disposed to become 
catechumens, if they could be given some one to instruct them, and that they 
would also appreciate the establishment of a Catholic school in their village. 
Father Walsh promised that he would endeavor to grant their desire as soon as 
possible. 5 

Soon afterward Father Barnabe again complained that the konohiki who first 
had shown himself so kindly disposed, refused to grant a lot for the construction 
of a school and church. The Governess, however, having been informed, ordered 
that the land should be given for those purposes, and wrote a letter to the 
konohiki to this effect. 6 

A source of frequent friction in those days was the refusal of the authorities 
to grant marriage licenses to Catholics. An instance of this kind of petty annoy- 
ance is reported by Father Walsh in the beginning of March. The Governess 
stated as her reasons that the woman had been a Protestant, and had not notified 
the minister of her renunciation. When the priest objected to her reason as not 
being supported by the law, she granted the license. 

In the month of April, the catechumens who had been under instruction for 
nearly three months were judged fit subjects for baptism. On the tenth of that 
month, 49 of them were baptized by Father Walsh at Koloa, and a week later 
he administered the same Sacrament to 112 grown persons at Moloaa, whilst 
Father Barnabe baptized 14 children at the last named place on the succeeding 
day. About a month later, 20 adults and one child were added to the number of 
the faithful at Hanamaulu. 



2 Father "Walsh's Journal. 

3 Bishop Maigret In Halmanava, p. 19. 

4 F. Walsh's Journal, Febr. 18, 1842. 

5 Ibidem, Febr. 20, 21. 

6 F. Walsh's Journal, Febr. 28 and March 1; Haimanava, p. 20. 




[V, uf 

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176 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the western part of the island. At Hanapepe several catechumens were enrolled. 
They begged that Father Barnabe should be sent to instruct them further. This 
Father Walsh promised to do, but on his return to Koloa he found there a 
number of persons from Moloaa, who so strongly insisted that the young priest 
should establish himself in their village, that Father Walsh thought best to yield 
to their entreaties. As a guarantee they took along part of the luggage of their 
newly appointed pastor, 2 who joined them on the 8th of February, and having 
neither church, nor school, nor dwelling place, took up his residence in the house 
of the friendly kohohiki. 3 A school, however, was soon started, and with it 
began the opposition. On the 18th of February, Father Barnabe reported to his 
superior that the school inspector, who also was tax collector and judge, had 
tabooed the sea and the mountain for those parents who were about to send their 
children to the Catholic school; they were not even allowed to take from their 
land the taro they themselves had planted. 4 

Father Walsh at once betook himself to the Governess, and informed her of 
the school inspector's proceedings. She declared she had not heard of those 
incidents before, that at Koloa no such taboo existed, that she had given contrary 
instructions to the said official, and was going to remonstrate with him con- 
cerning it. 

Having received a letter from her to the inspector, Father Walsh went over 
to Moloaa to look into the grievances. He found that several catechumens 
had been harassed the week previous to his arrival, by the petty overseers, that a 
policeman had been deprived of his position for having attended the Catholic 
services, and that a work overseer had been similarly discharged. 

On his return to Koloa, the priest passed the night at Hanamaulu. There an 
old man, named Kaihe, informed him that the people were disposed to become 
catechumens, if they could be given some one to instruct them, and that they 
would also appreciate the establishment of a Catholic school in their village. 
Father Walsh promised that he would endeavor to grant their desire as soon as 
possible. 5 

Soon afterward Father Barnabe again complained that the konohiki who first 
had shown himself so kindly disposed, refused to grant a lot for the construction 
of a school and church. The Governess, however, having been informed, ordered 
that the land should be given for those purposes, and wrote a letter to the 
konohiki to this effect. 

A source of frequent friction in those days was the refusal of the authorities 
to grant marriage licenses to Catholics. An instance of this kind of petty annoy- 
ance is reported by Father Walsh in the beginning of March. The Governess 
stated as her reasons that the woman had been a Protestant, and had not notified 
the minister of her renunciation. When the priest objected to her reason as not 
being supported by the law, she granted the license. 

In the month of April, the catechumens who had been under instruction for 
nearly three months were judged fit subjects for baptism. On the tenth of that 
month, 49 of them were baptized by Father Walsh at Koloa, and a week later 
he administered the same Sacrament to 112 grown persons at Moloaa, whilst 
Father Barnabe baptized 14 children at the last named place on the succeeding 
day. About a month later, 20 adults and one child were added to the number of 
the faithful at Hanamaulu. 

2 Father Walsh's Journal. 

3 Bishop Maigret in Haimanava, p. 19. 
1 P. Walsh's Journal, Febr. 18, 1842. 

5 Ibidem, Febr. 20, 21. 

6 F. AValsh's Journal, Febr. 28 and March 1; Haimanava, p. 20. 






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COLLEGE 
HONOLULU 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 177 

Having now established several Catholic congregations on Kauai, .Father 
Walsh often cast desirous glances on the neighboring island of Niihau, which on 
his visits to Hanapepe he could discern on the western horizon as a sharp outlined 
cloud hanging on the waters. 

Toward the end of July he was informed that several canoes were preparing 
to set sail for that island at Waimea. He at once determined to seize the occasion. 
At Waimea he called on Kealiiahonui, a son of King Kaumualii, to whom he 
communicated his plan. The chief requested him to improve the occasion by 
advising the children there to frequent the schools. This the priest readily 
promised to do. But when Kealiiahonui added that he meant the Protestant 
schools, Father Walsh said that far from advising them to do so, he would do 
all in his power to prevent it. 7 He sailed on the 25th and arrived the following 
day. 

A neophyte by name of Eukakio (Eustache), who must have been informed 
of the Father's plans, had prepared a small chapel and presbytery. 

On the 31st the first Mass was celebrated on Niihau, in the presence of a 
considerable congregation. Father Walsh remained on the island till the 17th of 
August, when he returned to Waimea. He had gained over to the Catholic 
Faith more than a hundred persons, to whom he administered baptism before 
leaving, probably considering that, on account of the difficult communications 
with Kauai, it was better to confer this grace upon them, although they were not 
yet fully instructed, than to leave them for a considerable time longer deprived 
of its benefits. 8 

During his three weeks' stay on the little isle, the priest aroused the ire of 
one Apela Tahitiae, who, uniting in his sole person the dignities of judge, tax- 
assessor, school inspector and school teacher, was a man of great consequence in 
that outpost of the Hawaiian realm. A certain Kamaunu, a catechumen probably, 
having been accused of some delict against the law, Father Walsh volun- 
teered to be his lawyer, and consequently accompanied the man into the house 
of the judge on the day fixed for trial. The priest's greetings to the great man 
were not returned, but when he exposed the motive of his coming, he was ordered 
out of the house with a seething flow of abusive language; whereupon, judging 
that his client had not much chance of getting a fair trial in that particular 
court, the Father took him along to present him for trial at Waimea. 

This incident became for him a source of further annoyance when arriving at 
the latter place he paid a visit to the Governess. She upbraided him for opposing 
the laws of the kingdom, and for the refusal of some Catholics to work for 
Protestant schools and churches. In another conversation she told Father Walsh 
that children who had previously enrolled in any of the Protestant schools should 
not be allowed to attend the Catholic establishments ; to which the priest replied 
that all Hawaiian parents had a perfect right, granted them by law, to send their 
children to whatever school they pleased, as long as they did send them to school. 

These difficulties grew partly from the fact that the authorities were not 
fully acquainted with the wording and meaning of the laws, and partly from the 
other fact of their being Protestants, which made them naturally resentful at the 
successful proselytism of the Catholic missioners. However, these difficulties 
were gradually eliminated through further legislation and better mutual 
understanding. 

On September 8th, the general school inspector examined the children of 
Father Walsh's school at Koloa, and publicly manifested his satisfaction at the 

7 P. Walsh's Journal, July 25, 1842. 

8 Halmanava, pp. 60, 51. 



nu if 




SAINT LOl" 
COLLKGF. 
(ONOLL'Li: 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 177 

Having now established several Catholic congregations on Kauai, Father 
Walsh often cast desirous glances on the neighboring island of Niihau, which on 
his visits to Hanapepe he could discern on the western horizon as a sharp outlined 
cloud hanging on the waters. 

Toward the end of July he was informed that several canoes were preparing 
to set sail for that island at Waimea. He at once determined to seize the occasion. 
At Waimea he called on Kealiiahonui, a son of King Kaumualii, to whom he 
communicated his plan. The chief requested him to improve the occasion by 
advising the children there to frequent the schools. This the priest readily 
promised ^to do. But when Kealiiahonui added that he meant the Protestant 
schools, Father Walsh said that far from advising them to do so, he would do 
all in his power to prevent it. 7 He sailed on the 25th and arrived the following 
day. 

A neophyte by name of Eukakio (Eustache), who must have been informed 
of the Father's plans, had prepared a small chapel and presbytery. 

On the 31st the first Mass was celebrated on Niihau, in the presence of a 
considerable congregation. Father Walsh remained on the island till the 17th of 
August, when he returned to Waimea. He had gained over to the Catholic 
Faith more than a hundred persons, to whom he administered baptism before 
leaving, probably considering that, on account of the difficult communications 
with Kauai, it was better to confer this grace upon them, although they were not 
yet fully instructed, than to leave them for a considerable time longer deprived 
of its benefits. 8 

During his three weeks' stay on the little isle, the priest aroused the ire of 
one Apela Tahitiae, who, uniting in his sole person the dignities of judge, tax- 
assessor, school inspector and school teacher, was a man of great consequence in 
that outpost of the Hawaiian realm. A certain Kamaunu. a catechumen probably, 
having been accused of some delict against the law. Father Walsh volun- 
teered to be his lawyer, and consequently accompanied the man into the house 
of the judge on the day fixed for trial. The priest's greetings to the great man 
were not returned, but when he exposed the motive of his coming, he was ordered 
out of the house with a seething flow of abusive language: whereupon, judging 
that his client had not much chance of getting a fair trial in that particular 
court, the Father took him along to present him for trial at Waimea. 

This incident became for him a source of further annoyance when arriving at 
the latter place he paid a visit to the Governess. She upbraided him for opposing 
the laws of the kingdom, and for the refusal of some Catholics to work for 
Protestant schools and churches. In another conversation she told Father Walsh 
that children who had previously enrolled in any of the Protestant schools should 
not be allowed to attend the Catholic establishments ; to which the priest replied 
that all Hawaiian parents had a perfect right, granted them by law, to send their 
children to whatever school they pleased, as long as they did send them to school. 

These difficulties grew partly from the fact that the authorities were not 
fully acquainted with the wording and meaning of the laws, and partly from the 
other fact of their being Protestants, which made them naturally resentful at the 
successful proselytism of the Catholic missioncrs. However, these difficulties 
were gradually eliminated through further legislation and better mutual 
understanding. 

On September 8th, the general school inspector examined the children of 
Father Walsh's school at Koloa, and publicly manifested his satisfaction at the 

7 P. Walsh's Journal, July 25, 1R42. 
S Haimanava, pp. 50, 51. 



178 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

progress they had made. He gave the priest an assistant teacher and appointed 
three school trustees. Four days later he similarly inspected the Catholic school 
at Moloaa. There the children were examined in reading and arithmetic, in both 
of which branches they showed efficiency. Their writing was not found to be of 
the best. Particular care had been taken at this school to instruct the girls in 
spinning, and during the examination they spun whilst singing. The inspector 
applauded the teacher and pupils, and dwelt particularly on the advantages they 
might derive from their knowledge of spinning. There also he appointed three 
school trustees and took occasion to inform Father Walsh that he might select a 
piece of land at Koloa whereupon to build his school. 9 

Once in a while disturbances still took place; on November 1st on Niihau, a 
private house which the Catholics had transformed into a little chapel, was 
broken into by Protestants, the altar was smashed to pieces and thrown out of the 
house; 10 at Kalihi-wai, the lumber which was in readiness for the construction of 
a chapel, was shivered to pieces ; u several months later the altar of the chapel, 
which, in the mean time, had been constructed in the same place, was torn down 
by two constables by order of the headman of the place; 12 and about the same 
time a chapel at Kaunanui, Niihau, was razed to the ground by order of the 
above mentioned Judge Apela. 13 Father Barnabe himself at one time was con- 
fined to his house by order of the Governess for a reason which Father Walsh 
does not indicate, but which Father Maigret said "was to prevent him from 
answering the calumnies which she uttered against him." 14 

All this did not discourage the missioners, who rebuilt their chapels as soon as 
they were overturned. However, progress was slow, for the Baptism records 
from 1842 till 1860 show but 2463 baptisms. These first records, however, were 
very incomplete, as for instance, the 100 first baptisms at Niihau are not 
registered. 

MAUI. Catholic priests did not establish themselves on Maui until April, 
1846. Withal, they were welcomed at their arrival by a goodly number of over 
four thousand catechumens, who had been won over to the Catholic Faith 
principally by the untiring efforts of the catechist Helio Koaeloa, who therefore 
well deserves to be called the Apostle of that island. 

Bishop Rouchouze is said to have called at Maui and to have baptized 
several persons. 15 This must have been on his trip to Hawaii between October 
21st and November 7th. 16 

After the Prelate's departure, Father Maigret going to Hawaii in company 
with Father Denis Maudet, made a short stay at Lahaina, and on the 24th of 
January, 1841, offered the first Mass ever celebrated on the island in the house 
of a certain Joakini ; some white people and a few natives who had been baptized 
at Honolulu assisted. 17 

This visit caused a catechist, Marie Joseph Kanui, to become active. This 
Kanui had accompanied Boki to England, and had been taken by Mr. John Rives 
to France, where he remained for fourteen years, receiving an education in the 
Motherhouse of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts at Paris. He returned 
to the islands after the visit of 1'Artemise, and had resided on Maui since his 



9 F. Walsh's Journal, Sept. 8, 12, 1842. Lettr. Lith. I, p. 795. 

10 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 802; F. Walsh's Journal, Nov. 1, 1842. 

11 F. Walsh's Journal, Jan. 11, 1S43. 

12 Ibidem, Sept. 17, 1843. 

13 Ibidem, Sept. 17, 1843. 

14 Lettres Lithographiees, I, p. 831. 

15 Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 1009. 

16 Halmanava, p. G. 

17 Halmanava, p. 9. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 179 

return. He seems to have been in the habit of attending the Protestant prayer- 
meetings until the visit of Fathers Maigret and Maudet. Probably exhorted by 
them, he began to make propaganda for the Catholic religion, and his efforts 
appear to have been crowned with some success. 18 

During his stay in France probably he had contracted a disease of the lungs ; 
and to this sickness he succumbed shortly afterwards, dying at Honolulu on the 
13th of April, 1842. 

It must have been about the time Kanui left for Honolulu that Helio began 
his activity. One of his first conquests was his younger brother, Petero Mahoe, 
who was ,011 the point of joining the Protestants. Before many months had 
passed the number of his catechumens had increased to about a hundred. This 
little congregation seems to have lived principally at Wailuku. As the Protestant 
church of that place had to be roofed, the government officials considering this 
to be a public work, ordered Helio's followers to do it. This they refused to do, 
as being irreconcilable with their religious convictions, but they asked that 
public labor of some other kind should be assigned them. They were conse- 
quently put to work on the roads, but when they were going to their work, the 
tax-collector caused Petero Mahoe to be arrested and to be brought before him. 
At his house he and other members of the Protestant church endeavored 
to convert him to their belief ; they were unsuccessful, and when the 
conference had lasted for nearly three hours, Petero's companions, who 
had followed him to the house, entered it and removed him. 

There was then at Lahaina the school agent, David Malo, an ardent 
adherent to the Calvinist tenets, "a man," says Emerson, "of strong 
character, deep and earnest in his convictions, capable of precipitate and 
violent prejudices, inclining to be austere, and at times passionate in tem- 
per." 20 As the new Catholics refused to send their children to the 
sectarian public schools, the school agent began to enforce the law of May 
21, 1841, (see ch. XIV), which, as we have seen, condemned the 
transgressors to starvation. He came himself to Wailuku, and having 
gathered the offending Catholics, he began by kicking about a little boy and 
by tieing the hands of the child behind him. Then he caused about a 
hundred catechumens, men, women and children, to be tied together, two 
by two, and conducted them all to Lahaina. There they were given some 
salt and nonis a fruit which, being very insipid, the natives eat only in 
times of famine and afterwards conducted before the governor of the 
island, one Auhea. This worthy wight informed the prisoners that they 
had not been arrested for the sake of their religion for that, he said, 
bad and absurd as it was, concerned only themselves but because 
they refused to send their children to the Protestant schools. At that 
moment, King Kauikeaouli, who had seen the troop of Catholics passing 
by, sent three officers to inquire what was going on. Having been in- 
formed of the facts, he expressed his dissatisfaction, in consequence of 
which the prisoners were released on the next morning. An increase of 
twenty catechumens was the fruit of this event. 21 

A laughable incident is related by one of the partakers of this expedition. 
Having returned to the house of his brother at Honuaula, he and his fellow 
Catholics began to erect a little straw chapel, where they might say their prayers 
together. A Protestant of that place named Keala, came to the spot and began to 

18 Missionary Herald, XXXVIII, p. 285, Lettres Lith., vol. I, p. 770. 

19 Bro. Callxte's Journal. 

20 Preface to Hawaiian Antiquities, 1903, p. 12. 

21 Relation of Maria Leahi, to Father Aubert Bouillon, in 1856. Arch. C. M.: M. 25. 



180 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

break down the tiny shrine on the side opposite to the one they were working. 
But they being more numerous, repaired the damage quicker than he inflicted it, 
and seeing that he could not make them abandon their undertaking he went home. 
It is characteristic that they did not give the busy-body the beating he so well 
deserved. 

Something similar and even more ludicrous happened shortly afterwards at a 
place Kahakuloa, where the narrator, Simon Kaoao, had gone. There also the 
Protestants had destroyed the chapel the Catholics had erected. The latter having 
rebuilt it from reeds, their adversaries came and with the intention of breaking 
the hut down, they pulled out some reeds, but as they cut their fingers in doing 
so, they gave up the scheme. 22 

In the summer of 1842, Father Desvault visited the island of Maui to en- 
courage the growing congregations of catechumens. 23 During his stay, he enrolled 
some four hundred new catechumens, and baptized several children. He declined, 
however, to administer the sacrament of baptism to adults, probably not finding 
them sufficiently instructed. 24 He had also a conference with the King, to whom 
he declared that the Catholic children would not go to the sectarian schools. 25 

A singular demonstration which took place probably in October or November, 
1843, 20 did more than Father Desvault's short activity to augment the number of 
catechumens and to stimulate the zeal of those already converted to the faith. 
A man named Kaiwiloa, had been instructed in the Catholic religion by Helio 
Koaeloa at L/ahaina. Having returned to his village, Kahikinui in the district of 
Hana, he found that a few women there had also embraced the Faith. He 
consequently met with them at times to pray together. Knowledge of these little 
gatherings soon came to Mahune, judge at Wailuku, who at once sent policemen 
to arrest the culprits. They were tied together, and conducted to the aforesaid 
place. On their march thither the news of their arrest was noised abroad, and a 
great many of their co-religionaries joined them voluntarily. It appears that at 
that time the Catholics of Maui had made the following agreement. If any 
Catholic was accused of a crime, nobody should take interest in the case; but 
if he was brought to justice for religion's sake, then all who heard of it should 
declare their solidarity, and accompany him before the judge. In conformity with 
this resolution all the faithful who happened to live on the road by which the 
prisoners had to pass, dressed up the best they could, adorned themselves with 
flower wreaths, and joined the little band. Going eastward, they passed through 
Kaupo and Kipahulu, made a halt at Waialua, and then continued the journey 
along the north coast of the island until they reached their place of destination. 
Their number had been increased to over a hundred. All on the way they had 
been hospitably treated by the catechumens or neophytes they happened to meet; 
sometimes they remained two or three days in the same place, improving these 
halts to make new proselytes. The entire trip . from Kahikinui to Wailuku, a 
distance of some ninety miles perhaps, took over a month, and when they 
finally arrived at Wailuku, they were simply .dismissed without judgment, as 
the good judge Mahune found it probably impracticable to handle the crowd. 27 
As a result of this demonstration, the number of catechumens in the places its 
partakers had come from, tripled. This journey was called by the natives, the 
"Paakaula," i. e., the tieing with ropes. 

22 Ibidem. 

23 He left Honolulu on June 18, and returned there July 23, 1842. Journal of Bro. Calixte. 

24 P. Modest in Lettres L/ithographiees; Relation of Maria Leahi, Arch. C.M. ; M. 25, 
p. 5. Journal of Bro. Calixte, July 8, 1842. 

25 Journal of Bro. Calixter, same date. 

26 Of. Arch. C.M. M. 25, p. 10, and this volume, ch. XIV, p. . 

27 Relations of Petero Mahoe, Helio Kaiwiloa, Simeone Kaoao, Nahinu, and Punihele. 
Arch. C. M. M. 25, pp. 11, 18, 21, 26 and 27. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 181 

Shortly afterwards, the King ordered his subjects to go to work on his sugar 
plantation at Wailuku. As a great number of Catholics gathered there, they built 
a chapel, the timber of which they had carried on their shoulders from a distance 
of over nine miles. The King's labor being finished as well as the chapel, the 
Christians returned home. Helio Koaeloa and his brother Petero Mahoe resolved 
to go around the island in order to encourage the newly enrolled catechumens. 
When they arrived at Hana, some 55 miles from Wailuku, a strange case of 
telepathy occurred to Helio, according to what his brother relates. "Having 
arrived at Hana 20 leagues from Wailuku, Helio said to us in a tone as if in- 
spired; 'Our church in Wailuku is on fire But,' he added, 'the evildoers 

will die insane.' " 28 According to the same Mahoe, the prophecy was fulfilled a 
fortnight later. He says: "Two weeks later, Hawaiiwaole, the man who before 
had spit in my face, became insane, and in his frenzy taking straw and coals, 
he ran, blowing upon them, along the streets ; then he died." Four other Calvin- 
ists, friends of Hawaiiwaole, became similarly demented and died in the same 
manner. 

Father Desvault mentions the burning of the Wailuku chapel in a letter 
dated December 29, 1843. 29 

Marie Leahi relates the occurrence in the following terms : "After my return 
(from Honolulu) when Petero Mahoe and Helio K. were making a trip around 
the island to encourage the catechumens, our chapel in Wailuku was burnt down. 
It was two Calvinist deacons who set it on fire during the night. Kaniho and 
Keala told me that they had seen them and heard them say : 'Let us burn the 
church down and we shall see if their God is mighty.' The witnesses are both 
pagans. Zerobabel Kaauwai, my son-in-law, who is a judge and a Calvinist 
deacon himself, told me that he had seen Puaa die, and heard him exclaim, shak- 
ing with rage : 'I die, because I have burnt down the Catholic chapel.' " 30 

I have no intention to have my readers see anything of a supernatural nature 
in this occurrence, and relate it simply for the sake of students of telepathy. 
In the fulfilment of the prediction we have presumably one of the cases of 
death by self-suggestion even now frequently occurring in Hawaii. They became 
insane and died, because they knew of the prophecy of Helio, whom from that 
moment they considered as a powerful "kahuna" who had prayed them to death. 

About this time a co-disciple of David Malo, S. M. Kamakau by name, went 
on a crusade against the disciples of the faith which he had heard so ill spoken 
of during his student years at Lahainahma, but which a few years later, 1859, 
he was to embrace himself. He came to Kipahulu, a southerly district of Maui, 
accompanied by a numerous troop of followers, and entering into the houses of 
the Catholic converts, robbed them of all they had: poi-pounders, hatchets, cala- 
bashes, clothing, and so on. This species of confiscation he inflicted upon the 
Catholics. in accordance with a custom, called "Hao," by which, previous to the 
time that" the people had a written code of laws, the high chiefs had the power 
to strip a wrongdoer of all his property. 31 

He also destroyed a little chapel which a Catholic, named Kekuaau, had 
constructed at that place. 32 

Notwithstanding this violent opposition, the Catholic faith continued spreading 
on Maui, and its adherents were estimated to be some 3,000 towards the end of 
1844. 33 

28 Relation of Petero Mahoe; Arch. C. M. M. 25, p. 11. 

29 Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 831. 

30 Relations of Maria Leahi; Arch. C. M. M. 25, p. 6. 

31 Hawaiian Club Papers, Oct. 1868, p. 12. 

32 Relation of Kekuaau, M. 25, p. 24, in Arch. C. M. 

33 PP. Joachim Marechal and Jan Martial in Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, pp. 856 and 865. 



182 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

These numerous catechumens were ardently wishing for a resident priest to 
instruct them further in their religion and to administer the Sacraments, to 
receive which many of them often went to Oahu in their frail canoes. The 
arrival on March 26, 1846 of five priests, two catechists and three laybrothers, 34 
enabled Father Maigret to send them the spiritual leaders they were so much in 
need of. Fathers Barnabe Castan and Modest Favens were to undertake the 
mission in company with Brother Jean Marie Gabriac. They embarked with 
four other priests in destination for the Big Island, and the Provincial, Father 
Desvault, who was to return to Honolulu after having established his little band 
on Maui. The party left Oahu on the 20th of April, 1846, and arrived at Lahaina 
the next day. The new mission, where they found nearly four thousand Catholics, 
of whom only 210 had received baptism, was dedicated to Our Lady of Victories. 
The zealous Helio was deprived of the consolation of seeing the priests reaping 
the rich harvest he had sown amidst so much trouble ; "he died whilst we were at 
sea," says Father Modest. 85 

The day after their arrival, Fathers Desvault and Castan began their instruc- 
tions. On the following Sunday, they celebrated Mass for the first time since 
their arrival, and preached before numerous audiences. They remained one week 
together at Lahaina; then they separated and went traveling around the island. 
Their labors were so successful that at the end of four months they could report 
as having baptized 1,600 persons, greatly increased the number of catechumens, 
and established several little schools where instruction was given to some 700 
children. 36 

HAWAII. After a few months of painful struggle against the prejudice 
created by the equally absurd and infamous accusations brought against the 
Catholic religion by those who fed the Oahu and Lahainaluna missionary presses, 
Fathers Walsh and Heurtel began to see their prospects of ultimate success grow- 
ing brighter. Up to the end of 1840, fifteen converts had been the meagre result 
of their strenuous endeavors. But when Father Maigret came to Kailua in the 
beginning of February, 1841, bringing with him Father Denis Maudet, a new 
laborer for the extensive mission field, he had the satisfaction of pouring the 
waters of regeneration over the heads of forty-five neophytes. 37 Not quite two 
months later 154 adults with their children received the Sacrament of Baptism 
from Father Heurtel, who enrolled also 38 new catechumens. Meanwhile Father 
Walsh had gone to Waimea, a village situated in the plain which separates the 
Kohala mountains from the snowclad Mauna Kea, to establish another missionary 
center. He remained there the entire month of March, and on coming back to 
Kailua, reported the enrollment of forty catechumens. A few days later he 
again returned to the new post in company with Father Maudet. 38 

From now on the number of Catholics at Kailua and elsewhere continues to 
increase. On November 6th, Father Heurtel reported having 655 neophytes at 
Kailua, whilst outside of the congregation at Waimea, Father Walsh had added 
the population of an entire hamlet, 350 souls strong, and situated either in Puna 



34 The names of the members of this missionary party were: Fathers Charles Pouzot, 
Modeste Favens, Chrysostome Holbein, Michael Coition, and John Baptist Herbert; and Broth- 
ers Eudoxe Vallee, Jean Marie Gabriac (catechists), Elisee Prevot, Aquillee Carbonnier and 
Baslle Andre, laybrothers. 

35 Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 1010. 

36 F. Modest Favens, in Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 1019; Bro. Eudoxe Vallee, 
ibidem, p. 1032. For detailed accounts of the activity of these first missionaries, see Lettres 
Lithographiees, pp. 1009-1034, and F. Modest's Journal. 

37 Maigret's Journal, Febr., 1841. 

38 Letter of F. Ernest Heurtel, Apr. 5, 1841, Arch. C. M. M. 27. Letter of F. Denis 
Maudet, Lettres Lithographiees, vol. i, pp. 716-717. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 183 

or Kau, to the number of catechumens. 30 About the beginning of February, 
1842, the mission may be said to have been established at Hilo, when Father 
Heurtel baptized there 136 persons, and engaged the new Catholics to erect three 
grass chapels there, and at other points of the district. 40 

In the beginning of November of the preceding year, Father Walsh had gone 
to Honolulu, and his place on the Big Island had been taken by two young 
priests, who had recently arrived, Fathers Stanislas Lebret and Joachim 
Marechal. It was now decided to divide the island into four missionary dis- 
districts, which were allotted as follows: Kona to Father Heurtel, Kohala to 
Father Lebret, Hamakua and Hilo to Father Maudet, and Kau with Puna to 
Father Marechal. The latter was a very ardent young soldier of the Church 
militant. The district which was assigned him was an unfallowed ground, as no 
Protestant missionary had taken up a residence there, before the end of January, 
1842, when the Rev. Mr. Paris had been sent thither. He writes of it in these 
terms : "Some of the people had gone to Hilo, and others to Kona, and heard the 
Gospel; and some have heard it not in vain, we hope; but the great mass of 
people are all in the darkness and degradation of heathenism. Most of them are 
exceedingly poor, often living for days without food, because they are too 
indolent to plant and cultivate their lands." 41 

Among this wretched people Father Joachim endeavored to implant the 
Catholic Faith towards the end of February. A great number readily followed 
his instructions, and soon he judged a hundred of them sufficiently instructed to 
be granted the grace of baptism. Within three months those who had embraced 
the Catholic faith amounted to nine hundred. 42 

When the parents turned Catholic, they withdrew their children from the 
Protestant schools, naturally to the great annoyance of the teachers. They more- 
over refused to work for the benefit of those schools, and in consequence the 
usual punishments were inflicted upon them. The poor people who already had 
so little to eat, were deprived of their lands, and forbidden to enjoy the fruits 
of their labor. 43 

This grew even worse when about the beginning of November, the school 
authorities came to Kau in company with the Rev. Mr. Coan from Hilo, to 
inspect the schools. They sent word to Father Marechal that his Catholic 
pupils must come on a certain day to the Protestant schools, there to be examined 
as to their knowledge. The priest, who might well have yielded in this instance, 
as no principles were involved, refused to comply, but wanted the inspectors to 
conduct the examination in his own schools. They, however, were in a no more 
accommodating mood than the priest, and at once issued orders to "okiwaena" 
the parents of the Catholic school children. 44 Whilst the Catholics were greatly 
embittered by these drastic measures, the tax-collector, Pipi, ordered the arrest 
of a certain chief who lately had gone over to the Catholic faith with two hundred 
of his subordinates. The Catholics rushed in great numbers to the rescue of 
their coreligionary, surrounded the troop which had been dispatched to arrest 
him, and a scuffle took place, in which some persons on both sides were wounded. 
The Catholics being in the majority, routed their adversaries, and followed up 
their victory by entering into several houses of Protestant converts, who says 

39 P. Martial, Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 760. Of. F. Maigret, ibid., p. 773, and 
the present volume, ch. VII, p. . 

40 Letter of F. Ernest Heurtel, Febr. 5, 1842, Arch. C. M. M. 27. 

41 Missionary Herald, vol. XXXIX., p. 173. 

42 Letter of F. Heurtel, June 2, 1842, Arch. C. M. M. 27. 

43 This punishment was called okiwaena, which means literally, "cut in twain." For 
not understanding this term, Father Aubert, in his relations of what happened to the 
Catholics on Maui, frequently says that they were threatened with "Quartering." 

44 Letter of F. Heurtel, Nov. 6, 1842, Arch. C. M. M. 27. 



184 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Brother Calixte had profited by the recent "okiwaena," plundered them by way 
of compensation. 45 

The mission in Kau continued to flourish, for, less than two years after the 
fight we have mentioned, Father Marechal boasted that two thirds of the popula- 
tion had become Catholic, whilst most of the Protestant schools were closed and 
great and flourishing Catholic schools had been established in their place. 40 

In the districts of the northeast coast, the situation was less favorable. The 
converts there were poorly instructed and not fervent. There and in Kona, the 
Protestants made great efforts to repair their losses; neither did they work 
entirely in vain. 47 The situation did not improve when in December, 1842, 
Father Maudet, owing to ill health, left for Honolulu, leaving Father Lebret, 
who but very imperfectly knew the language, alone to attend to the work in the 
northern and eastern parts of the island. If no great success crowned their 
efforts in those parts, it was not because they did not do their very best. Even 
the Rev. Mr. Lyons, the Protestant pastor of Waimea, praised their indefatigable 
zeal, and expressed a hope that he might be able to convert them, that they 
might become as strenuous in their efforts to extend "the Kingdom of Jesus as 
they were to extend the kingdom of Catholicism." 48 

Notwithstanding many neophytes apostatized here and there, the total number 
in the island went on increasing, and was estimated at seven thousand in the 
spring of 1845. 49 

At the time the mission on Maui was started, two young Fathers: Jean 
Hebert and Charles Pouzot were sent to Hawaii as a reinforcement. The latter 
established himself at the village of Hilo to the great discomfort of the resident 
Protestant pastor of that place. 

The recollections of a son of one of the missionaries 50 are too interesting not 
to quote freely from them. 

". . . Besides these enemies of good order, there was another foe whom our 
parents dreaded more than all the rest. Walking with my father one evening, we 
saw through the dusky twilight a strange figure drawing near under the protection of 
a shovel-hat and a black frock that reached to its feet. Staring blankly through a 
pair of spectacles into space, it made the sign of the cross and uttered a deprecatory 
ejaculation as it hurried past. I instinctively shrank behind my father, and, anxiously 
inquiring the significance of an apparition so uncanny, was informed that it was the 
Roman Catholic priest who had recently descended upon our fold. Ah! I knew what 
that meant, because as far back as I could remember, "Fox's Book of Martyrs" was 
one of our chief sources of Sunday recreation and joy. A few weeks later, Munson 
and I discovered a lonely native building, newly erected in an unfrequented part of 
the town, and open to the winds of heaven. A rude cross surmounted the ridge-pole, 
and a few tawdry colored prints looked down upon a floor of dried grass. A sort of 
wooden cupboard standing at the end opposite the door, and a gourdshell of holy 
water fixed at the doorpost, made up the entire furniture. Informed that this was the 
Roman Catholic chapel, we were stricken with terror, and fled for our lives, lest we 
too might somehow get burned at the stake like poor John Huss, or John Rodgers 
and his wife with her nine children in arms with one at the breast, whose martyrdom, 
depicted in certain popular volumes, made our tender hearts creep with horror as we 
read. I do not know the name of the priest who ministered to the few waifs 
and strays who then formed the shabby island following of the Holy See, but 
when, at the age of sixteen or seventeen years, I made the acquaintance of Father 
Charles Pouzot, the refined and delicate looking Frenchman who cared for the parish 
of Hilo, I found him a very saintly seeming personage. His flock, however, consisted 
for the most part of the devotees of tobacco and other loose livers whom Mr. Coan 

45 Bro. Calixte's Journal, Jan. 1-4, 1843. Rev. Paris in Missionary Herald, vol. XL., p. 48. 

46 Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 857. 

47 P. Heurtel, July 28, 1842, Arch. C. M. M. 27. 

48 Nonanona, vol. II, p. 75. 

49 Lettres Lithographlees, vol. I, p. 873. 

50 Henry M. Lyman, Hawaiian Yesterdays, pp. 75-78. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 185 

would not tolerate within his church on any consideration. No matter how upright 
and virtuous their lives, men and women who would not forsake the pipe were 
bundled out of the congregation of true-believers and handed over to the tender 
mercies of Satan and his host. All such hardened sinners were joyfully welcomed, as 
brands rescued from the burning, by the proselyters of the True Church, so that in a 
short time the papal emissaries laid claim to the souls of all who were not actually 
enrolled on the books of the American Mission. This was naturally very gajling to 
an imperious spirit like that of the Protestant pastor, who ruled his numerous people 
after the manner of the great bishop that, in all but the title, he really was, and who 
could not brook the presence of a rival near the throne of grace. But this fact only 
added to the sympathy with which many of our foreign visitors regarded the efforts 
of the inoffensive little clerk who struggled so bravely against such tremendous odds; 
and it was annoying enough to see occasionally in the Honolulu papers a long list of 
gifts from Irish and French and Portuguese mariners who had sought absolution from 
the hands of Father Charles. Then Father Coan would thunder from his pulpit 
against "the woman in purple and scarlet," sitting "upon a scarlet beast, full of names 

of blasphemy, having seven heada and ten horns," until the thatch 

fairly bristled on the roof of our sanctuary " 

But the progress of the Mission was not to be stopped by either violent denun- 
ciations or petty persecutions. As long as the Catholic missionaries were faithful 
to the divine instructions, their success was certain. Frequently they were ac- 
cused of obtaining converts by offering them pecuniary bribes, sometimes as high 
as $100. 51 They probably had never seen so much money together. They were 
dressed poorly; we may well say shabbily. They often went barefooted, having 
no money to buy shoes. Like the people to whom they preached the Gospel, they 
lived in grass huts and dieted on poi and fish. For a considerable time they fore- 
went the consolation of saying Mass daily, and only celebrated the Holy Mysteries 
on Sundays, because they had to be sparing with Mass-wine. But for the com- 
forts or the goods of the world cared not they, who had taken for their motto 
that of Saint Francis Xavier : Da mihi animas, caetera tolle tibi. Give me souls ; 
the rest you may keep for yourself. 

No wonder then that success came to them who worked so indefatigably and 
with such disinterestedness that even their adversaries could not withhold their 
praise. 



51Jarves, History, p. 332; Missionary Herald, 1843, pp. 198, 287, 364; 1844, p. 190. 



186 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER XVI 
Episcopate of Bishop Louis Maigret 

Nomination and Resignation of Father Duboize. Father Maigret Elected and 
Consecrated Bishop. El Dorado. Jesuits. Father Flavian Fontaine. His College at 
Mission Dolores. In Bankruptcy. In the Various Missions. Mormons in Hawaii. The 
Anglican Mission. Press and Publications. Schools. Arrival of Sisters of the Sacred 
Hearts. Ahuimanu. Father Larkin. His College. Father Herman Koeckemann as 
Coadjutor. The Collapse of St. Louis College building. Exit Father Larkin. 

When month after month elapsed after the departure of the Marie Joseph 
from St. Catherine, and nothing was heard of the vessel, the grave doubts which 
had been entertained concerning the fate of Bishop Rouchouze and his missionary 
party grew into certainty. The Holy See was informed of the disaster which 
had deprived the Vicariate-Apostolic of Oriental Oceanica of its first bishop. 

As the mission in this extensive vicariate had taken considerable development 
since its erection, it was decided to make vicariates out of the two prefectures 
into which it had been formerly divided. Father Baudichon, a missionary in the 
Marquesas, was created Bishop of Basilinopolis and Vicar Apostolic of the south- 
ern groups of Oriental Oceanica. He was consecrated at Santiago de Chile on 
December 21, 1845. Another missionary of the same group, Father Vincent 
Ferrier Duboize, was elected Bishop of Arathia and Vicar Apostolic of the Sand- 
wich Islands. The election took place at Rome on the 13th of August, 1844. 
Unaware of his promotion he left for Tahiti two months later, and being in bad 
health, asked permission to go to Valparaiso. 1 Meanwhile having received the 
news of his elevation to the episcopate, he left Tahiti on April the 25th, 1845, 
for Valparaiso, for the double purpose of restoring his health and receiving the 
episcopal consecration. 2 However, once there he changed his mind, and disclosed 
to the Holy See weighty circumstances which prevented him from accepting the 
episcopal dignity and the pastoral care of the Sandwich Islands mission. 3 His 
resignation was accepted, and Father Maigret was elected in his place with the 
same title of Bishop of Arathia, on September 11, 1846. 

Louis Desire 'Maigret was born September 14, 1804, at Maille, Poitou, in 
France. Having completed his studies in the colleges of the Fathers of the 
Sacred Hearts at Poitiers and at Paris, he was ordained a priest in 1829, and in 
that same year appointed professor of philosophy at the seminary of Rouen, 
which charge he kept for five years. In 1834, he accompanied Bishop Rouchouze 
to the Gambier Islands, and zealously labored there till his unsuccessful attempt 
to continue the Sandwich Islands mission, which has been related in Chapter X. 

He received the tidings of his nomination to the episcopate on the 24th of 
April, 1847, but did not leave to receive consecration until July llth. He arrived 
off Santiago the 21st of October, and from his journal we learn that he had im- 
proved the voyage by reading Tertulian's Apology, Origene's Treatise against 
Celsus, in composing a booklet in Hawaiian on the Consecration of Bishops' 1 and 

1 Brief of Pius IX, appointing Father Maigret Vicar Apostolic., Sept. 11, 1846; also Lettres 
Lithographiees, vol. I, p. 904. 

2 His Letter in Lettres Lithographiees, vol. I, pp. 905-908. 

3 "Quum . . . ob gravia quaedam verum adjuncta Nobis exponendum curaverit, se 
omnlno praepediri quominus Episcopalem dignitatem ac pastorale memoratae Missionis 
regimen excipiat, atque idcirco oblata sua renuntiatione Nobis supplicaverit ut ad alterius 
Vicarii apostolici Episcopi electionem deveniamus " Brief of Pius IX, as above. 

4 O na Oihana e pili ana i ka Hoolaa ana i ka Bpikopo, 31 pp. Valparaiso, 1847. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 187 

by translating the first book of the Imitation of Jesus Christ into the same langu- 
age. 5 

The consecration was performed by Hilarion Itura, Bishop of Augustopolis, 
at Santiago on the last day of October. A month later the new prelate returned 
to Honolulu, where he arrived on February 1st, 1848, after having made a few 
days' stay at Hilo and celebrated Mass "in the humble chapel of Father Charles." 6 

We must now speak of a missionary undertaking which, although executed 
far away from the Hawaiian Islands, was from there planned and directed, and 
in consequence properly finds a place in its ecclesiastical history. 

Although in the early thirties the Franciscan Fathers in California were 
unable to cope with the needs of the missions entrusted to them, and looked for 
help to the Picpus Fathers who labored on Hawaii, their numbers had not been 
strengthened when the discovery of gold in 1848 occasioned that broad flowing 
and steady stream of immigration which since has been designated as the "Gold 
Rush." 

Again Father Jose Maria de Jesus Gonsalez, vicar capitular of the Californian 
diocese, sought succor across the sea from the Hawaiian mission. On the 23d of 
March, 1848, he wrote to Bishop Maigret for two or three of his missionaries. 
The Bishop answered that as in Hawaii as elsewhere the laborers were few whilst 
the harvest was large, he could not comply with the request, but that he would 
hasten to make known the needs of California to the Congregation of the Pro- 
paganda. 7 

Less than four months later, however, he changed his mind, and on October 
31, of the same year, Fathers Stanislas Lebret and Chrysostome Holbein em- 
barked at Honolulu for the Gold Land in company with Brothers Eliseus Prevot 
and Ladislas Ruault. He explains the reasons for this expedition in a letter to 
the Archbishop of Chalcedonia, dated Nov. 20, 1848. 

"California Is going to be an Important country. Everybody is going thither. Soon 
there will be over a million of inhabitants. Gold mines have been discovered there, 
out of which they draw gold with full hands. They are making up to 100, 200 and 
even 300 dollars a day. There is gold everywhere: in the rivers, in the plains and in 
the mountains. The clergy of California have written to me that I should come to 
their rescue. The faithful have expressed the same wish. We have a great many 
Hawaiians over there. All these considerations, together with the prospect of finding 
some resources for our Sandwich Mission and to see there some day a house of our 
institute, have engaged us to send thither Fathers Lebret and Chrysostome accom- 
panied by Bros. Eliseus and Ladislas. We could not have don it, if we had had to 
pay the passage, but a benevolent society has taken upon itself to defray the 
expenses Father Lebret has been appointed Superior . . . ." 

They arrived at their destination during the month of November, one of the 
party, Bro. Ladislas, returning by the same vessel to Honolulu, where he de- 
barked towards the end of December and from whence he again sailed for 
El Dorado a month later. 

Whilst announcing the coming of the little band, Bishop Maigret offered to 
come over himself after completing the inspection of his own vicariate, which he 
was then engaged in. 8 

On the 1st of February, 1849, Padre Gonsalez wrote directly to the Arch- 
bishop of Chalcedonia, then superior general of the Congregation of the Sacred 
Hearts, expressing the satisfaction he had experienced through the arrival of 

5 O ka Llvere Mua o ka Hahai ana mamuli o Jetu Kirito, 64 pp. Valparaiso, 1847. 

6 Maigret's Journal. 

7 Letter of Maigret to Gonsalez, July 9, 1848. 

8 Letter to Father Gonsalez, Oct. 25, 1848. 



188 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Fathers Lebret and Holbein, and asking for more priests of the same Congrega- 
tion, principally such as were conversant with the English and Spanish languages. 
He enclosed a promissory note for $2000 to defray the expenses of such party. 

About the same time Father Lebret also had written to his superior general 
anent the establishment of a college in California, His letter became a cause of 
some slight misunderstanding which, however, was soon cleared away. 

In answer to these two letters, Archbishop Bonamie wrote to Padre Gonsalez 
under date of August 11, 1849: 

"In conformity with your request I am going to prepare a party of some religious 
who can open a school or college in the vast establishment which you offer me 
through Father Lebret, and which I gratefully accept. It will be doubtless necessary 
that this donation which you make to our congregation be founded on a sure title 
that will insure us against all reverses. May it please your Reverence to consolidate 
this donation in such a way as may appear to you the surest and the best. 

"My thanks also for the $2000 which you promise for the passage of some of 
our religious. 

"I 'do not know however when they will be able to leave, but hope that their 
departure will take place before the end of this year." 

In reply to this letter Father Gonsalez says that he awaits with impatience the 
coming of the promised missionaries ; but, that as far as the rural establishment 
(country seat) is concerned, there must be an error due either to a lapsus calami 
or a misunderstanding caused by Father Lebret's imperfect understanding of the 
(Spanish) language. For, says he, 

"I neither did propose giving that country seat to your dear congregation, nor 
even could do so; oh! that I had been or were even now able! The only rural 
establishment belonging to this diocese was long ago set apart by Bishop Garcia of 
good memory who first and last held this Church, for a seminary or college for 
clerics, which certainly, as you know well, I may not alienate without consulting the 
Holy See and without its authorization. When therefore I have spoken to Father 
Lebret about this establishment, there could be no question of its ownership but 
only of its administration in one way or another; to wit, that first two priests of 
your congregation and two laybrothers together with the present rector of the semi- 
nary till his death or till he resigns his charge, and later as many of said persons as 
will be judged necessary, administer, take care of and improve this vast rural 
property, under condition however that its revenues be employed both for the support 
of the priests, and preceptors, and for the sustenance of such young men as will be 
there educated for the priesthood. (In spem Ecclesiae.) This is the only thing 
which it is in my power to do; this the only thing which I have proposed, and con- 
cerning which, if you desire guarantees, I will give such as you may require and 
I can give " 9 

On April 23, 1850, four priests, one cleric, and three laybrothers of the Con- 
gregation of the. Sacred Hearts left France with destination for Valparaiso, all or 
part of whom the authorities of the order at that place might send to California 
according to their judgment. 

In a later letter to Father Gonsalez, the Superior-General mentions the de- 
parture of his religious, and at the same time announces the election of a bishop 
for California from among the candidates proposed by the Council of Baltimore. 
The Dominican Father Charles Montgomery is probably meant. 

Archbishop Bonamie adds : 

"It will be agreeable to the Congregation of the Propaganda if a college for the 
education of the youth be opened at San Francisco by priests of our congregation. 
Cardinal Franconi wrote to me on this subject, and addressed another letter to the 



9 Letter dated Idus Pebruarii (Febr. 13), 1850. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 189 

bishop-elect of California, that he might furnish our priests with the necessary means 
as far as is in his power."io 

Before the little band of missionaries had left France, three Picpus Fathers 
had been sent to California from Valparaiso. They were Fathers John Gaspard 
Dumonteil, Felix Miguel, and Theodose Boissier. They arrived at their destina- 
tion on March 18, 1850. n The latter had been in Hawaii with Fathers Bachelot 
and Short from their arrival till Sept. 29, 1829. He was not yet ordained then. 
Soon after their arrival Fathers Miguel and Boissier appear to have been put in 
charge of the above mentioned seminary. This at least we may infer from a 
letter addressed to Father Gonsalez by the Bishop of Juliopolis in which he says : 
"I received your pleasant letter of May 10th last, wherein you acquaint me with 
the transfer (la entrega) of the seminary and of $3,000 to Fathers Theodose 
Boissier and Felix Miguel." 12 

Unfortunately for the Picpus Fathers, powerful rivals had arrived about this 
time. Two Italian Jesuits, Fathers Accolti and Nobili had come to San Francisco 
at the invitation of Father Antoine Langlois, a secular priest aspiring to become a 
member of the Company of Jesus, 13 and who on February 25, of the following 
year was appointed Vicar Forane of the diocese. 14 

The Vicar capitular seems to have approved of the invitation; 15 at any rate he 
welcomed them with "unspeakable satisfaction," 16 and renewed a wish he had 
formerly expressed of seeing two colleges of the Society established in California, 
one in the north and one in the south 17 at Los Angeles. 

To this hearty welcome the two Jesuits answered that they already had made 
some arrangements for the commencing of a college at San Jose, then the chief 
city of Southern California ; 18 they rather declined for the moment the proposition 
concerning the southern establishment. 10 

While matters were thus proceeding, Father Accolti was informed by Father 
Langlois that the Fathers of Picpus had serious intentions of establishing them- 
selves at Mission Dolores. 20 This news greatly alarmed him, and he consequently 
wrote to Father Gonsalez begging him to assign the limits of the sphere of action 
of the two orders which thus found themselves side by side in this new region. 
He suggested that the southern part of the vast territory should be assigned to 
the Picpus Fathers, whilst he claimed the northern part for his own society. 21 
"My letter," he says, "produced the desired effect, and the Picpus Fathers were 
immediately invited to establish themselves at different points in the old missions 
situated in Southern California." 22 

In fact, they were put in charge of the Mission Santa Ines, as we see by the 
records of that mission, 1850-51. Father Dumonteil, however, remained at 
Mission Dolores, in whose registers his name is found for the last time November 
4, 1851. Meantime two other Fathers of his Congregation had left Valparaiso 

10 Letter of March 13, 1850. The names of these religious are given in the Annals for 
the Propagation of the Faith, French ed. XXIII, p. 160. . Father Flavien Fontaine is the only 
one of them who actually went to California. 

11 Journal of Father Langrlois, quoted in First Half Century by St. Ignatius Church, 
Riordan, p. 45. 

12 Letter of Aug. 19, 1850. 

13 Riordan, First Half Century, p. 18. 

14 Circular of Padre Gonsalez, Febr. 25, 1850, Reg. 1 Lib. del Gobierno, foj. 8. 

15 Riordan, op. clt. p. 22. 

16 Ibid., p. 25. 

17 Ibidem, pp. 26, 28. 

18 Ibid., pp. 30, 31. 

19 Ibidem, p. 32. Letter of F. Accolti and Nobili, April 9, 1S50. 

20 Ibidem, p. 47. 

21 Ibidem, p. 47. 

22 Ibidem, p. 47. 



190 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

about the middle of August, 1850, and soon afterwards joined Father Dumonteil. 
They were Fathers Flavian Fontaine and Anaclet Lestrade. 23 

The latter went south, where we find him successively at San Gabriel (June- 
July, 1851), and at Los Angeles (till 1858). Father Flavian remained at 
Mission Dolores, and, says the author of the First Half Century of St. Ignatius, 
"it would have been better for him and for us, had he not remained." 24 

Father Flavian Fontaine was born June 25, 1810 at Ellezelles, in the diocese 
of Tournay, Belgium. He became a secular priest and was for some time 
pastor in his native diocese; but later entered the Congregation of the Sacred 
Hearts in which he made profession of the vows on September 8, 1849. He 
was a tall man with black hair, of commanding figure and handsome face. He 
spoke English fluently and without foreign accent. 25 

Father Flavian now again took up the plan, shortly before frustrated by the 
Jesuits, of establishing a college at San Francisco. The author has not been 
able to ascertain at what date exactly he started his establishment ; however, in the 
beginning of 1852, the enterprising missionary was teaching in an adobe building 
to the north of Mission Dolores, and separated from it by a line of houses. The 
school contained three rooms with as many teachers, though the pupils do not 
seem to have much exceeded twenty. 20 

In 1853, Father Fontaine decided to acquire land and erect on it a brick 
building in which he could accommodate not only day-scholars but boarders as 
well. On May llth of that year, he purchased from one J. V. Hollinshead for 
the consideration of $750, a piece of land situated at the Mission Dolores, con- 
taining 8 1/5 acres more or less. The property had been squatted on in 1851 by 
Messrs. J. V. Hollinshead and John Center, but as the latter had never lived upon 
the place, Father Fontaine seems to have thought that the title so far as there 
was any, belonged to Hollinshead ; and so the bargain was made with him, and the 
property transferred by him. With the land in his possession, it was time for 
Father Fontaine to form plans for building. He called into requisition the serv- 
ices of Mr. Michael Fennell, a builder and contractor, who agreed to erect a 
college 60 by 30 feet, two stories high, for the sum of $9000, which sum Father 
Flavian agreed to pay as follows : $2,500 whilst the building was in progress, and 
$1,000 immediately after its completion, and the remainder on the first day of 
November following at the rate of 2% a month; with the exception of the brick 
which one Thomas Dorland was to furnish for the erection of the building, for 
which the amount was to be taken out of the $9,000, and which separate payment 
Father Flavian was to settle with the said Thomas Dorland. 27 

The building was situated north of the present 14th street, and was placed on 
a rising ground where Walter street now runs. The contract for the building 
having been signed, the work soon commenced, and with it, Father Flavian's 
troubles. What ready money he had seems to have been soon exhausted. On 
July 30th, he paid Fennell $400; on August 6th he added $500 more; five days 
later he gave $220 and paid Dorland for bricks $250. Then came the borrowing. 
On the day of the last payment he gave to one D. Jobson his note for $2,000, 
at 4% a month until paid. 

According to the author of the First Half Century of St. Ignatius Church 
(who is about our only authority for Father Flavian's history, as the archives 
of the motherhouse of the Fathers of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts and 

23 Letter of Bishop of Juliopolis, Aug. 19, 1850. 

24 Opere citato, p. 47. 

25 A. P. F. XXIII., p. 160. First Half Century, P- 50. 

26 First Half Century, pp. 50, 51. 
2.7 Ibidem, pp. 52, 53. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 191 

of these establishments at Honolulu and Valparaiso contain, strange to say, no 
documents shedding light on his educational enterprise), this Mr. Jobson must 
have been a shrewd man in money matters. He doubtless knew the financial 
standing of his borrower; and he therefore required, as a condition of the loan, 
that the note should be endorsed. Dona Ciprian de Bernal went security and 
received in recompense her oivn measure of woes. 

Other payments followed until September 15th, 'when Father Flavian, hard 
pressed for money, gave his note for $2,350 to Dona Ciprian, said note to run 
a year; settled what debts he could, for on that day he paid Fennell $400, 
abandoned a project which had proved so disastrous, and left the city. He 
seems to have died shortly afterwards at Panama. 28 

A few days after the priest's departure, Fennell and Dorland filed in the 
office of the County Recorder of the county of San Francisco mechanic's liens, 
amounting jointly to $7,986. 

At this stage of the proceedings Father Nobili, S. J., who that same year had 
begun a college at Santa Clara, entered into the matter. He settled with Fen- 
nell and Dorland, and so laid claim to the property. It now developed that the 
title of Father Flavian to the land was of no value, being that of a squatter. 
Father Nobili obtained the cession to him in person of other titles better founded 
in law, and entered into possession of the land. 

When the college was completed in November, Father Veyret, S. J., opened 
school therein. It proved a complete failure, and was closed before it had existed 
one year. The building, neglected, fell into decay, and seems to have been ulti- 
mately destroyed by fire. 29 

Thus terminated the mission of the Picpus Fathers at San Francisco, for 
Father Dumonteil had left Mission Dolores in the latter part of 1851. 

The details we have been able to gather concerning their activity in Southern 
California are very meager. 

About the month of August, 1851, Father Anaclet Lestrave became pastor of 
Los Angeles. A month later he received an aid in the person of Brother Edmund 
Venisse, a subdeacon of his congregation. Yet another Father was with them 
(perhaps Father Jude-Thaddeus Pivet), for Bro. Edmund wrote on September 
18, 1851 : "We are three at Los Angeles to see if we can establish a school, a 
college or something approaching it." 30 How far they succeeded we may judge 
from another letter of the same, written after his ordination to the priesthood 
at San Francisco on November 19, 1854. "I was ordained a priest by Bishop 
Alemany at San Francisco. Soon I returned by sea to the Pueblo de los Angeles 
where I had been occupied for two years in quality of schoolmaster, teaching a 
bit of everything to some poor children." 31 The school does not seem to have 
continued, for in the same letter the neomist says : "After a stay of a few days at 
Santa Ines, I came back to Los Angeles where I found my kind pastor, Father 
Anaclet. I helped him as well as I could, this time not as school teacher, but as 
missionary. Our church which some time ago was too large, had now grown 
insufficient for the needs of the congregation. The woi'k was immense, and two 
more priests would not have lacked work. Always a-going, sometimes on foot, 
other times on horseback, by day or by night, I went at times as far as seventy- 
five miles to exercise the ministry. Most of the time I went to San Fernando, 
another mission in charge of Father Anaclet. These good people, almost all of 
them Indians, have been without a priest for the last eight or ten years. At 

28 Op. cit. pp. 52-54, 59. 

29 Op. cit. pp. 63-66. 

30 Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, 1852, p. 407. 

31 Ann. Prop. Poi, XXX., p. 57. 



192 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

every visit I celebrated the Holy Mysteries, taught catechism, heard confessions, 
baptized the children and attended the sick." 32 

In the summer of 1855, he made a trip to Hawaii for the sake of his health, 
but as it grew rather worse there, he again returned to California shortly after- 
ward, where he arrived in time to be present at the installation of Bishop Amat. 
He did not remain long, for, says he : "As the principal aim of our Congregation 
in this country had been the establishment of a college, and the time marked by 
Providence did not seem to have come, it was decided that I was to leave for 
Chile." 33 He arrived at Valparaiso on the 22nd of May, 1856, and was sent 
from there to Copiapo, where the Picpus Fathers had a flourishing college. 

Father Chrysostome Holbein had been put in chai;ge of the mission at San 
Diego almost immediately after his arrival in 1849, and constantly remained there. 
His name appears for the last time on the Baptism Records on September 27, 
1854. 

Fathers Boissier and Miguel, who at the instances of the Jesuits had been 
sent to St. Ines, must have returned to Valparaiso in 1851 ; their place was taken 
by Father Thaddeus Pivet, whom Father Venisse mentions as pastor of St. Ines, 
speaking of a visit to that place in November, 185 1. 34 The Catholic Directory 
makes mention of him for the last time in 1854. 

To Father Amiable Petithomme the same Directory successfully adjudges the 
stations of St. Ines (1851), San Fernando (1852), San Bernardo and San Salvador 
(1853), and San Salvador (1854). The following year he left for Honolulu, where 
he arrived on the 31st of October. 35 He was then suffering from paralysis. Four 
days later, Father Modest Favens, provincial of the Picpus Fathers in Hawaii, 
left for Hawaii in quality of Visitor, having received orders from his Superior- 
General to that effect, two months previously. He was back at Honolulu on 
February 15th of the following year. The report of his visit cannot be found 
in the Archives of the Motherhouse, and hence we do not know the motives that 
prompted the Picpus Fathers to abandon the California!! mission, which, far from 
being a source of revenues for the Hawaiian mission as it had been hoped, had 
become for the struggling Vicar Apostolic a cause of much financial and mental 
worry. 

However, the Catholic Church was by this time solidly established in the 
archipelago. Persecution had passed forever, and none but the ordinary difficul- 
ties had to be coped with. These difficulties, however, were not inconsiderable 
during the entire duration of Bishop Maigret's administration. The Protestant 
missionaries, quite naturally continued to oppose in word and script their 
Catholic rivals. But the combat ceased to be merely dual when successively the 
Mormons and the Anglicans came upon the field. 

Ten Mormon elders arrived from Utah, December 12, 1850. Without delay 
they scattered over the four principal islands. Before long, several of their 
number, discouraged by the obstacles they met with, and by the lack of success, 
returned home ; one of them, their president, going to Tahiti. After a while, their 
places were filled by others. On the island of Maui, they soon made considerable 
impression on the native mind, and succeeded in making many converts. After 
the arrival of more elders in February, 1853, they renewed their efforts on Oahu 
and elsewhere, and claimed large numbers of proselytes. 30 

Their success was such that in 1854 the elders claimed for themselves the 

32 Ibidem, p. 59. 

33 A. P. P., XXX., pp. 63-68. 

34 A. P. P., XXX., p. 58. 

35 Bishop Maigret's Journal. 

36 Geo. Q. Cannon, My First Mission, pp. 43, 46, 52, 55. 




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192 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

every visit 1 celebrated the Holy Mysteries, taught catechism, heard confessions, 
baptized the children and attended the sick." a2 

In the summer of 1855, he made a trip to Hawaii for the sake of his health, 
but as it grew rather worse there, he again returned to California shortly after- 
ward, where he arrived in time to be present at the installation of Bishop Amat. 
He did not remain long, for, says he: "As the principal aim of our Congregation 
in this country had been the establishment of a college, and the time marked by 
Providence did not seem to have come, it was decided that I was to leave for 
Chile. '""'' He arrived at Valparaiso on the 22nd of May, 1856, and was sent 
from there to Copiapo, where the Picpus Fathers had a flourishing college. 

Father Chrysostome Holbein had been put in charge of the mission at San 
Diego almost immediately after his arrival in 1849, and constantly remained there. 
His name appears for the last time on the Baptism Records on September 27, 



Fathers Boissier and Miguel, who at the instances of the Jesuits had been 
sent to St. Ines, must have returned to Valparaiso in 1851 ; their place was taken 
by Father Thaddeus Pivet, whom Father Venisse mentions as pastor of St. Ines, 
speaking of a visit to that place in November, 1851. 34 The Catholic Directory 
makes mention of him for the last time in 1854. 

To Father Amiable Petithomme the same Directory successfully adjudges the 
stations of St. Ines (1851), San Fernando (1852), San Bernardo and San Salvador 
(1853), and San Salvador (1854). The following year he left for Honolulu, where 
he arrived on the 31st of October. 35 He was then suffering from paralysis. Four 
days later. Father Modest Favens, provincial of the Picpus Fathers in Hawaii, 
left for Hawaii in quality of Visitor, having received orders from his Superior- 
General to that effect, two months previously. He was back at Honolulu on 
February 15th of the following year. The report of his visit cannot be found 
in the Archives of the Motherhouse, and hence we do not know the motives that 
prompted the Picpus Fathers to abandon the California!! mission, which, far from 
being a source of revenues for the Hawaiian mission as it had been hoped, had 
become for the struggling Vicar Apostolic a cause of much financial and mental 
worry. 

However, the Catholic Church was by this time solidly established in the 
archipelago. Persecution had passed forever, and none but the ordinary difficul- 
ties had to be coped with. These difficulties, however, were not inconsiderable 
during the entire duration of Bishop Maigrct's administration. The Protestant 
missionaries, quite naturally continued to oppose in word and script their 
Catholic rivals. But the combat ceased to be merely dual when successively the 
M'ormons and the Anglicans came upon the field. 

Ten Mormon elders arrived from Utah, December 12, 1850. Without delay 
they scattered over the four principal islands. Before long, several of their 
number, discouraged by the obstacles they met with, and by the lack of success, 
returned home; one of them, their president, going to Tahiti. After a while, their 
places were filled by others. On the island of Maui. they soon made considerable 
impression on the native mind, and succeeded in making many converts. After 
the arrival of more elders in February, 1853, they renewed their efforts on Oahu 
and elsewhere, and claimed large numbers of proselytes. ;;i; 

Their success was such that in 1854 the elders claimed for themselves the 



','," Iluclom, p. 50. 

33 A. P, P., XXX., pp. G3-G8. 

34 -A. P. P., XXX., p. 58. 
Ilii Bishop Maigrct's Journal. 

.'!(! Oeo. Q. Cannon, My First Mission, pp. 




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History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 193 

same privileges (exemption from taxation, grants of land for schools and churches, 
etc.) which ministers of the Protestant and Catholic Churches enjoyed. Their 
demands were then denied. In less than four years they claimed to have 
admitted to baptism not less than four thousand persons. 

The school and the press were the means employed by Bishop Maigret to 
oppose the adversaries of the Faith. 

The first press used by the Catholic Mission was mounted November 5, 1841. 
It has been bought for $150, but Bro. Calixte who gives these details in his 
journal, does not say where it came from. The first publication struck from it 
seems to have been "Vahi Hoite Katolika," (Explanation of the Catholic 
Religion), of which during the month of December, 2000 copies were printed. 
Several other booklets soon followed, as two editions of a pamphlet called 
"Ke Kuhiheva," (The Error), a little catechism and prayerbook, and some kind 
of a primer. 

However, in September, 1842, Father Maigret complained: "They (the Pro- 
testants) have excellent presses of the new kind, whilst we have only a bad one 
the characters of which do not mark." 38 

A new press was sent from France in July, 1845, and arrived at Honolulu 
during the month of March of the following year. 39 

With its accessories it had cost 11,000 francs ($2,200). It must here be re- 
marked that this press coming from France, the type naturally contained but an 
insufficient number of k's and w's, these letters being hardly used in the French 
language, whilst they abound in the Hawaiian tongue. In the early years of the 
19th century, the T was used instead of the K by the natives of Maui, Oahu and 
Kauai, and even "Kamehameha II, who was of the Big Island, where the K was 
preferred, used to sign his name Tamehameha. Even now the T is still used 
by elderly Hawaiians and more generally by the natives of the northernmost 
island. 

The new press was kept busy for many years. Prayerbooks, devotional bro- 
chures, catechisms, controversional pamphlets and the like kept the press going 
the remaining years of the sixth decade. 

In January, 1860, the Hae Kiritiano (The Christian Standard), a semi- 
monthly made its first appearance. This periodical lasted three full years. It 
was a controversional paper, and intended especially to answer the attacks of the 
Protestant newspaper "Ka Hoku Loa Kalawina." 

It reappeared in May, 1868, as a monthly under a somewhat changed title 
"Ka Hae Katolika," the Catholic Standard. This was more of a religious news- 
paper. The last number seen is of February, 1871, but nothing in that issue 
suggests that it is to be the last one ; on the contrary, there is an article which is 
"to be continued." 

SCHOOLS. When Bishop Rouchouze left for Europe, it was his intention 
to bring along with him on his return some nuns for the education of the Catholic 
girls of his vicariate. Several sisters of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts 
embarked actually with him on the ill-fated Marie-Joseph, and shared her doom. 

Either from a lack of financial facilities or on account of the alarm which the 
disaster had caused among the good Sisters in France, no new efforts to intro- 
duce nuns into the archipelago were made for many years. 

The plan seems to have cropped up again in May, 1855, at a dinner offered 

38 Letter of Sept. 22. 1842. 

39 Report to the Board of the Propagation of the Faith, 1846. Journal of Bishop Maisret, 
March 31, 1846. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 193 

same privileges (exemption from taxation, grants of land for schools and churches, 
etc.) which ministers of the Protestant and Catholic Churches enjoyed. Their 
demands were then denied. In less than four years they claimed to have 
admitted to baptism not less than four thousand persons. 

The school and the press were, the means employed by Bishop Maigrct to 
oppose the adversaries of the Faith. 

The first press used by the Catholic Mission was mounted November 5, 1841. 
It has been bought for $150, but Bro. Calixte who gives these details in his 
journal, does not say where it came from. The first publication struck from it 
seems to have been "Vahi Hoite Katolika," ( Explanation of the Catholic 
Religion), of which during the month of December. 2000 copies were printed. 
Several other booklets soon followed, as two editions of a pamphlet called 
"Ke Kuhiheva," (The Error), a little catechism and prayerbook, and some kind 
of a primer. 

However, in September, 1842. Father Maigret complained : "They (the Pro- 
testants) have excellent presses of the new kind, whilst we have only a bad one 
the characters of which do not mark.'" 18 

A new press was sent from France in July, 1845, and arrived at Honolulu 
during the month of March of the following year/' 1 " 

With its accessories it had cost 11,000 francs ($2,200). It must here be re- 
marked that this press coming from France, the type naturally contained but an 
insufficient number of k's and w's. these letters being hardly used in the French 
language, whilst they abound in the Hawaiian tongue. In the early years of the 
19th century, the T was used instead of the K by the natives of Matii, Oahu and 
Kauai, and even Kamehameha 11. who was of the Big Island, where the K was 
preferred, used to sign his name Tamehameha. Even now the T is still used 
by elderly Hawaiians and more gcnerallv by the natives of the northernmost 
island. 

The new press was kept busy for many years. Prayerbooks. devotional bro- 
chures, catechisms, controversional pamphlets and the like kept the press going 
the remaining years of the sixth decade. 

In January, 1860, the Hae Kiritiano (The Christian Standard), a semi- 
monthly made its first appearance. This periodical lasted three full years. It 
was a controversional paper, and intended especially to answer the attacks of the 
Protestant newspaper "Ka Hoku l.oa Kalawina.'' 

it reappeared in May. 1868, as a monthly under a somewhat changed title 
"Ka Hae Katolika," the Catholic Standard. This was more of a religious news- 
paper. The last number seen is of February, 1871. but nothing in that issue 
suggests that it is to be the last one; on the contrary, there is an article which is 
"to be continued." 

SCHOOLS. When Bishop Kouehouxc left for Europe, it was his intention 
to bring along with him on his return some nuns for the education of the Catholic 
girls of his vic;:riate. Several sisters of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts 
embarked actually with him on the ill-fated Marie-Joseph, and shared her doom. 

Either from a lack of financial facilities or on account of the alarm which the 
disaster had caused among the good Sisters in I 1 ' ranee, no new efforts to intro- 
duce nuns into the archipelago were made for many years. 

The plan seems to have cropped up again in May, 1855, at a dinner offered 

38 Letter of Sept. 22. 1S42. 

3!) He-port to th<- Board of tin.' Pp. ;>;iKat >"ii of Hn- Faith, lS-1i;. .Jiiiirnal of liishop Mai "Tut 
March 31, IS-lti. 



194 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

by the King to the French admiral Fournichon whereto the Bishop was also 
invited. 40 A year later, a piece of land alongside of the Cathedral was acquired 
together with a house for the sum of $4,000. Another adjacent house was sub- 
sequently obtained for $2,250. 41 

On May 4th, 1859, ten Sisters of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts 
arrived at Honolulu, and met with a most kind reception from the authorities and 
the people generally. A boarding school was opened by them on the 9th of July, 
and on August 2d, day scholars were received. 

The number of pupils rapidly increased, and in 1865, an extension had 
become necessary. 

The college of Ahuimanu similarly flourished about this time. In his report 
of 1865, the Bishop says : "The college and the schools are doing well. But as 
the number of pupils is continually on the increase, it has become necessary to 
enlarge the college. First we have added a story and a top floor with an attic; 
then we have been obliged to construct a new building. And yet we are lacking 
room." 42 

In 1865 the college seems to have reached the acme of its prosperity. It is not 
stated how many pupils were then on the rolls. From 30 in 1862, and 40 in the 
next year, they had increased to 50 by the end of 1864. The above quotation 
points to a considerable increase. 

The cause of this success is to be found perhaps in a change of principals 
which had taken place in June 1859. Father Eustate who in 1857 had taken the 
place of Father Delvaux, was now succeeded by Father Walsh who introduced 
the English language as vehicle of instruction. He remained at the head of the 
institution till his death which took place there, on the 14th of October, 1869. His 
remains rest in the King Street cemetery at Honolulu. 

However, in his annual report of April, 1866, the Vicar Apostolic complains 
that the King had ordered ten pupils to be taken from Ahuimanu and sent to 
the Episcopal school. From then on the number remained more or less stationary 
for some years ; in 1873 it is yet at 50 ; then for some unknown reason it began 
to decline rapidly. In 1876 only 28 boys follow the course; 43 two years later 
but six are left. For some time the Institution had received from the Board 
of Education a yearly grant of $400 in the form of eight Hawaiian scholarships ; 
owing to the small attendance, this aid was then withheld. 44 

Although thus having outlived its usefulness, the college was allowed to vege- 
tate for a few years, when its place was successfully taken by the new college of 
St. Louis at Honolulu, the foundation of which we have now to relate. 

FATHER LARKIN. Toward the end of the seventh decade of the preced- 
ing century, the schools in the Islands, and especially in the capital, became more 
and more anglicized. The ever increasing number of foreigners, and even many 
of the natives, preferred to have their children educated in the English tongue. 
In 1880, to satisfy this popular demand, instruction was given in that language 
in 60 schools to 3086 pupils, whilst the remaining 150 schools of the Kingdom, 
in which Hawaiian was the chief medium of instruction, were attended by 
4078 pupils. Of this number ten schools were under the auspices of the Catholic 
Mission with a total of 626 pupils; in all of them English was the medium of 
instruction. They were located in the following places: 

40 Letter of May 10, 1855, Arch. Mother-house. 

41 Malgret's Journal, May 2, Dec. 1, 1856. 

42 Report to the Board of the Propagation of the Faith, April 5, 1865. 

43 Report President Board of Education, 1876, p. 9. 

44 Report Board of Education, 1878, p. 17. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 195 

Honolulu (Sisters of the SS. HH.) 112 girls; Hilo, 60 boys and 60 girls; 
Wailuku, 74 boys; Ahuimanu, 17 boys; Heeia, 43 boys and 22 girls; Koloa, 
Kauai, 15 boys and 22 girls; Lahaina, 48 boys and 30 girls; Waipio, 19 boys and 
15 girls; Honokaa, 11 boys and 17 girls; and Waiohinu, 33 boys and 25 girls. 

Some of the Hawaiian Government schools were in reality Catholic schools, 
for instance, the school of L. Kaaikauna, with 56 boys, and of S. M. Kiritina with 
61 girls, both on the premises of the Catholic Mission. at Honolulu. 

The need of a Catholic English school was then very badly felt at Honolulu, 
as we see from a letter dated July 18, 1879, addressed by Father Herman Koecke- 
mann to his Superior-General : Speaking of the education of the boys, he says : 

"Besides the Hawaiian school with some 50 to 60 pupils, we have nothing (at 
Honolulu), and it is saddening to aee more than three hundred boys being lost. The 

parents are either incapable or too indifferent to impart religious instruction 

They rely upon the school, which does nothing As to the children them-. 

selves, a certain number yet come to Mass, but without knowing what is going on 
at the altar, and without uttering a prayer. Not ten boys going to the English 
schools come to confession during the year . . . ." 

No wonder then, that when, on August 5th, 1880, an Irish priest came to 
Honolulu and offered his services to Bishop Maigret for the establishment of 
an English college, he was cordially welcomed by that Prelate, albeit the local 
clergy treated him with suspicion. Father W. J. Larkin arrived from San 
Francisco with letters of introduction from Bishop Alemany, who, it will appear, 
hardly knew him. He had exercised the ministry in several dioceses Queensland 
and Wellington in the Colonies, and lately in that of Dunedin in New Zealand, 
where he is alleged to have been arrested for connection with the Fenian 
troubles. 45 He was suspended in that diocese by Bishop Moran for making debts 
and refusal to leave the diocese. 46 

Soon he began to collect funds for the execution of his design, and in the 
month of October he bought in his own name at a cost of some $10,000 two 
acres of land on Beretania street, contiguous to the Anglican Mission. Later on 
he transferred this property to the Catholic Mission, which paid the remaining 
debts. Shortly afterwards he constructed there a school building, 100 feet long by 
60 feet wide, with a 12 foot wide veranda surrounding it on all sides. The 
height of the schoolroom was 20 feet in the center and 18 feet at the sides and 
ends, the ceiling being concave in all directions. A Mr. C. J. Wall was the 
architect. 47 

This strange building, designed for a concert hall rather than for school pur- 
poses, was never used, as soon we shall see. In the beginning of 1881, Father 
Larkin seems to have started teaching in some other building on the premises, for 
from the first of January of that year appears regularly an advertisement in the 
local Pacific Commercial Advertiser, called attention to THE COLLEGE OF 
SAINT LOUIS, and Hawaiian Commercial and Business Academy. 

The course of study is said to be "classical, scientific and commercial, Latin, 
Greek, French, German, Spanish, and Italian being taught. An Evening School 
was annexed to the institution, the aim of which was "to afford to all classes of 
the community the means of acquiring a theoretical and practical knowledge of 
all commercial and business transactions in daily use." 

Father Larkin was assisted by two professors, Messrs. Nichols and Popovich. 

45. Letter of F. Herman Koeckemann, Nov. 18, 1880. 

46 J. Mclnerny's letter to Bishop Maigret, May 13, 1881. 

47 Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Oct. 23, 1880. 



196 History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 

When the school was formally opened on January the 20th, twenty-five pupils had 
their names put on the rolls. 48 

The Fathers of the Mission grew ever more distrustful of this stranger, and 
their suspicions were strengthened by accusations against the priest's character, 
which then began to be discussed by the public and in the press. 49 They, more- 
over, believed that the intruding priest, having circumvented the feeble-minded 
old Bishop and secured the friendship of the King, aspired to become Vicar 
Apostolic of Hawaii through the influence of Kalakaua, who, in January had 
left his kingdom for a tour around the world, and in due time was to visit the 
Holy See. 

To frustrate this scheme, a petition was presented to the Holy Father by the 
Catholic missionaries through their Superior-General, that a coadjutor from 
their own ranks be given to the aged Bishop. 50 

This petition was granted before Kalakaua had arrived in the capital of 
Christendom, and on May 17, 1881, Father Herman Koeckemann was elected 
Bishop of Olba and coadjutor to Bishop Louis Maigret, wtih right of future 
succession. 

Thus were brought to naught the aspirations of Father Larkin to a mitre, if 
ever really he entertained them. A deplorable accident which happened three 
days later, put an end to the priest's career in Hawaii. 

On May the 20th, he had obligingly granted the use of the new building to a 
company of firemen for a social evening. In the early afternoon several persons 
interested in the affair were in the hall decorating, and Father Larkin had just 
come in to see what progress had been made with the preparations, when a loud 
report was heard, and the plaster began to fall. The half a dozen people who 
were in the inside ran for their lives. Suddenly the whole building came down 
with a crash, burying beneath its ruins two women and a native boy. The two 
females were happily rescued, but the boy was killed. 

A coroner's verdict pronounced the falling of the building to be the result of 
carelessness in the construction of the roof, and held both the architect and the 
president of the college responsible for the death of the boy, David Paahao. On 
May 30th, the priest appeared before the Court to answer to a charge of man- 
slaughter in the second degree. Meantime, it had been intimated to him that if 
he chose to leave the Kingdom he would be permitted to do so. He declined to 
leave with so grave a charge hanging over his head, and pleaded not guilty. 52 

In a subsequent session of the court the jury announced that they had not 
arrived at a verdict, whereupon the judge discharged them and informed the 
defendant that he would have to await a new trial. 53 Not being able to furnish 
bail of $1000, the priest was detained in prison. Bishop Herman obtained for 
him liberty to leave the country and urged him to accept it. 54 As the Bishop- 
elect was to proceed on the first of August to receive consecration, Father Larkin 
made up his mind to accompany him thither. He seems to have died in San 
Francisco during the month of March, 1906, as a Honolulu paper of April 5th, 
1906 speaks of his "recent decease." 55 



48 Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Jan. 22, 1881. 

49 Hawaiian Gazette, June 1, 1881. Pacific Commercial Advertiser, May 7. June 1, 1881. 

50 Letter of F. Herman Koeckemann, March 12, 1881. 

52 Pacific Commercial Advertiser, May 28, 1881, June 4, 1881. 

53 Ibidem, July 23, 1881. 

54 Letter to Superior General, July 31, 1881. 

55 Pacific Commercial Advertiser. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 197 



CHAPTER XVII. 
Father Darnien 

Introduction and Spread of Leprosy in Hawaii. Efforts to Repress the Disease. 
The Molokai Settlement. Need of a Priest. Building of the First Catholic Chapel. 
Arrival of F. Damien at Molokai. Biographical Notes. First Years of Missionary 
Life. His Description of the Settlement and of His Work There. A Leper. Assist- 
ants, Father Andrew, Father Albert, Father Gregory, Dutton; Sisters; Father Con- 
rardy, Father Wendelin Last Sickness and Death Hyde's Letter. Stevenson's Philippic. 
Defects Discussed. Morality Vindicated Dutton's Report. Hyde's Second Letter. 
Beissel's Controversy. Final Vindication by " a Missionary." 

It is not known when leprosy was first introduced in the Hawaiian Islands. 
In April, 1863, Dr. W. Hillebrand, surgeon to the Queen's Hospital at Honolulu, 
styled it a new disease and. called the attention of the Government and the public 
to its rapid spread. However, as early as 1823, the Rev. Mr. Stewart, one of 
the Protestant missionaries, writes in his Journal 1 : "Cases of ophtalmic scrofula, 
and elephantiasis are very common." It seems certain that the Elephantiasis he 
spoke of was true leprosy. 

During the year 1862 Dr. Hillebrand had devoted a wooden house on the 
hospital grounds to the reception of patients suffering from the loathsome disease ; 
he recommended that the Legislature should devise and carry out some efficient 
and, at the same time, humane measure, by which the isolation of those effected 
with the disease could be accomplished. 2 

On the 3d day of January, 1865, King Kamehameha V approved an act to 
prevent the spread of leprosy in the kingdom, whereby it was enacted that the 
Minister of the Interior, as President of the Board of Health, was authorized to 
reserve and set apart any land or portion of land then owned by the Government, 
for the site or sites of an establishment or establishments to secure the isola- 
tion and seclusion of leprous persons. The Board of Health or its agents were 
authorized by the same law to cause to be confined, in the places for the purpose 
provided, all leprous patients who were deemed capable of spreading the disease. 3 

The same year the Government acquired a tract of land situated about the 
center of the north coast of the island of Molokai. This island has an area of 
261 square miles, but the portion of land set apart for a leper settlement com- 
prises only approximately ten square miles. It is in the form of a tongue of land, 
three sides of which are washed by the ocean, whilst a steep and lofty mountain 
chain some 3,000 feet high, cuts the settlement so entirely from the rest of the 
island that there is no egress or ingress possible except by boat, or by a narrow 
trail which crosses the mountain at a height of 2,100 feet. The extreme length of 
this tongue of land is about two and three quarter miles, whilst the average width 
is over two miles. There are two villages on this reservation : one, Kalaupapa, 
on the northwest side at the foot of the mountains, and the other, Kalawao, on 
the northernmost point of the tongue of land; the distance between these places 
is about two miles and a half. 

The first shipment of lepers arrived at Molokai on January 6, 1866. 4 In a 

1 Journal of a Residence on the Sandwich Islands, 1828, p. 148. 

2 Leprosy in Hawaii, 1886, p. 5. 

3 Session Laws, 1864-65, p. 63. 

4 Dedication of the Kapiolani Home, 1885, p. 39. 



198 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

few cases, fathers, mothers, wives and husbands were allowed to accompany their 
afflicted relatives. 5 

When the lands were purchased on Molokai, it was confidently expected that 
the first outlay there would be the principal one required, and that the valley of 
Waikolu, and the surrounding lands, than which no richer can be found through- 
out the group, would be cheerfully cultivated by the strongest of the lepers, and 
that, except for clothes and perhaps some animal food, the resources at the dis- 
posal of the Board would not be subjected to a regular and constant drain. But 
a great disappointment was soon experienced in this respect, the terrible disease 
seeming to cause among the persons afflicted with it as great a change in their 
moral and mental organization as in their physical constitution. So far from 
aiding their weaker brethern, the strong took possession of everything, devoured 
and destroyed the large quantity of food on the lands, and altogether refused to 
replant anything ; indeed, they had no compunction in taking from those who were 
disabled and the dying the material supplies of clothes and food which were dis- 
pensed by the Superintendent for the use of the latter. 

The superintendent, a Frenchman by the name of Lepart, who lived in the 
settlement, informed the Board, in the month of September, 1866, to its great 
surprise, that supplies must be sent from Honolulu, as the settlement would be able 
to produce but little from that time forth. 

In 1867, the Board of Health erected a hospital at Kalaupapa for the accom- 
modation of those who were in the last stage of leprosy. 

One of the most serious troubles on Molokai to the Board and the manager 
was the difficulty of maintaining order. Drunkenness, pilferings, immorality and 
general insubordination were very prevalent; ki-root beer was manufactured and 
drunk in very large quantities, and great orgies took place. 

A change for the better was brought about the appointment of a new super- 
intendent, Mr. Walsh, who was at the same time a magistrate for the peninsula, 
and by the making of constables out of the husbands of diseased women, who 
received in return for their services the permission to reside with their wives, 
whilst rations and clothing were issued to them in the same quantities as to the 
lepers. 

A comfortable house was erected about this time for Mr. and Mrs. Walsh, 
and also a schoolhouse for the children, an instructor for which establishment was 
generally obtained among the lepers. 7 Also separate sleeping apartments were con- 
structed for the boys and the girls. All these buildings, including the hospital, 
were inclosed within one fence, and were under the exclusive care of the super- 
intendent and nurse (Mrs. Walsh). 8 

In the hospital, food was prepared for the sufferers,, and they got other things, 
such as rice, a little bread, some tea with sugar, and some milk from the cows 
which the Board had sent over some time before. Unfortunately, Mr. Walsh and 
his wife did not understand the Hawaiian tongue, and many of his endeavors to 
establish rule and order were not understood by the people. 9 

The poor man fell sick and died, and his widow became superintendent; as 
assistant an old sea captain was sent up, but those two could not agree; neither 
of them could speak with the people, and matters did not improve. 10 

Anarchy was prevalent, and only a prompt exhibition of authority the punish- 

6 Report Board of Health. 

6 Report Board of Health, 1868. 

7 Leprosy in Hawaii, p. 60. 

8 Report Board of Health, 1868. 

9 Appendix to Report on Leprosy, 1886, p. cxxvii. 

10 Ibidem. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 199 

ment of two ringleaders and the change of the superintendency to Captain of 
the Royal Guards Kahoohuli, a leper, brought about satisfactory results. 11 

At the ascension to the throne of King Lunalilo (Jan. 8, 1873), a new Board 
was appointed which proposed to enforce segregation by more energetic means. 
Lepers were no longer allowed to take their wives or husbands with them, and 
visits to the settlement ceased to be permitted. The wants of the lepers were 
considered, and their weekly rations of meat increased, and they were allowed a 
greater variety of food. Henceforth, they received five pounds of meat, or, 
if they wished, three pounds of salmon per week; also one bundle of paiai con- 
taining 21 pounds (paiai is pounded baked taro; from it the staple food of the 
natives, the poi, is made), or, if they preferred, either 10 pounds of rice and 7 
pounds of bread and flour, and 5 pounds of salt per month. 

A little labor was considered beneficial and even necessary for the lepers, and, 
to encourage them to cultivate their lands again, they were allowed the choice of 
receiving the cash value of their weekly supply of food in lieu of the food itself. 
Many lepers, through this means, accumulated money enough to build houses, and 
to surround themselves with other comforts. 12 

The difficulty of giving the lepers an annual supply of clothing caused it to be 
discontinued; and instead of it, a store was established containing every variety 
of staple goods, to be sold at low prices, only with sufficient advantage to cover 
the expenses of its management and attendance ; and the lepers, instead of receiv- 
ing clothing, were given credit to the amount of six dollars, for which they could 
draw at the store what they wished 18 . 

About the same time the hospital accommodations were increased, and bed- 
steads furnished to the inmates instead of their being compelled to lie on the floor 
or mats, as theretofore. 14 

Waterpipes were laid from a spring in the Kalawao gulch to the hospital, 
with intermediate taps for the use of the people living along the road, which 
relieved them from the burden of going for water, and carrying it considerable 
distances, and they also had more water. 

Up till the beginning of the year 1873, a total of 797 lepers had been brought 
to the settlement, of whom 311 had died. Many hundreds more were at large all 
over the islands. No wonder that in view of the ravages the disease exercised, 
the public began to show considerable interest in the Molokai settlement. It was 
suggested in the newspapers 15 , that the King should visit Molokai, as it was 
hoped that this evidence of paternal care for the saddest and most hopeless out- 
casts of the land, would have a most inspiring effect upon those unhappy people, 
and upon all others throughout the Kingdom. "And," added the writer, Walter 
M. Gibson, "if a noble Christian priest, preacher or sister should be inspired to 
go and sacrifice a life to console these poor wretches, that would be a royal soul 
to shine forever on a throne reared by human love." 

The King did not go, as was suggested, but wrote a letter to the inmates of 
the _settlement. The Hawaiian Gazette, May 14, 1873, under the heading "His 
Majesty and the Lepers," published this letter and then added : "What they need 
now are a faithful minister of the Gospel and a physician who are willing to 
sacrifice themselves for the good of this unfortunate community." 

There were but few Catholics on the island of Molokai outside of the reserva- 
tion ; their number may have amounted to about two hundred, disseminated over 

11. Leprosy In Hawaii, p. 59. 

12 Reports on Leprosy, 1886, pp. cxxviii, ix. 

13 Ibid. p. cxxix. 

14 Ibid., p. cxxx. 

16 Nuhou, April 15, 1873. 



200 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the different valleys at great distance. For this reason, and also on account of 
the insufficient number of priests, no resident priest had been on the island till that 
time. Once in a while, a priest from Oahu or Maui went over to Molokai to 
administer the Sacraments. As the number of lepers increased in the settlement, 
they went there more frequently. Thus Father Raymond remained for several 
weeks in the year 1871 and 1872; about the same time Father Aubert made also 
frequent visits to the settlement, and even offered to take up his permanent abode 
among the lepers. In March, 1873, Father Boniface came to the Leper Settle- 
ment to allow the inmates to make their Easter duties; he had the pleasure of 
giving Holy Communion to ninety of them. 16 

Before 1872, Catholics had no churches on the island; services were held in 
provisory chapels made of grass. In this year, they asked for a more decent 
chapel. A wooden chapel was made by Bro. Victorin Bertrant at Honolulu, and 
erected by him at Kalawao. It was blessed by Father Raymond on May 30, 
1872, and dedicated to St. Philomena. 17 

After Father Raymond had again left on June 10, the Catholics frequently 
gathered in their little chapel to recite the rosary and other prayers. But what 
they needed much more than a church was a resident priest to console them in 
their sufferings, and principally to assist them in the hour of death. The time 
had come to fill this want. 

On the 4th of May, 1873, at the dedication of a church at Wailuku, Maui, 
many Fathers had come together there from various points of the group, to greet 
their venerable Bishop. Among those present were Fathers McGinnis, Damien, 
Boniface, Gulstan, Gregory, Lauter, and Leonore. 18 At this occasion, His Lord- 
ship expressed a wish that some one should go to make a visit to the Catholics 
of Molokai. 19 Father Damien offered himself, and as his offer was accepted by 
the Bishop, accompanied him on his way home. They embarked on the S. S. 
Kilauea, and arrived at the landing of Kalaupapa on the 10th of May at 11 
o'clock in the morning. The intention was that Father Damien should stay in 
the settlement for two or three weeks, and then return to his district. 20 But dur- 
ing the few hours of the Bishop's stay, the lepers prepared and presented a 
petition signed by 200 persons, asking the Prelate for a resident priest. Mgr. 
Maigret did not make any decision. Says he in his journal : "They ask me for a 
priest who can remain habitually with them ; but where to find one ?" 

However, Mr. Gibson, hearing of the incident on the Bishop's return to Hono- 
lulu, thought that it was the fulfillment of the wish he had uttered a few weeks 
before, and wrote in the "Nuhou": (May 13, 1873) 

CHRISTIAN HERO 

We have often said, that the poor outcast lepers of Molokai, without pastor or 
physician, afforded an opportunity for the exercise of a noble Christian heroism, 
and we are happy to say that the hero has been found. When the Kilauea touched 
at Kalawao last Saturday, Monseigneur Maigret and Father Damien, a Belgian priest, 
went ashore. The venerable Bishop addressed the lepers with many comforting 
words, and introduced to them the good father, who had volunteered to live with them 
and for them. Father Damien formed this resolution at the time, and was left ashore 
among the lepers without a home or a change of clothing except such as the lepers 
offer. We care not what thia man's theology may be, he is surely a Christian Hero. 

and three days later: 

We hope His Majesty will remember the good priest who has gone voluntarily 



16 Tauvel, p. 75. 

17 Bro. Bertrant's Diary, Jan. 12-June 22, 1872. 

18 Maigret's Diary, May, 1873. 

19 Letter of F. Damien, August, 1873, in Tauvel, p. 80. 

20 Maigret's Diary, May 10, 1873. Letter of F. Damien, Aug., 1873, Arch. Motherhouse. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 201 

to minister unto His Majesty's afflicted people on Molokai. If this is not a "faithful 
minister of the Gospel," we don't think he is to be found in these islands.12 

It was thus generally understood by the public that Father Damien had gone 
to the settlement to stay, and much praise was given him in the newspapers and 
on the street. Admiration took sometimes a substantial form, as we see from a 
notice in the Advertiser, May 24, 1873. 

A TOKEN OP APPRECIATION. Last Sunday several gentlemen happened to be 
conversing on the fact of Father Damien having volunteered to live among the lepers 
on Molokai, when one of the party suggested the making up of a subscription for the 
benefit of the Father. This was done on the spot, amounting to $130 and subsequently 
handed to Bishop Maigret. His Lordship thanked the donors in eloquent words, for 
this, evidence of their Christian charity, and assured them that the sum would be 
gratefully acknowledged by Father Damien, who was at present living in the open 
air, under 'a lauhala tree " 

As meanwhile, Father Damien had written to his Provincial offering to remain 
permanently among the lepers, the Bishop decided to let him have his desire. 

For the better understanding of the attacks against the generous priest after 
his death, we must mention here an outburst of jealousy from some bigots, who 
seemed to consider the act of the Catholic priest and the laudations given him, 
as so many unfavorable reflexions on their own ministers. 

Several communications in the Hawaiian Gazette and in the Advertiser betray 
some spite and jaundice. They were certainly not the expression of the feelings 
of the Protestant community at large. 

An "Observer" in the Gazette of May 21, after having said that Bishop 
Maigret had appointed Father Damien to stay in the settlement, continued: 

"Our Protestant friends have not been negligent on their part. For years the 
Rev. L. Smith, D.D., has officiated at the Leper Hospital at Kalihi, often administering 
the communion to those adhering to his belief. A deacon of Kaumakapili church is 
among the lepers on Molokai, and holds regularly services among them, as I have 
been informed. For years up to December last, the Hawaiian Board has subscribed 
for 20 copies of the Kuokoa to be distributed gratis among the lepers, and at present 
the Board of Health does the same. At the next meeting of the Evangelical Asso- 
ciation this subject will doubtless be fully considered, and something done to provide 
stated preaching at Kalaupapa." 

And in another column of the same paper we read : 

" So, too, the Mormons have their elder, Mr. J. H. Napela, who holds 

regular services among those of his faith. He is not a leper, though his wife is, and 
his devotion is certainly as praiseworthy as that of Father Damien. (sic) The Pro- 
testants have been represented by a deacon of one of the Honolulu churches, a leper 
who had held religious services at Kalawao for over a year past; but this is no reason 
why a clergyman may not be employed there." 

In the Advertiser of May 24, a "Friend of the Hawaiian race," pointed out 
that the Protestants have had at the settlement a church named "Siloama" for 
years, as well as an Hawaiian pastor who officiated at the church of Kalawao in 
connection with the church of Kaluaaha. 

This contributor had probably never been on Molokai, or he would have 
known that a minister, residing at Kaluaaha on the southeast side of island, could 
but rarely go to the settlement, as the communications between those places were 
extremely difficult. 

Finally came some one, signing himself "Kokua," who in the Advertiser of 

21 Nuhou of May 16. 



202 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

May 31, after having expatiated on the services rendered by the Rev. Mr. Smith 
to the lepers at the Kalihi Branch Hospital, wound up with a pithy eulogy on 
the Protestant missionaries: 

"It has been and will continue to be the work of their lives to administer to the 
suffering bodies as well as to the minds of the people, and they have never thought 
that their labors needed special laudations. It was what they came here to do, and 
in their humble way they have endeavored to follow in the footsteps of their Lord, 
who went about on earth 'healing all manner of sicknesa and disease among the 
people.' " 

As the "Observer" has spoken of the coming meeting of the Hawaiian Evan- 
gelical Association, we give here an extract of the resolutions taken by that body 
in regard to the leper question, in their meeting of June 10, 1873. 

"Resolved that every pastor and preacher of the Association be instructed to 

preach frequently to his people upon the duty of isolating their lepers and 

that a day be set apart, as a day of fasting and of repentance before God, for our 
sins and especially of those sina which promote the spread of the disease, and also a 
prayer to God to strengthen the King and the officers of the Government in cleansing 
the land of this disease, and to turn the hearts of the people to help in this work 
of saving the nation."22 

Father Damien (Joseph) De Veuster was born on January 3, 1840 at Tre- 
meloo, a village situated not far from Mechlin, Belgium. When he was seven- 
teen years of age, his parents, pious and well-to-do farmers, sent him to a little 
college at Braine-le-Comte, principally in view of his studying the French lan- 
guage. It was a rather inferior institution; the buildings are yet in existence; 
they are situated on the Rue Basse, opposite the present Motherhouse of the 
Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, and are occupied by the Cercle Catholique. 
In a letter which the youth wrote to his parents during his stay there, we find an 
expression which already bears witness to one of the salient features of his 
character: his quick temper. "Any Walloons that laugh at me, I hit with a 
ruler." 23 

While he was in his eighteenth year and still at this school, the Redemptorist 
Fathers gave a Mission which Joseph attended. It was at this time that the 
call to a higher life came to him. From that time his whole soul longed to put 
his resolution to serve God in the religious state into immediate execution. Hav- 
ing an elder brother, Father Pamphile, who was studying for the priesthood in 
the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts at Louvain, he resolved to ask him for 
advice. The result of their consultation was that Joseph should enter his brother's 
Congregation as a choir brother. 24 He actually entered the convent as a postulant 
in January, 1859. 

The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts was originally made up of three 
classes: priests and students for the priesthood, choir brothers and laybrothers. 
The choirbrothers had to recite daily the canonical office, whence their name, 
and they were employed as teachers in the free schools. They could not, as a 
rule, be promoted to the priesthood; however, the Superior-General could under 
certain circumstances dispense from this rule. At the General Chapter of 1903, 
this class was abolished. 

Once safely lodged within the convent walls, Brother Damien immediately 
set himself with ardor to perform the duties of his class. While employed in the 
discharge of these duties, he had many occasions of conferring with his elder 

22 Hawaiian Gazette, June 18, 1873. 

23 Life and Letters, p. 22. 

24 Tauvel, p. 16. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 203 

brother, who was engaged in his theological studies. Noticing the extraordinary 
ability his brother possessed, and the wonderful knack he had of picking up all 
kinds of useful knowledge, Pamphile began to teach him a few disjointed words 
in Latin, which the youth eagerly treasured up in his memory. Father Pamphile 
had only begun in joke, but wishing perhaps to encourage him in the pursuit of 
knowledge, he continued his quasi-lessons, so that in a very short time, Damien 
was master of a good many sentences, besides the knowledge of most of the 
elementary rules of syntax. The postulant threw his whole heart into' his new 
study, and within six months he was so far acquainted and familiar with the 
Latin language that he was able to translate at sight any part of Cornelius Nepos 
quite fluently. 25 

By this time his superiors had got to know of his great ability for study, and 
consequently they allowed him to begin his novitiate as an aspirant for the priest- 
hood. 

After a sojourn of eighteen months at Louvain, Brother Damien was sent to 
Issy, near Paris, to finish his novitiate there, as was then customary. On October 
8, 1860, he pronounced his vows. After his profession, he remained at Paris, and 
as we learn from a letter to his parents dated January 16, 1861, studied Greek 
and Latin. 

In October of that same year, he was sent back to Louvain to pursue there at 
the "cursus minor" of the University, his ecclesiastical studies. In 1863, when 
Damien was yet in minor orders, his brother Pamphile, then a priest, was ordered 
by his superiors to prepare for an early departure to the Hawaiian Islands. 
Father Pamphile had long been desirous of being sent to this mission, and he 
received the news with great joy. But just as he had made the necessary pre- 
parations for the voyage, and had secured a passage in a vessel bound for those 
shores, he was laid down by an attack of typhoid fever. To his bitter disap- 
pointment, he was thus unable to go. 

His brother Damien, however, went to the sick man's bedside, and inquired 
whether it would be a consolation to him if he should go in his place. On 
receiving an eager answer in the affirmative, he resolved to make an instant 
application for the appointment. He wrote at once to the Superior-General, ask- 
ing him for his brother's place, begging him "not to throw away the passage 
money." His request was granted. Brother Damien sailed from Bremerhaven 
on October 31, 1863, and arrived at Honolulu on March 19, of the following year. 
There he was ordained by Bishop Maigret successively to subdeacon on March 
26, to deacon on April 17, and to the priesthood on May 21. 20 

This summary shows that both Father Damien's humaniora and his ecclesiast- 
ical studies were sadly lacking in completeness. He may have made up for their 
shortness by his undoubted assiduity; he seems, however, to have been wanting 
in that soundness of judgment, which makes up for much theoretical deficiency. 27 

It is but just to state here that these good-enough-for-the-mission methods of 
study, which were at that time rather in vogue, on account perhaps of the 
scarcity of personnel and the needs of the missions, have fortunately long since 
been abandoned by the authorities of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts. 
The regular course of studies : 7 years humaniora, at least one year novitiate, 2 
years philosophy and 4 years theology, is no longer dispensed with. 

Father Damien and his traveling companion, Father Clement, embarked in 
company with their Bishop for the island of Hawaii on June the 7th. There 

25 Life and Letters, pp. 31, 32. 

26 Life and Letters, ch. II; Tauvel, ch. II. 

27 Letter of Mgr. Hermann, Sept. 19, 1888. A. M.-H. 



204 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

the new priests were to make their debut in missionary life. They made a short 
stay on Maui, and Father Damien, being absent at the moment of the Bishop's 
departure, rejoined the latter at Hilo on the 23rd of July. 28 A few days later the 
district of Puna was entrusted to his care. 

Father Damien gives the following account of his mission. "For seven years 
there has been no resident priest there. It was only in passing that some priest 
or other could visit the Christians, and he would have very little time to instruct 
catechumens. Before leaving, the Bishop told me that I must remember that the 
mission was quite in its infancy. Indeed, I found no church in which to say 
Mass, but two are now in course of construction. With nothing more than a 
portable altar that I have with me, I sometimes say Mass in a native hut where 
the Christians are accustomed to assemble on Sunday for prayers. I find sheep 
everywhere, but many of them are still outside the fold. Calvinism has drawn 
many into its nets. However, the news of a priest for Puna has made them think 
about religion, and on my first round our Lord gave me twenty-nine to regen- 
erate in the holy waters of Baptism, whilst others are preparing to receive it/' 29 

Throughout his missionary life, Father Damien was a great "baptist." This 
would have been very praiseworthy, indeed, had he required a sound religious 
instruction of his catechumens. But it is evident from the anecdotes about him, 
which are told among the Fathers even now, and from his own letters 30 that the 
zeal he thus displayed was rather a misguided one, doubtless a consequence of his 
imperfect studies and his lack of judgment. 

The number of Catholics in the vast district of Puna did not exceed 350 at 
the time Father Damien was put in charge of it. Many of the faithful had 
left the fold, the schools were reduced almost to nothing, and the Catholic chil- 
dren frequented the Protestant schools. However, through the active zeal of the 
new missionary, the wandering sheep returned to the fold, the schools revived, 
and new catechumens came to strengthen the number of the faithful. 31 

In March, 1865, Father Damien changed districts with Father Clement, who 
had been in charge of Kohala and Hamakua, but had suffered much from the 
remoteness from his fellow-priests and whose weak constitution could not stand 
the strain of such an extensive field of labor. 32 They had obtained permission to 
make the exchange from Mgr. Maigret. 33 Father Damien remained in charge of 
this new district, which offered a large field for his burning zeal, until he put his 
foot on the landing of Kalaupapa, and even then, as we have seen, it was the 
intention of his superiors that he should return to Kohala after a short stay of 
two or three weeks. His place in Kohala was taken by a Father Fabian who had 
arrived shortly before, and whom we shall have to mention again afterwards. 

Father Damien gives the following description of the settlement at the time 
of his arrival, in an official report which he addressed to the President of the 
Board of Health in March, 1886. 

By a special providence of Our Lord who, during his life showed a particular 
sympathy for the lepers, my way was traced to Kalawao in May, A. D. 1873. I was 
then 33 years of age, enjoying a robust, good health, Lunalilo being at that time 
King of the Hawaiian Islands and His Excellency B. O. Hall, President of the Board 
of Health. 

A great many lepers had arrived lately from the different islands; they numbered 



28 Maigret's Diary. 

29 Life and Letters, p. 59, 60. 

30 Tauvel, pp. 62, 89. Life and Letters, pp. 60, 63, 79, 94. 

31 Relatio Vic. Apost. Ins. Sandw. ad S. C. P. F. Dec., 1864. 

32 Letter of P. Clement, Nov. 16, 1864. A. C. M. 

33 Letter of F. Damien, Oct. 23, 1865. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 205 

816. Some of them were old acquaintances of mine from Hawaii, where I was 
previously stationed as a missionary priest; to the majority I was a stranger. 

The Kalaupapa landing was at that time a somewhat deserted village of three 
or four wooden cottages and a few old grass houses. The lepers were allowed to go 
there only on the days when a vessel arrived; they were all living at Kalawao 
about eighty of them in the hospital in the same buildings we see there today. All 
the other lepers with a very few kokuas (helpers) had taken their abode further up 
towards the valley. They had cut down the old pandanus or puhala groves, to 
build their houses, though a great many had nothing but branches of castor oil trees 
with which to construct their small shelters. These frail frames were covered with 
ki-leaves (Dracaena terminalis), or with sugar cane leaves, the best ones with pili 
grass. I myself was sheltered during several weeks under the single pandanus tree 
which is preserved up to the present in the church yard. Under such primitive 
roofs were living pell-mell, without distinction of age or sex, old or new cases, all 
more or less strangers to one another, those unfortunate outcasts of society. They 
passed their time with playing c'ards, hula, (native dances), drinking fermented 
ki-root beer, home made alcohol, and with the sequel of all this. Their clothes were 
far from being clean and decent on account of the scarcity of water, which had to 
be brought at that time from a great distance. 

The smell of their filth, mixed with exhalation of their sores, was simply dis- 
gusting and unbearable to a newcomer. Many a time in fulfilling my priestly duty 
at their domiciles, I have been compelled not only to, close my nostrils, but to run 
outside to breathe the fresh air. To protect my legs, from a peculiar itching which 
I usually experienced every evening after my visiting them, I had to beg a friend of 
mine to send me a pair of heavy boots. As an antidote to counteract the bad 
smell, I made myself accustomed to the use of tobacco, whereupon the smell of the 
pipe preserved me somewhat from carrying in my clothes the obnoxious odor of the 
lepers. At that time the progress of the disease was fearful, and the rate of 
mortality very high." 

In previous years, having nothing but small, damp huts, nearly the whole of the 
lepers were prostrated on their beds, covered with scabs ajid ugly sores, and had the 
appearance of very weak, broken-down constitutions. In the year 1874 the great 
question was how to improve the habitations of the unfortunate people, the Govern- 
ment appropriation being at that time barely enough to provide them with food. 

During that winter a heavy south wind blew down the majority of their half 
rotten abodes, and many a weak leper lay there in the wind and rain, with his 
blanket and clothes damp and wet. In a few days the old grass beneath their 
sleeping mats began to emit a very unpleasant vapor. I at once called the attention 
of our sympathizing agent to the fact and very soon there arrived several schooner 
loads of scantling to build solid frames with. All lepers who were in distress 
received, on application, the necessary material for the erection of frames, with 
one inch square laths to thatch the grass or sugar cane leaves to. Afterwards 
rough N. W. boards arrived, and also the old material of the former Kalihi hospital. 
From private and charitable sources we received shingles and flooring. Those who 
had a little money hired their own carpenters; for those without means the priest 
with his leper boys, did the work of erecting a good many small houses. Besides 
some newcomers who had means built their dwellings at their own expense." 

Further in the same report he discusses the morality of the settlement. 

"I feel myself obliged to beg leave of Your Excellency to be .allowed to speak 
of a very serious matter, in which I officially appear as one of the principal agents. 
To avoid criticism I will with a liberal mind lay aside as much as possible all dif- 
ference of opinion, and show how needful a step has been taken for the temporal 
and eternal welfare of our lepers by drawing a parallel between the past and 
present, and between those who yield- and do not yield to moral training. 

Previous to my arrival here it was acknowledged and spoken of in the public 
papers as well as in private letters, that the greatest want of the lepers at 
Kalawao then was not having a spiritual leader or priest, the consequence of which 
was that vice, as a general rule, existed instead of virtue, and degradation of the 
lowest type went ahead as a leader in the community. On the arrival of a new 
number of lepers, the old ones were soon at work to impress them with the erroneous 
axiom: "Aole kanawai ma keia wahi" in this place there is no law. Not only in 



206 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

private conversation, but in public meetings I myself heard this doctrine proclaimed; 
and for a long time, indeed, I was obliged to fight against its application being made 
to the Divine law as well as the human law. In consequence of this impious theory, 
the people, mostly unmarried, or separated on account of the disease, were living 
promiscuously without distinction of sex, and many an unfortunate woman had to 
become a prostitute to obtain friends who would take care of her, and the children, 
when well and strong, were used as servants. When once the disease prostrated them, 
such women and children were cast out, and had to find some other shelter; some- 
times they were laid behind a stone wall, and left there to die, and at other times a 
hired hand would carry them to the hospital. The so much praised "aloha" of the 
natives was entirely lacking here, at least in this respect. 

As already mentioned in other pages, the Hawaiian hula was organized after the 
pagan fashion, under the protection of the old deity Laka, who had his numerous altars 
and sacrifices and I candidly confess that I had hard work to annihilate Laka's 
religion and worship, and thereby to put a stop to the hula and its bad consequences. 
Though the people had reached the climax of despair both of soul and body, may it 
be said to their honor, that I had found them less addicted to sorcery and the doings 
of the "kahuna lapaau" or native doctors, than I had found the old natives of Hawaii 
circumstances which encouraged me much to stay permanently among them, with the 
quasi-certain hope of my ultimate success as a Catholic priest. 

By a short digression, I will here speak of another source of immorality, viz. the evil 
effects of intoxication. I first have to explain how they have obtained the material. 
There grows very abundantly along the foot of the mountains a plant which the 
natives call "ki" (Dracaena terminalis), the root of which, when cooked, fermented and 
distilled, gives a highly intoxicating liquid. The process of distilling being very crude 
and imperfect, produces, naturally enough, a liquor which is totally unfit for drinking. 
A short time after my arrival the distilling of this horrible liquid was carried on to a 
great extent. Those natives who fell under the influence of it would forget all 
decency, and run about in a nude condition, acting as if they were totally mad. The 
consequences can be easier imagined than written on paper. The local authorities 
have endeavored to stop all those horrible proceedings, but for a long time they were 
unsuccessful. It being discovered that certain members of our police were in league 
with the evil-doers, the "luna-nui" and myself went round, and both by threats and 
persuasion, they finally delivered up their implements which were used for distilling; 
some of the most guilty perpetrators were convicted, but were pardoned under the 
condition never to do it again. . 

For a long time, as above stated, under the influence of this pernicious liquor, they 
would neglect everything else, except the hula, prostitution and drinking. As they had 
no spiritual adviser, they would hasten along the road to complete ruin. A good many 
of the sick and prostrate were left lying there to take care of themselves, and several 
of them died for want of assistance, whilst those who should have given a helping 
hand were going around seeking enjoyment of the most pernicious and immoral kind. 

As there were so many dying people, my priestly duty towards them often gave me 
the opportunity to visit them at their domiciles, and although my exhortations were 
especially addressed to the prostrated, often they would fall on the ears of public sin- 
ners, who, little by little, became conscious of the consequence of their wicked lives, 
and began to reform, and thus with the hope in a merciful Saviour, gave up their bad 
habits. 

Kindness to all, charity to the needy, a sympathizing hand to the sufferers and 
the dying, in conjunction with a solid religious instruction to my listeners, have been 
my constant means to introduce moral habits among the lepers. One of the great 
moral improvements which helped to do away with licentiousness was the granting of 
inter-marriage licenses between lepers who were not prevented from marriage by a 
previous marriage tie, and many a couple are today living at the settlement in a 
decent manner. 

I am happy to say, that, assisted by the local administration, my labors here, 
which seemed to be almost vain at the beginning, have thanks to a kind Providence, 
been greatly crowned with success, as, at present there are very little, if any at all, 
of the above mentioned evils committed." 

It is not our intention to give here a full account of Father Damien's activity 
in and outside the settlement. Further details may be looked for in some of the 
works indicated at the end of this chapter. The principal end Father Damien 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 207 

had in view in taking up his residence among the lepers, was of course, to attend 
to their spiritual wants. This he did not only by visiting them in their huts and 
administering to them the Sacraments in the hour of death, but by the religious 
services which he was wont to celebrate with as much pomp as circumstances 
allowed, and by his earnest and constant preaching. This perhaps more than any- 
thing else contributed to make the poor outcasts contented with their sort. 

Although the duties of the ministry took up a good deal of his time, which 
needs no demonstration, when we consider that during the fifteen years of his 
stay, there were as an average 700 patients in the settlement, nearly half of whom 
were Catholics, he was continually at the service of the unfortunate inmates, 
whatever might be their religious belief, in a variety of capacities. 

For a time he was assistant-superintendent of the settlement. This was dur- 
ing the year 1878, after the death of Ragsdale. But as his spiritual duties neces- 
sarily engrossed the larger portion of his attention, the Board of Health thought 
better to appoint another in his place. 34 

As an infirmarian Father Damien contributed greatly to alleviate the suffer- 
ings of the lepers. For many years after the establishment of the leper reserva- 
tion, there was no resident physician in the place. Later on doctors resided there 
for longer or shorter periods, but even then the people preferred to be without 
them. 35 Moreover, they complained that the visits of the physicians were so 
short and their work so hurried that no practical advantage was derived from 
them. 36 

In the same year of Father Damien's arrival, a white man, Mr. Williamson, 
himself a leper, who had been employed as an assistant to the doctors in the 
Kalihi hospital, and had quite a practical knowledge of medicine, was put in 
charge of the hospital. He attended to the patients in this institution, whilst 
Father Damien largely attended to those living outside. 37 As late as 1884 
Dr. Stallard reports that there is "no one but Father Damien who renders any 
help." 38 The same physician speaks of the priest as removing the foot of a leper 
which had sloughed off at the ankle joint. 39 This was, however, no exceptional 
case ; daily he dressed the sores of the lepers and amputated their members. That 
his services in this regard were not unsuccessful, we may deduce from a passage 
from the report of Mr. Meyers, for many years superintendent of the settlement. 
"In former years, before even doctors resided at the settlement, a stock of simple 
medicines was kept on hand constantly, and if any of the lepers got sick, these 
simple drugs were given out to them either by the hospital steward, the Superin- 
tendent or kind Father Damien ; and I assert that they got over all their troubles, 
disorders, or otherwise curable diseases, quite as well as they did after the 
advent of resident physicians, nor was the death rate higher." 40 

At times Father Damien employed a leprous cook 41 ; with his leprous boys he 
helped the inmates of the settlement in constructing their dwellings, and he freely 
handled the tools which a moment before had been touched by the sore hands of 
the lepers ; 42 when visiting the people he took his turn when the pipe passed from 
mouth to mouth and he ate poi out of the family calabash, according to the 
Hawaiian custom. 43 He bathed the wounds of the lepers, and applied plasters 

34 Report of the Special Committee 1878, quoted in Leprosy in Hawaii, p. 87. 

35 Leprosy In Hawaii, pp. 115, 146. 

36 Appendix to the Report on Leprosy, 1886, p. ix. 

37 Leprosy in Hawaii, p. cxxiil. 

38 Report B. H. 1884, p. xliii. 

39 Ibidem, p. xliv. 

40 Report B. H. 1884, p. xvi. 

41 Father Matthias' Report, Dec. 1, 1888. 

42 James Sinnett, in Catholic Advocate, March 18, 1891. 

43 George Woods, M. D., in the Rosary Magazine, 1897, p. 633. 



208 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

to their aching limbs, swept their cells, and brought them food and drink 44 He 
attended them when dying, breathed their atmosphere, cleansed their dead bodies, 
and helped to dig their graves. 45 

Such close association with the sufferers, before the health reforms which he 
helped the Board to establish, was necessarily fatal. The story of Father 
Damien's leprosy is contained in a diagnostic report made by Mr. Button on 
March 10, 1889, at the request of Dr. Morrow of New York. This report was 
read to the priest and approved by him as correct. 

TUBERCULAR 

Kalawao, Molokai. 

Rev. Father J. Damien De Veuster, Catholic priest, native of Belgium, Belgian 
parents, 40 years of age. Ail of the members of his family very strong and healthy. 
No taint of scrofula or syphilis. No relatives on these islands. Served as priest on 
the island of Hawaii from 1864 till 1873. Occasionally heard confessions of lepers, 
ministered to them in their cabins sometimes, but had no constant or very particular 
contact with them until he came here, to the leper settlement, in. 1873; since which 
time, until now, his contact and association have been almost constant. In 1873 was 
strong and healthy, with remarkable robust constitution. Has never had any sexual 
intercourse whatever. 

Is quite sure that when near to lepers, as at confession or in their cabins, before 
coming to the leper settlement, he felt on such occasion a peculiar sensation in the 
face; a sort of itching or burning, and that he felt the same here, at the settlement, 
during the first two, or three years; that he also felt it on the legs. Is confident that 
the germs were in his system, certainly within the first three years of his residence 
here; can trace it back positively to 1876. Small dry spots appeared at that time, par- 
ticularly on arms, some on back. On these spots perspiration did not appear, as else- 
where. Upon treatment with corrosive sublimate lotion they would disappear, but 
return again. Finally, in 1877 and 1878, assumed yellowish color and became larger. 
In 1877 he took salsaparilla, as blood purifier, when the spots became more defined, 
still yellow; would remain until lotion was applied. 

This describes the first marks, but earlier still there was a suspicious movement. 
His feet had a peculiar sensation; were hot and feverish; made him restless he could 
not sleep without first giving them a cold water soak; nor without doing this, could 
he keep them covered at night. This was in 1874 and 5. He continued to enjoy 
strength and health. 

In 1881 was vaccinated, at the time of the smallpox epidemic in Honolulu. The 
operation was performed by one deputized by Board of Health, who said the vaccine 
matter came from America. In some degree the operation was successful. During 
a few days he had some fever, and there was inflammation at the point of vaccina- 
tion, on a space about the size of a silver dollar, some matter flowing therefrom. In 
connection with this note, it is well to state that the natives, and some others, have 
a firm belief that leprosy was greatly spread throughout the islands by the process of 
vaccination, at this time, and perhaps at other times. 

In the autumn of 1881 he began to be badly troubled with severe pains in the feet, 
especially in the left one, and in 1882, sciatic nerve trouble came on, clearly defined all 
along the left leg. .; 

At the close of 1882, or early in 1883, entire insensibility of one side of the left 
foot took place, and so remains until this day the outside portion of the foot Father 
Damien being able to draw a line marking the division of the sensible from the insen- 
sible portion of his foot. This is the only part of his body that has been so attacked. 
The pain of sciatic nerve, and of the inside portion of the foot was intense, and almost 
constant, accompanied by the formation of nodes in the left groin. All these pains 
disappeared, at once, about June 1885. 

Then the right ear became swollen, with tubercular enlargements, making the 
whole thing an immense affair. At the same time began the disfigurement of his 
person in a general and marked manner. The eye brows began to fall out, the other 
ear became enlarged, and tubercular swellings took possession of the face, hands, &c. 
The knuckles and knees are in hard enlarged knobs, becoming suppurating sores. 



44 James Sinnett, Catholic Advocate, March 18, 1891. 

45 Clifford, in the Catholic American, December 21, 1889. 







FATHER DAMIEN DE VEUSTER, APOSTLE OP THE LEPERS 



208 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

to their aching limbs, swept their cells, and brought them food and drink 44 He 
attended them when dying, breathed their atmosphere, cleansed their dead bodies, 
and helped to dig their graves. 45 

Such close association with the sufferers, before the health reforms which he 
helped the Board to establish, was necessarily fatal. The story of Father 
Damien's leprosy is contained in a diagnostic report made by Mr. Button on 
March 10, 1889, at the request of Dr. Morrow of New York. This report was 
read to the priest and approved by him as correct. 

TUBERCULAR 

Kalawao, Molokai. 

Rev, Father J. Damien De Veuster, Catholic priest, native of Belgium, Belgian 
parents, 40 years of age. All of the members of his family very strong and healthy. 
No taint of scrofula or syphilis. No relatives on these islands. Served as priest on 
the island of Hawaii from 1864 till 1873. Occasionally heard confessjons of lepers, 
ministered to them in their cabins sometimes, but had no constant or very particular 
contact with them until he came here, to the leper settlement, in. 1873; since which 
time, until now, his contact and association have been almost constant. In 1S73 was 
strong- and healthy, with remarka.ble robust constitution. Has never had any sexual 
intercourse whatever. 

Is quite sure that when near to lepers, as at confession or in their cabins, before 
coming to the leper settlement, he felt on such occasion a peculiar sensation in the 
face; a sort of itching or burning, and that he felt the same here, at the settlement, 
during the first two. or three years; that he also felt it on the legs. Is confident that 
the germs were in his system, certainly within the first three years of his residence 
here; can trace it back positively to 187G. Small dry spots appeared at that time, par- 
ticularly on arms, some on back. On these spots perspiration did not appear, as else- 
where. Upon treatment with corrosive sublimate lotion they would disappear, but 
return again. Finally, in 1877 and 1878, assumed yellowish color and became larger. 
In 1877 he took salsaparilla, as blood purifier, when the spots became more defined, 
still yellow; would remain until lotion was applied. 

This describes the first marks, but earlier still there Avas a suspicious movement. 
His feet had a peculiar sensation; were hot and feverish; made him restless he could 
not sleep without first giving them a cold water soak; nor without doing this, could 
he keep them covered at night. This was in 1874 and 5. He continued to enjoy 
strength and health. 

In 1881 was vaccinated, at the time of the smallpox epidemic in Honolulu. The 
operation was performed by one deputized by Board of Health, who said the vaccine 
matter came from America. In some degree the operation was successful. During 
a few days he had some fever, and there was inflammation at the point of vaccina- 
tion, on a space about the size of a silver dollar, some matter flowing therefrom. In 
connection with this note, it is well to state that the natives, and some others, have 
a firm belief that leprosy was greatly spread throughout the islands by the process of 
vaccination, at this time, and perhaps at other times. 

In the autumn of 1881 he began to be badly troubled with severe pains in the feet, 
especially in the left one, and in 1882, sciatic nerve trouble came on, clearly defined all 
along the left leg. 

At the close of 1882, or early in 18S3. entire insensibility of one side of the left 
foot took placo, and so remains until this day the outside portion of the foot Father 
Damien being able to draw a line marking the division of the sensible from the insen- 
sible portion of his foot. This is the only part of his body that has been so attacked. 
The pain of sciatic: nerve, and of the -inside- portion of the foot was intense, and almost 
constant, accompanied by the formation of nodes in the left groin. All these pains 
disappeared, at once, about June 1885. 

Then the right ear became swollen, with tubercular enlargements, making the 
whole thing an immense affair. At the same time began the disfigurement of his 
person in a general and marked manner. The eye brows began to fall out, the other 
ear became enlarged, and tubercular swellings took possession of the face, hands, &c. 
The knuckles and knees are in hard enlarged knobs, becoming suppurating sores. 



<H James Sinnott, Catholic Advocate, March IS, IS'Jl. 

45 Clifford, in the Catholic American, December 21, 1SSO. 




FATHER DAMIEN DE VEUSTER, APOSTLE OF THE LEPERS 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 209 

Many sores on hands and wrists some about the neck; eyes weak and at times very 
much inflamed. His nose was greatly obstructed, causing much distress during the 
past two years, appearing as catarrah, the bridge of nose much sunken. The foot 
that was partly insensible, was, for a long time, exceedingly weak. Now, since the 
disease has spread over the body, it becomes strong again. 

Correct: 

(Signed) J. Damien De Veuster. 
Catholic Priest. 

Mr. Button in sending a copy of these notes to the Bishop of Olba, accom- 
panied them with the following remarks concerning the declaration that Father 
Damien had never any sexual intercourse whatever. 

"Regarding the remark that Father Damien had never any sexual intercourse what- 
ever, I would state, that Father Damien made it of his own motion, not from any 
question nor remark of mine, so far as I know. There was not any one present save 
Father Damien and myself. Why he made this statement (the absolute truth of which 
I, of course, never doubted), was not exactly apparent to me. Idle remarks had been 
made against Father Damien's chastity, but I never knew of any responsible source 
whatever, or that any one well acquainted with Father Damien had any belief in the 
tale. It might be that he suspected some one would take it up, and make use of it 
after his death, which in fact did occur. 

"In verifying these notes, I make the above explanation in respect to Father 
Damien's memory." 

The last years of Father Damien's life were considerably embittered by his 
ecclesiastical superiors, who appear to have been jealous of the popularity of their 
inferior. Their correspondence with the poor leper priest in the years 1886 and 
1887 is saturated with acrimony, and one wonders what misconduct may have 
provoked such evident hostility. 

The good Father had been used to pay occasional visits to Honolulu, chiefly 
for the sake of going to confession. Towards the end of 1885 his religious 
superiors forbade him yet to come to the capital. Father Damien remonstrated 
with the Vicar Apostolic against this measure which seemed tyrannical to him, 
since his health and the civil authorities allowed him to circulate. (Letter of 
Dec. 30, 1885.) 

On February 8, 1886, Father Leonore again addressed him an extremely rude 

letter. He writes : "There is again a rumor that you are going to come 

to Honolulu. It is my duty, very dear Father, again to make known to you the 
decisions taken by the provincial council, and not by me. Have patience. If 
you come to Honolulu, there are but two places to go to: the Mission or 
Kakaako. At the Mission you will be confined to a room which you will not 
leave until your departure ; otherwise you would quarantine the Mission, for the 
White people knowing that we keep a leper here, would be afraid even of us 
who are not lepers. Going to Kakaako, you would be in the chapel of the lepers, 
without saying Mass; for neither Father Clement nor myself will consent cele- 
brating Mass with the same chalice and the same vestments which you have 
used ; and the Sisters will refuse to receive Communion from your hands. Your 
pretensions, Dear Father, would show that you have neither delicacy .nor charity 
towards your neighbors, and that you are thinking only of yourself. It is too 
much selfishness altogether, and I like to believe that all these feelings are neither 
in your heart nor in your head. Mr. Gibson has told you that he will allow you 
to come, but that he would have to see the Bishop first. Now he wanted to see 
him in order to prevent these visits, the consequences of which especially for 
Kakaako I see plainly. I know it from his own mouth " 

June 5, 1886, Dr. A. Mouritz, the resident physician of the settlement wrote 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 209 

Many sores on hands and wrists some about, the neck; eyes weak and at. times very 
much inflamed. His nose was greatly obstructed, causing much distress during the 
past two years, appearing as cat.anah, the bridge of nose much sunken. The foot, 
that was partly insensible, was, for a long time, exceedingly weak. Now, since the 
disease has spread over the body, it becomes strong again. 

Correct : 

(Signed) J. Damien De Veuster. 
Catholic Priest. 

Mr. Dtitton in sending a copy of these notes to the Bishop of Olba, accom- 
panied them with the following remarks concerning the declaration that Father 
Damien had never any sexual intercourse whatever. 

"Regarding the remark that Father Damien had never any sexual intercourse what- 
ever, I would state, that Father Damien made it. of his own motion, not from any 
question nor remark of mine, so far as 1 know. There was not any one present save 
Father Damien and myself. Why he made this statement; (the absolute truth of which 
I, of course, never doubted), was not exactly apparent to me. Idle remarks had been 
made against Father Damien's chastity, but I never knew of any responsible source 
whatever, or that any one well acquainted with Father Damien had any belief in the 
tale. It might be that he suspected some one would take it up, and make use of it 
after his death, which in fact did occur. 

"In verifying these notes, I make the above explanation in respect to Father 
Damien's memory." 

The last years of Father Damien's life were considerably embittered by his 
ecclesiastical superiors, who appear to have been jealous of the popularity of their 
inferior. Their correspondence with the poor leper priest in the years 1886 and 
18S7 is saturated with acrimony, and one wonders what misconduct may have 
provoked such evident hostility. 

The good Father had been used to pav occasional visits to Honolulu, chiefly 
for the sake of going to confession. Towards the end of 1885 his religious 
superiors forbade him yet to come to the capital. Father Damien remonstrated 
with the Vicar Apostolic against this measure which seemed tyrannical to him, 
since his health and the civil authorities allowed him to circulate. (Letter of 
Dec. 30, 1885.) 

On February 8, 1886, Father Leonore again addressed him an extremely rude 

letter. He writes : "There is again a rumor that you are going to come 

to Honolulu. It is my ditty, very dear .Father, again to make known to you the 
decisions taken by the provincial council, and not by me. Have patience. If 
you come to Honolulu, there are but two places to go to : the Mission or 
Kakaako. At the Mission you will be confined to a room which you will not 
leave until your departure ; otherwise you would quarantine the Mission, for the 
White people knowing that we keep a leper here, would be afraid even of us 
who are not lepers, doing to Kakaako, you would be in the chapel of the lepers, 
without saying Mass; for neither Father Clement nor myself will consent cele- 
brating Mass with the same chalice and the s:-;me vestments which you have 
used; and the Sisters will refuse to receive Communion from your hands. Your 
pretensions, Dear Father, would show that you have neither delicacy nor charity 
towards your neighbors, and that you are thinking only of yourself. It is too 
much selfishness altogether, and I like to believe that all these feelings are neither 
in your heart nor in your head. Mr. C.ibson has told you that he will allow you 
to come, but that he would have to see the Bishop first. Now he wanted to see 
him in order to prevent these visits, the consequences of which especially for 
Kakaako I see plainly. 1 know it from his own mouth " 

Tune 5. 1886, Dr. A. Mouritz, the resident physician of the settlement wrote 



210 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

to the Bishop of Olba, to suggest the desirability of Father Damien's proceeding 
to Kakaako for treatment, as his leprosy was making rapid progress. His Lord- 
ship must have written to the priest about the doctor's suggestion, for on June 16, 
the good Father writes : "Last year when I noticed that the sickness broke out at 
my ear, I have expressed a wish to have a little room in the yard of Kakaako, 
to pass a few days, whenever the needs of my conscience or some other reason 
would oblige me to go to Honolulu. Having not the slightest confidence in our 
European doctors to. stop the progress of this terrible sickness, I wished then 
ardently to consult Dr. Goto, but out of prudence, not to give offense to our 
savants, I'll keep this wish in my heart. The absolute refusal expressed in the 
voice of a policeman rather than of a religious superior, and that in the name of 
the Bishop and of the Minister, as if the Mission was going to be quarantined 
if I ever showed myself at Honolulu, gave me more pain, I sincerely acknowledge, 
than I have endured from my childhood on. I have answered by an act of 

absolute submission by virtue of my vow of obedience Lately I was 

surprised to hear from Mr. Meyer, Dr. Mouritz and Father Columbia (James 
Beissel) that there is question of calling me to Kakaako. This news has caused 
alarm to the entire settlement, especially to our good Christians and to my 
orphans. As priest and Bishop your Lordship understands why. An absence 
of two weeks would be all right, but of two till six months, that will never do, 
never, My Lord, unless some one takes my place. . . ." 

Finally on July 10, according to Brother Bertrant's journal, Father Damien 
arrived at Honolulu, where he remained only a few days, for eleven days later 
he writes again from Kalawao. He did not like to remain idle in Kakaako, and 
having learned all about the carrying out of Dr. Goto's treatment, would establish 
his own bathhouse at Kalawao, and another for the boys and girls of his home. 

Dr. Goto's treatment seemed just then very successful at Honolulu and great 
expectations were entertained with regard to the cure of leprosy. Hopefully 
Father Damien returned to his post, and for a time experienced some improve- 
ment, as we see from a letter written to his brother, Father Pamphile, in the 
beginning of August, 1886: "My malady seems to yield somewhat to the 
Japanese treatment, which I have been under for the last five weeks." 

But soon again his leprosy rapidly advanced with remarkable severity. (Cf. 
Dr. A. Mouritz, Path of the Destroyer, p. 240 and following.) 

A fresh cause of friction with the ecclesiastical authority arose when in the 
beginning of the following year, the Father received from British sympathizers 
the sum of 975 pounds for the needs of his lepers. 

The previously given diagnostic report covers the long period during which 
Father Damien, notwithstanding the awful disease which was slowly but surely 
undermining his constitution, was perfectly able to fulfil his various duties. How- 
ever, he himself as well as his superiors foresaw that the moment in which the 
progress of the disease would doom him to impotence, was not far distant. 

At several times priests had been sent to the settlement to lighten his arduous 
task. In the beginning of February 1874, Father Andrew Burgerman was sent to 
Molokai in order to look after the spiritual needs of the Catholics living outside of 
the settlement. During that year this Father stayed four months in the reserva- 
tion, whilst Father Damien built a chapel at Kaluaaha, at the other side of 
mountain range. Afterwards Father Andrew paid occasional visits to his con- 
frater of the settlement until he took up a permanent residence there, at the 
village of Kalaupapa towards the middle of 1878, 40 where he remained in charge 

46 Life and Letters, pp. 119, 120. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 211 

till the end of July 1880. Father Damien repeatedly complained about him as 
being too independent ; both being hot tempered, their relations were at times far 
from pleasant. 

Another assistant was given Father Damien in the person of Father Albert 
Montiton, who arrived at the settlement September 8, 1881. He remained till 
March 20, 1885 47 and left Honolulu for Tahiti on the 15th of April of the same 
year. He was a very active but quarrelsome man who cared not to remain long 
in one place. He died at Miranda, Spain, February 25, 1893. Misunderstandings 
and susceptibilities were frequent between him and his companion during his stay 
on Molokai, as we may see from their correspondence. Withal Father Damien 
professed a great attachment for the man who for almost four years had been 
continually nagging at him, and regretted his departure. 48 

November 16, 1887, Father Gregory Archambaut came to the settlement. He 
was a leper, but suffering also from asthma, could not stand the climate of Molo- 
kai. He left for Kakaako in March 1888, and died there November 12 of the 
same year. 

A layman, Mr. Joseph (Ira) Dutton, had joined Father Damien since July 29, 
1886. He was an erstwhile investigating agent in the U. S. War Department, 
and a convert to the Catholic religion. He had come to Molokai, as he said 
himself, in an "idea of reparation .... to help my neighbor, and to fill out the 
primitive church penance, in the penitentiary, a very happy one for this ragged 
remnant of life." 49 

Other helpers long prayed for by Father Damien now rushed to the rescue. 
On November 14, 1888, three Franciscan Sisters: Mother Marianne, Sister 
Leopoldina and Sister Vincent landed at Kalaupapa, where they took charge of 
the leprous girls. 

Seven of these good Sisters, whose motherhouse is at Syracuse, N. Y., had 
arrived at the request of the Hawaiian Government on November 9, 1883. 50 
Four of them including the Mother Superior, were then put in charge of the 
branch hospital at Kakaako, and the three remaining ones of the new Malulani 
Hospital at Wailuku, Maui. Father Damien called their arrival at Molokai his 
"Nunc dimittis." 

But however valuable these. heroic Sisters were for the nursing and the educa- 
tion of the lepers, they could not assist Father Damien in his spiritual minis- 
trations. Here also the prayers of the priest found a gracious hearing. For over 
twelve years he had been in correspondence with a countrymen of his, Father 
Lambert Conrardy, a missionary among the Indians of Oregon, who, having heard 
of Father Damien's sacrifice, was desirous of sharing it. The fulfilment of this 
wish had been postponed for many years for various reasons. Not belonging to 
the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, the priest had applied to the Bishop of 
Olba, for admission in his vicariate in order to aid Father Damien. The Bishop 
consented, but wished him first to enter into one of the novitiates of the Order 
in Europe. This Father Damien thought unnecessary, and to the great annoy- 
ance of the Bishop, insisted that Father Conrardy should come over immedi- 
ately. This was in 1888. 51 Father Conrardy answered the call of his friend, 
and having obtained the Bishop's permission, very reluctantly given, arrived in 
the settlement May 17, 1888. 

The Bishop had good reasons for hesitating to accept a priest not of his 

47 Evidence documentalre, p. 31, 32. 

48 Evidence Documentaire, pp. 18-32. 

49 Letter to Father James Beissel, A. C. M. Hon. M. 71. 

50 Report B. H. 1884, p. 9. 

51 Letter of Bishop Herman, May 7, 1888; Arch. C. M. Hon. 



212 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Order in the vicariate; the Mission had had considerable trouble in the past with 
perambulating secular priests. But the other Fathers also objected to the going 
of Father Conrardy to Molokai. They resented the intrusion of a stranger, as 
it was bound to cause an impression that they themselves were unwilling to aid 
their failing confrere, and minister to the lepers. The Bishop well knew the 
excellent spirit which animated his priests ; only their restricted number had pre- 
vented him from giving a successor to Father Gregory. When one of the 
Fathers expressed his dissatisfaction with the course the Vicar-Apostolic had 
taken by admitting Father Conrardy, the Bishop addressed a circular letter to 
his missionaries, asking who would be willing to take up his residence among 
the unfortunate exiles of the Molokai peninsula. 52 

Only one of the priests did not answer the Bishop's circular letter; all the 
others declared themselves at his disposal; three expressed a strong inclination 
to go to the settlement, whilst one, Father Wendelin Moeller, who was in 
charge of the district of Koolau, Oahu, replied simply: "My answer is in my 
Rules," alluding to art. 241 of the Rules of the Congregation of the Sacred 
Hearts which says: "By the vow of obedience the professed religious engage 
themselves to do what the superior commands, and not to do anything he 
forbids." 

Father Wendelin, being known as a sober-minded, cool-headed and devoted 
man, got the appointment. He arrived at the settlement six days after the 
Franciscan Sisters, and was stationed at Kalaupapa, whilst Fathers Damien and 
Conrardy remained at Kalawao. 

Up till the beginning of March 1889, Father Damien could go about with his 
accustomed activity. The ninth of that month sores formed at his knuckles, 
which prevented him from saying Mass. However, he soon got better and 
could do his wonted work, until he got ill again on the 23d. From that day on 
his state grew worse, and he felt that the end was approaching. 

On the 30th he made a general confession and renewed his vows in the 
hands of Father Wendelin. The next day Father Conrardy administered Holy 
Viaticum to him, and Extreme Unction one or two days later. For several 
days he alternately improved and grew worse, until on April 13 all hope of pro- 
longing his life was abandoned. He lost consciousness during the night of Palm 
Sunday, and died on the 15th of April, 1889, at about 8 o'clock in the morning. 
Mr. James Sinnett, an Irish gentleman, who had come to Molokai for the ex- 
press purpose of nursing the heroic priest in his last sickness, and had been 
with him for eight months, assisted him in his last hours, together with Father 
Conrardy. 53 

Scarcely was the death of the poor priest announced in the United States and 
in Europe, when a universal chorus of praise resounded in his honor, exalting 
him as a martyr of charity, and pointing him out as one more precious pearl in 
the already radiating crown of sanctity which circles the brow of Holy Mother 
the Church. 

Whilst thus for several months the press of the world glorified the man who 
for Christ's sake had laid down his life for the wounded and disfigured sheep 
of His Master, an obscure Presbyterian clergyman of Riverside, California, was 
nursing an acute attack of Anti-Papism. The blaze of glory which surrounded 
the "Romanist" priest, hurt his eyes, and anxious to gather some filth where- 
with to contaminate and mar that offensive splendor, he wrote to a congenially 
disposed colleague at Honolulu. The Hawaiian clergyman, Dr. C. M. Hyde, felt 

52 Letter of Bishop Herman, May 7, 1888, Arch. C. M. Hon. 

53 Father Wendelin's Diary; James Sinnett' s letter, Clifford, Life of Father Damien, p. 120. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 213 

rather inclined to aid his Californian friend in this matter, and under date of 
August the 2d, 1889 penned the following libel to his "dear Brother," the 
Rev. H. B. Gage. 

In answer to your inquiries about Father Dainien, I can only reply that we who 
knew the man are surprised at the extravagant newspaper laudations,, as if he were 
a most saintly philanthropist. The simple truth is, he was a coarse, dirty man, 
headstrong and bigoted. He was not sent to Molokai, but went there without orders, 
did not stay at the leper settlement, (before he became one himself) but circulated 
freely over the whole island (less than half the island is devoted to the lepers,) and 
he came often to Honolulu; he had no hand in the reforms and improvements 
inaugurated which were the work of our Board of Health, as occasion required and 
means, were provided. He was not a pure man in his relations with women, and the 
the leprosy of which he died should be attributed to his vices and carelessness. 
Others have done much for the lepers, our own ministers, the Government physicians, 
and so forth, but never with the Catholic idea of meriting eternal life. 

Yours, etc. 

C. M. HYDE. 

This letter was widely published in the Protestant press, and was the signal 
for an outburst of slander and scurrility against the memory of the deceased 
priest. 

Thoughtful men were justly shocked at Hyde's defamatory words, unac- 
companied as they were by a pretense of justification, when their import de- 
manded conclusive evidence. A host of distinguished admirers took up the 
cudgel for the Hero of Molokai. Foremost among them was Robert L. Steven- 
son. During the novelist's visit to Hawaii the year before, he had visited the 
leper settlement, and had learned much about Father Damien and his work, and 
like most men the world over, Stevenson held the priest and his labors for the 
lepers of Hawaii in the highest esteem. 

Whilst in Sydney he came upon Dr. Hyde's charges against Father Damien, 
and overflowing with righteous indignation, he hurled his famous Damien Letter. 

It is no doubt a brilliant plea, and a "matchless piece of scorn and invective." 
It was, however, defective in so far as it makes admissions which were unwar- 
ranted. He himself calls Father Damien "shrewd, ignorant and bigoted." We 
have no interest in hiding Father Damien's defects. Who is the man, yea, the 
Saint, who is altogether exempt from them ? His ways were not accommodating ; 
his character rather vehement ; he was obstinate, through open to conviction. 
Bishop Herman said that he was lacking in humility, obedience and charity. 54 
These imputations are mainly made on account of the Conrardy affair, but we 
may well excuse Father Damien, and those who knew, both sides of the affair, 
did excuse him, for forcing the hand of his bishop, in order to obtain an assist- 
ant priest in the settlement. 55 He rushed, perhaps, too much into print, but it 
was not for self-glorification, but in order to interest the world at large in his 
poor lepers ; he himself would have preferred to have remained unknown. 50 He 
was often impatient with others, because giving his life for the lepers, he un- 
reasonably wished that all others should also have the settlement and its 
unfortunate inhabitants foremost in their thoughts and endeavors. 

He was not shrewd, at least not in the archaic, unfavorable sense of cunning, 
in which Stevenson seems to take the word. He was too blunt, too outspoken, 
to be shrewd. 

Calling him ignorant, is only relatively saying the truth. For a priest, he was 

64 Letter of December 13, 1889, to Sup. Gen. -Gen. Arch. Motherhouse. 

55 Cf. Letter of Father Matthias C. Limburg, and the correspondence anent the Conrardy 
affair, Arch. M. H. 

56 Cf. Clifford, pp. 64, 92; Tauvel, p. 79, Engl. Edit. 



214 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

ignorant, his studies, as we have seen, having been far from adequate. But it is 
rather difficult to call a man ignorant who speaks fluently three languages: Flem- 
ish, French and Hawaiian, and has moreover a fair acquaintance with English, 
Portuguese, Latin and Greek, and who for several years has applied himself to 
liberal studies. 

Father Damien was not intolerant of the religious opinions of others, and 
consequently can not be called a bigot in the unfavorable acceptation of that 
word. "He always showed a true and wholesome charity while he dealt with 
views which he considered erroneous," says Clifford. 57 He certainly was a very 
zealous missionary, desirous of gaming all mankind to Jesus Christ. If this be 
considered a defect, it will not hinder Damien's canonization. 

It was said by Dr. Hyde, and it has been admitted by Stevenson and others 
that Father Damien was a dirty man. This is hardly a term to apply to one who 
habitually bathed. The charge can, however, be sustained by pointing to his 
spotted cassock, which could scarcely be kept unsoiled by one who frequently 
labored with his hands, and had to enter continually the filthy huts of the lepers. 
Speaking of Damien's dirtiness, Mr. Sinnett says: "I have seen Damien covered 
with dust and perspiration .... as he toiled among the lepers at manual work 
beneath a tropical sky, or as he dragged himself from one death bed to another, 
or bound up the open sores of some poor diseased leper. But, surely, that was 
hardly a fault ; rather perhaps the mark of heroic deeds. As well might you con- 
demn the victorious blood-stained warrior." "This accusation," continues 

the man who received Father Damien's last sighs, "reminds one of Shakespeare's 
words in Henry IV: 58 

But I remember, when the fight was done, 
When I was dry with rage, and extreme toil, 
Breathless and faint, leaning upon my sword, 
Came there a certain lord, neat, trimly dress'd, 
Fresh as a bridegroom; and his chin, new reap'd. 
Show'd like a stubble-land at harvest home. 
He was perfumed like a milliner, 
And 'twixt his finger and his thumb he held 
A pouncet box, which ever and anon 
He gave his nose, and took't away again; 
Who, therewith angry, when it next came there, 
Took in it snuff; and still he smiled and talked. 
And, as the soldiers bore dead bodies by, 
He called them untaught knaves, unmannerly, 
To bring a slovenly unhandsome corpse 
Betwixt the wind and his nobility. 

But Dr. Hyde has smirched Father Damien's name by a more serious and 
even- less founded accusation. Stevenson has taken the liberty of "supposing" 
the story to be true, forgetting the axiom of law : Nemo malus nisi probetur, the 
story of his having broken his priestly vows by immoral intercourse with women. 

Now Father Damien has plainly declared shortly before his death, that he 
never had any sexual intercourse in his life, and this word, given so to say, on 
the borders of the grave, ought to be sufficient guarantee of his innocence. 
Already before his death, in 1887, slanderous gossip concerning Father Damien 
did the rounds, and the Board of Health instituted a thorough inquiry in the 
matter. The officer of the Board who conducted the inquiry, Mr. Reynolds, 
thus reports: "I never hard from any one in the settlement that he (Father 
Damien) had been immoral or licentious in any way; for had he ever made a slip 
in his conduct in that mixed community, which included representatives from the 

67 Father Damien, p. 98. 

58 Sinnett in Catholic Advocate, March 18, 1891. He has condensed the quotation, which 
Is from Henry IV, 1st part, 1st Act, 3d Scene. I give it in its entirety. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 215 

various sects of religion in the islands, or if there had been anything of the kind 
hinted at there, it would have been commented upon, and in my official position, 
I could have easily elicited such condemning testimony, had it been in existence." 50 
Corroborating this testimony of Mr. Reynolds, comes the sworn report of Mr. 
Button, who lived nearly three years with Father Damien in the greatest 
intimacy, and than whom few could know better what was going on in the 
settlement. 

Button's Report on Father Bamien. 

Catholic Mission, 
Leper Settlement, 
Kalawao, Molokai, 

To His Lordship Sandwich Islands, 

Bishop Herman, February 12, 1890. 

Honolulu, H. I. 
Right Reverend and Dear Sir: 

The Reverend Father Matthias and Wendelin have recently informed me that 
they were directed by you to make an examination here regarding the life of the late 
Father Damien De Veuster, his virtues and characteristics, his relations with the work 
at the leper settlement and with the officials of the Hawaiian Government, etc., 
making report of the examination, embodying therein my statement in these matters. 
After we had all made the same a subject of prayer for three days, Fathers 
Matthias and Wendelin met with me, and they took some notes of what I had to say 
in regard to the things in view. But afterwards they concluded to hold their report 
to enable me to make my statement in writing, giving it somewhat more scope than 
first intended. 

Since the return to Honolulu of the Rev. Father Matthias, Rev. Father Wendelin 
has suggested that I should address the statement to you, making it complete, not 
only speaking of things undoubtedly favorable in Father Damien's character and re- 
lations here, but also embracing points, in which any disparaging statements have 
been made so far as I know, and particularly to point out the part taken by the 
Hawaiian Government in the management of affairs of the leper settlement.oo 

All this I will strive faithfully to do, but giving the statement rather in outline 
form, than making an attempt to relate many particulars. 

As directed by the Fathers I first state regarding myself, that I came here from 
the United States to work with Father Damien, arriving at Kalawao the evening of 
July 29th, 1886. And from that evening until his death April 15, 1889, I was intim- 
ately associated with him in- his work among the people, particularly with his orphan 
boys, and in having the care of his two churches (of only one church, though, in the 
latter part), in serving his masses, and in assisting about his various ministrations, so 
far as a lay man could. Though in this last I was somewhat restricted after the 
summer of 1887, being from that time principally occupied in dressing acres, and in 
the care of the sick orphans. But my place of work was close by his house, and for 
about half the time I ate with him at his table. Several priests had been with him at 
different times before I came, but there was no one with him at that time, nor was 
there any other white person belonging to the Mission, until May 1888. 

Regarding Father Damien will speak first of his zeal and earnestness. For these were 
the traits which first impressed me, and which seemed with him always prominent. 

He had a great natural strength and vitality. These powers coupled with his zeal, 
seemed to enable him to be ever ready to pursue with vigor whatever seemed to him 
ought to be done. 

In everything that concerned the welfare of the place here and of the people, he 
was always alive and pushing, in fact often taking an active interest in affairs of 
which others government officials, &c., had charge. There were but few things done 
here of which he did not have some knowledge. His advice was frequently asked 
in matters outside of his own duties, by government officials and others. 

He was not restricted, as the priests are now, to ordinary parish duties, but 
actually took a hand in various affairs going on for the improvement of the place. 

59 Arthur Johnstone ; R. L. Stevenson in the Pacific, pp. 84, 85. Cf . the whole fifth chapter. 

60 We omit the details concerning the part taken by the Hawaiian Government in the 
management of the affairs of the leper settlement, as being too lengthy, and foreign to the 
subject, the same having been indicated moreover sufficiently in the present chapter. 



216 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Doing with his own hands more or less of nearly every sort of work, in both parishes, 
more especially carpenter work; but was able to turn his hand to almost anything. 

When there was or when there was not a government physician here, he kept a 
supply of drugs, and prescribed for many of the sick. Quite a number of the natives 
would call for him in preference to the regular physician. This treatment of the sick 
he continued in quite a general way, until the Summer of 1887, when he turned the 
drugs over to me, and I kept them for use at the mission-home, under the direction 
of the physician. Father Damien got the most of his drugs from the physician, some 
of them were purchased by the mission. In replenishing the supply I have always 
obtained from the Government, either from the physician or directly from Honolulu. 

As to Father Damien's relations with these physicians, it somewhat depended upon 
who the physician was. Some were satisfied for him to practice as he did; others 
one in particular opposed it. He discontinued partly on account of this opposition. 

Up to the summer of 1887, Father Damien also dressed leper sores from time to 
time, and gained considerable knowledge of this, and also in the use of medicines 
generally. All of these occupations, however, were very much broken into by other 
duties, and therefore not prosecuted with any particular regularity. His method was 
to drive ahead at what he deemed the most important, until something else seemed 
more so, when he would jump over into that, so that he left a track of unfinished 
jobs, though a certain share would be completed. It seemed sometimes that he tried 
to do more than one person could expect to finish. 

He was very hospitable. He made a practice of meeting the weekly steamer at 
Kalaupapa, for the purpose of greeting any newly arrived lepers, or visitors there 
might be. For a long time the steamer arrived very early in the morning, and, in 
order to reach the landing in time, he used to say his Mass on those mornings at 
about four o'clock. So he was among the foremost in meeting any passengers that 
were being landed. If there were any lepers who could not at the moment be provided 
with quarters, he was sure to bring them to the mission here, if any would come, and 
have them cared for until they were regularly located. 

The assistant superintendent who had charge of all those matters permitted this. 
Young boys so arriving were generally placed at the Mission, in the institution Father 
Damien was trying to build up. About the beginning of 1888, this institution having 
become somewhat systematized, the placing there of all young boys who were not 
with their parents or with some near relative, was regularly authorized by the Govern- 
ment. Larger boys and men also, who desired or could be induced, were placed in 
the same way, under Father Damien's care . . . 

In the first part of the construction of the Boys' Home, Father Damien did a 
good deal of the work with his own hands. Later the Government put up larger and 
better buildings, including a very neat one for the Sisters. The Government paid the 
main expense of all; Father Damien added some on Mission account in the earlier part. 

In the latter portion of the period in which Father Damien cared for the "insti- 
tution" then merging into the "Boys" Home proper, he was paid by the Government 
a monthly salary for the care of it. And Father Damien once told me that he was 
employed by the Government as assistant-superintendent of the settlement for a 
while before I came here, there having been generally some one, a member of the 
Settlement so employed. Since I am here there has always been one. Until just 
recently, a half-white, a leper, has held the place. Now a gentleman from one of the 
other islands, a white non-leper, has been engaged and sent here for the purpose .... 

Father Damien never was properly in charge of any of the governmental affairs 
of the settlement; only as stated above. 

He supplied some extras for the inmates of the "institution," at the mission, also 
to many lepers outside, but of. this- 1 will speak further on .... 

The assistance that Father Damien. gave to the inmates of his institution, and the 
others, those outside, to the people generally, was referred to above. By this is meant 
such help as went towards their provision or support. It consisted in giving help 
generally in special needs. Where a family had in it some kokuas helpers not 
drawing rations, the family thus being short of supplies, or a family thus short 
through waste or neglect, some of the few whites or others needing some kind of 
food, etc., etc. 

The expenses 'for what he thus gave were paid by the Catholic Mission. So it 
was quite the practice among the people to come to Father Damien for any special 
aid required. Yet some would not come to him at all; some Protestants, and at time, 
some Catholics; those persons with whom he had had difficulties. Though these 
people easily forgot what they deemed at the time harsh treatment, and in most cases 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 217 

would return to Father Damien in their next distress, to again ask his aid, there were 
some who did not do so. There were some too, who often came for aid, but who, 
when not in Father Damien's presence, would abuse him most shamefully. No mat- 
ter what might have occurred in the past, if Father Damien could give the help asked 
for, he was pretty sure to give it. 

He was at times very vehement and excitable in regard to matters that did not 
seem to him right, or, if opposed by anyone, if. he was satisfied his judgment was 
correct, sometimes doing and saying things which he would afterwards regret. But he 
had the faculty in a remarkable degree of putting resentment aside. Very soon after 
a heated altercation he would be towards the opponent as if no such thing had 
happened, seeming to have forgotten the matter. Only, if there was anything to be 
done in a certain way, he was not likely to rest until it was carried out in that way. 

Probably I am safe in saying that in all of these differences he had a true desire 
to do right, to bring about what he thought to be for the best. No doubt he erred 
sometimes in judgment, as all of us do. 

These things stated, his relations with the Government officials will be more 
readily understood. With some they were better than with others; with all better at 
some times than at other times. In certain periods he got along smoothly with every 
one. And at all times, he was urgent for improvements, or what he thought would 
be such. 

The carrying out of some things done by the Government was facilitated by his 
action. In other cases it made confusion, as the different authorities would not always 
agree with him. Will add that I believe his efforts for the people here for material 
improvement, to have been on the whole beneficial for the place. In spiritual mat- 
ters there is no doubt but he did great good. 

The question of his purity has been brought up in the public prints. In this I can 
merely state my firm belief that he was wholly devoid of sensuality during the time I 
knew him. 

Will introduce here something repugnant apropos. Leprosy in its course shows 
some freaks in this regard. I have taken some pains to investigate the same for the 
information of a well known medical gentleman in New York. The effects upon 
sensual passions appear differently in the different stages. Without going into the 
various particulars, I will state that, what Father Damien told me about himself, in 
that regard, seems to hold good in many cases of his type. And what he said was 
this. That for several years (of the latter part of his life) he felt no tendency towards 
sensual excitement. He volunteered this, and his conversation led me to infer that in 
the earlier years here on the islands he had to resist such movements. In going 
over the country, it was sometimes necessary to stop over night with some native 
family. He told me that one night, when in one of these huts, a young native woman 
being about to sleep near him, he left the house and staid outdoors. It never occurred 
to me to question his life long adherence to virtue in this regard at least. He 
seemed while I knew him to have no thought for such things, no thoughts tending to 
sensuality. And this condition in my opinion, was the cause of their being certain 
reports, or gossip, indulged in by some people. The charges on this point, published 
since his death, are not new ones." 

In a letter, dated December 31st, 1881, Father Damien writes to Bishop 
Herman : "Moreover for my good name's sake, which Fathers Regis and 
Albert have questioned (De plus pour 1'honneur de ma reputation mise en 
soupgon par le P. Regis et Albert), I like good Father Albert to watch me from 
nearby and not from a distance. (Je tiens a ce qu le bon Pere Albert me soit un 
temoin oculaire et pas un temoin a distance.) On his arrival here (Sept. 1st, 
1881) he spoke to me on three consecutive days, as if I had entertained evil 
relations with a woman. He said that he had heard it reported either on 
Hawaii or in Koolau. The rumors here spoken of are probably the identical 
ones which Dr. C. M. Hyde later revived. How they originated will be shown 
a few pages further. 

"I heard the same things," continues Mr. Dutton, "at least some of them, here, 
whilst he was living. That is, I was informed of them. But the parties so inform- 
ing, intelligent men, always asserted their belief that Father Damien was innocent of 
the charge, except in so far as he gave (apparently unwittingly) a ground for suspicion 



218 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

by his want of caution, in allowing women to be about his house, etc. These things 
myself I could not help seeing. Yet I never saw, what would have caused me to 
suspect that there was something wrong, unless in appearance. 

"Coupled with the above charge, as published, was one to the effect that he was 
unclean in his personal habits. Of this I can not say so much in denial. When 
visitors were here he used to keep in presentable appearance. But ordinarily he paid 
hardly any attention to the cleanliness of his person, or to his dress. Did not pretend 
to neatness in his personal belongings. Has told me that he considered this a defect. 
Was very simple in his bodily wants, and was quite able to subsist upon the coarsest 
fare." 

"As to his obedience, it is of course a subject for his superiors. 

Father Damien had in his heart, when tranquil, not moved by excitement or by 
some absorbing purpose, a most tender feeling, as I often have been made to know. 
Yet you will bear me out in stating the fact, that no one found it pleasant at all times 
to be with him for a very long period. If my intimate association with him was longer 
continued than that of others, it was partly because I admitted my own faults in that 
regard, and partly because I ever saw him place in me the most entire confidence, and 
have in his heart a deep love, no matter what his exterior might be. And also, I used 
to be quite open with him in speaking of all these things; he likewise to me, and this 
eeemed to give confidence in each other." 

"He would wish the whole truth to be told, and if he had the selection of the 
one to speak of his last few years here, he would, I think, certainly select me. I do 
not speak thus in boast, but rather to show the depth of our love for each other." 

"In truth, Father Damien, was in many ways, a good priest, a good man. And I 
am glad to have by your direction, the opportunity of describing him precisely as I 
knew him, perhaps not precisely as he has been pictured by some pious souls, but by 
a description in which you will recognize Father Damien as he was, you who knew 
him so much longer than I, though not so intimately during the years of which I 
speak." 

"Father Damien was very devout, and in his tranquil moments seemed to take a 
supernatural view of things, I may say, of almost everything. His meditation in the 
morning was generally of about an hour's duration, and he had a regular practice of 
making a visit to the Blessed Sacrament, at night before going to bed. He offered the 
Holy Sacrifice long after he seemed to have become unable to do so, and recited his 
office nearly to the last, for. some time after being dispensed, and while his one eye 
was hardly able to see. The sight of one eye was ruined, he told me, in childhood. He 
had to use many devices towards the end, to be able to see at all with the other. For 
nearly a year it often gave him great pain. It seems to me that the recitation of 
his office under the circumstances, showed marked heroism. His devotion had many 
ways of showing itself in his last days; reciting the rosary, every evening asking for 
spiritual reading, etc." 

"His love for these people of the leper settlement, for all of them was great. 
He gave himself freely for them. A sudden call of charity one in distress would 
cause him to drop at once what he might be engaged upon (except when at the. altar), 
and quickly to give his aid. 

In his ministrations with the natives he was, untiring. Especially in attendance 
upon the dying was he earnest and helpful. So frequently being with him in this 
office, I was particularly impressed with it, and often thought that he must have been 
a great comfort to many souls in these moments." 

"When he felt that his end was approaching, and having quite a number of pieces 
of unfinished work on hand, about the new church, etc., he strained every nerve and 
muscle to get them completed. I am sure that those engaged upon the work, all who 
noted his efforts in those last weeks, will join me in asserting the belief, that by 
these extra exertions he considerably hastened his end." 

"... Fathers Wendelin and Matthias informed me that I might be called upon to 
qualify by oath in this matter. And I am ready to declare that the thingp stated as 
fact are in fact true, to the best of my knowledge and belief, that the things given 
as hear-say, were so understood by me, and in matters of opinion I have shown my 
reasons for the opinions or at least aimed to do so. 

You are of course at liberty to make what use you think best of this statement. 
But I believe it to be my right to hold, that if any of it is used for any purpose, it 
all ought to be without mutilation." 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 219 

"Good Father Damien, may lie rest in peace, and may all of our acts in this and 
every other matter be done solely for the Glory of God!" 

Very truly and respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
JOSEPH BUTTON. 

A jury inclined beforehand to consider Father Damien guilty of the charge 
of immorality brought forth against him, might perhaps not be dissuaded by 
Button's testimony, especially when seeing the priest's own confreres entertain- 
ing and expressing suspicions in this regard. But fortunately for the saintly 
hero's reputation, the source from which all those accusations arose has been 
providentially discovered, and it has been shown, that if some one sinned, it 
was not Father Damien. 

One might have expected that after Stevenson in his philippic had exposed 
Dr. Hyde to public scorn, the reverend gentleman would have published some 
data on which his charge of immorality was founded. In fact, after he had kept 
silent for a year, and had had a plenty of time to verify his charges, he wrote 
a letter to the Congregationalist, in which paper it was published on August 
7th, 1890. In it he declared that he had "no desire to withdraw or modify any 
statement formerly made." Then, commenting on Stevenson's admission that 
Father Damien was a man of the peasant class, shrewd, ignorant, bigoted, 
rough in his ways, he said : "I submit that such testimony from such a source, 
confirming what I have said of Father Damien, is presumptive proof that I had 
equally good reason for saying what else I said in regard to him." 

Such are all the proofs which Hyde could produce to sustain so enormous 
an accusation. Only one thing more he had to add : "Before going to Molokai, 
he (Damien) had charge of two other parishes, where it is believed he con- 
tracted the disease, and left behind him an unsavory reputation." 

Now. in 1905, the question of Father Damien's morality was reopened 
through an article in the Boston Transcript of May the 20th, occasioned by a 
new edition of Stevenson's Damien Letter. The article of the Boston Tran- 
script was republished in the Advertiser of Honolulu, June 10th, 1905, where- 
upon Father James Beissel, at that time provincial of the Mission, asked that 
the mudslingers should produce facts to substantiate their charges. A con- 
troversy followed on the question whether and why Stevenson repented of 
having written his famous letter. This caused Mr. E. C. Bond, a gentleman 
from Kohala, to come to the fore with the following contribution : 

MISTAKEN IDENTITY 

Editor Advertiser: It is disgusting to see revived at this late day, an old story 
that profitably should have been laid to rest forever with the bones of the two reverend 
gentlemen with whom it was concerned. And why "James C. Beissel" or any one else 
should wish to resurrect and start it on another dust raising through the press the 
world over, may well be asked. As I understand the incident thus revived, it was 
merely a case of mistaken identity very easily accounted for. Father Damien's 
predecessor in this district did create a scandal by alleged immorality, which pre- 
sumably was the cause of his removal shortly afterward. How long Father Damien 
remained here, the records of the Catholic Mission in Honolulu will doubtless be able 
to state with greater accuracy than I. My impression is that it was but a few months 
before he undertook his mission to the leper settlement. 

From having presumably no personal acquaintance with the two priests, these 
changes that took place so near together, may easily and evidently did become the 
source of mistaken identity in the mind of Dr. Hyde, who himself wrote to me for 
information, which might explain the unwittingly erroneous statements which he 
certainly regretted. It is my impression that afterward he published something in the 
nature of an explanation, although I have no recollection of ever having seen the fore- 



220 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

going in print. There is no reason whatever for attributing that unfortunate misstate- 
ment that arose from mistaken identity, to malicious sectarian animosity, and it is to 
be sincerely hoped that whosoever reads these lines will register this explanation in 
his mental consciousness along with the severe criticisms which the original story 
has called forth, and let it suffice to suppress any restive impulse to discuss the ques- 
tion further. If Mr. Beissel and his friends are willing to believe that a Protestant 
may be admitted to the same heaven as a Roman Catholic hereafter, they may rest 
assured that the two personalities herein discussed, have long since made their peace 
with one another. 

E. C. BOND.ci 
Kohala. June 16, 1905. 

In addition the same gentleman wrote in the Advertiser of August 20th a 
note to correct an error of his preceding letter, and stating that instead of 
"Father Damien's predecessor" should be read "Father Damien's successor;" 
and again "As an aside it may interest you to know that I myself labored for 
a time under the impression that Father Damien was the man who raised a 
scandal by immoralities in this district. I left the islands for a time immedi- 
ately after the occurrence and in course of time forgot the details and got the 
identity mixed when Father Damien's misfortune became known. Perhaps the 
guilty man's name was Fabien, but probably your church records will tell the 
whole story. He was here but a short time. E. C. B. 

This statement of Mr. Bond was correct. Early in 1880, Father Fabien, 
who after Father Damien's departure in 1873 had been in charge of the dis- 
trict of Kohala, was accused of immorality, but the courts of Waimea nolle- 
prossed the case. He was professor at the college of Ahuimanu from February 
1880 till August 20th, when he left the Islands. 

Later on yet, when Father Beissel in a reply had expressed a supposition 
that his correspondent was the man who confirmed Dr. Hyde in his false 
impressions, Mr. Bond answered in the Advertiser of September the 17th. 

In justice to myself, will you permit me to say that Mr. James Beissel's accusation 
of me in your Sunday issues of August 20th and 27th, as having been Dr. Hyde's 
informer in the Damien affair, was entirely unwarranted. The more natural and cor- 
rect deduction from my letters in the Gazette of June 20th, and Sunday Advertiser of 
August 20th, would have been, not that I gave Dr. Hyde incorrect information, but 
that ^ohen he wrote to me to kno^v what was wrong with his statement concerning 1 
Father Damien, which had been disputed, my ansiver icas that he got the wrong man." 

About this time, Dr. Hyde also wrote for information anent Father Damien's 
morality to Mr. Meyer, the superintendent of the Molokai settlement, but did 
not get better consolation there either. - 

And nevertheless Dr. Hyde wrote to the public "that he had no desire to 
withdraw or to modify any statement he had formerly made . . ." 

The erstwhile Hawaiian missionary died without having had the moral 
courage to retract an accusation, which made perhaps in good faith, he knew 
later to be unfounded. We deplore for his own sake that he had not even 
the "desire to do so."* 

Thanks to Mr. E. C. Bond, the son of another Protestant missionary. 
Father Damien's honor was finally vindicated, and he may go down in his- 



61 The italics are ours. 

62 P. Wendelin Moeller; cf. Meyer's Letter to P. Wendelin, February 27, 1892; H. J. Glade's 
letter, February 25, 1892. 

* This is the more to be regretted as, according to Dr. Mouritz, an impartial and 
outspoken witness, Mr. Hyde was "scholarly, polished, and refined, of a placid and 
calm disposition, did not amass wealth, worked among the poor to whom he opened 
his purse, giving them freely of his means." (Path of the Destroyer, p. 288.) 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 221 

tory not only "sans reproche," but surrounded with the aureole of sanctity. 
His defects were many, but they were imperfections of character rather than of 
the will; of frailty rather than of malice. They were those a multitude of 
which are covered by charity, and a heroic charity none can deny him whom 
the world has acclaimed the "Hero of Charity;" because "greater love than 
this no man hath, that fl man lay down his life for his friends."** 3 

LITERATURE: BOOKS: 

Tauvel, Father Damien, London, 1904. 

Life and Letters of Father Damien, Catholic Truth Society, London, 1889. 

Edward Clifford, Father Damien, London, 1890. 

Charles Warren Stoddard, The Lepers of Molokai; the Ave Maria Press, Notre 
Dame, Indiana. 

George Woods, M.D., Hawaii; in the Rosary Magazine, 1897. 

Robert Louis Stevenson, Father Damien, An Open Letter to Dr. Hyde, Sydney, 1890. 

Arthur Johnstone, Recollections of Robert Louis Stevenson in the Pacific, 
London, 1905. 

May Ouinlan, Damien of Molokai. Benziger Bros, New York, 1909. 

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES not quoted in the present chapter: 

The Friend, Honolulu, July 1889. 

Catholic Union and Times, Buffalo, Oct. 17, 1889. 

Herald, Boston, Dec. 15, 1889 (Clifford). 

Northern Christian Advocate, Jan. 13, 1890 (Bishop of Olba). 

The Catholic American, March 15, 22, and 29, 1890. 

Hawaiian Gazette, June 17, 1890 (Bishop of Olba). 

Hawaiian Gazette, June 24, 1890 (letter by Editor of The Friend). 

Catholic News, New York, Jan. 4, 1899 Aug. 23, 1913. 

Boston Transcript, March 1, 1890. 

America, May 13, 1916 and July 8, 1916. 



63 Jo. XV, 13. 



222 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Episcopates of Bishop Herman Koeckemann and Bishop 

Gulstan Ropert 

Consecration of Bishop Herman. Death of Bishop Louis. Portuguese in Hawaii. 
An Apostate under the Shadow of his Bushel. Portuguese Immigration. Padre 
Fernandes. Missions to the Portuguese. The New St. Louis College. Arrival 
of the Brothers of Mary. Government Subsidies. The Schoolquestion Again. 
Demise of the Bishop of Olba. His Successor Bishop Gulstan. Missions to the 
English Speaking Population. Condemnation of Secret Societies. Catholic Societies. 
Brothers Infirmarians for the Lepers. Father Wendelin and the Board of Health. 
Schools. Sickness and Death of the Bishop of Panopolis. 

BERNARD KOECKEMANN was born January 10, 1828 at Ostbeveren, 
Westphalia, Germany. At the age of fourteen he was sent by his father who 
was a farmer to the "Gymnasium" of Munster. Studious and mentally well 
endowed, he made brilliant progress in classical studies. During his seven 
years of college, his progress in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and French, in phil- 
osophy and science had been so marked, that at the graduation his examiners 
dispensed with oral examination as superfluous. 1 

Believing himself called to religious life, and not finding in Germany the 
facilities for embracing it, he went to Belgium where at Louvain he entered 
into the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts. After a novitiate of eighteen 
months, he was admitted to religious profession on the llth of April, 1851. In 
religion he took the name of Herman, by which he has been known since. 
After three years of theological studies he was sent by his superiors to the 
Hawaiian mission, where he arrived November 13, 1854. His brilliant qualities 
determined Bishop Maigret to keep the young priest at Honolulu. He was 
charged to look more especially after the English speaking members of the 
Church, and was not long in acquiring a very creditable knowledge of the 
English tongue. 

Having received the episcopal consecration at San Francisco on August 21, 
1881, he hastened back to the Mission. Although merely coadjutor to Bishop 
Maigret, and directed "only to interfere in the administration of the vicariate 
as far as the actual incumbent willed and allowed it," he felt prompted by the 
latter's occasional weak-mindedness and feeble health, to seize at once the 
reins of government. 2 

The health of the venerable titulary declined gradually, and he finally suc- 
cumbed to the ravages of old age on June 11, 1882. His mortal remains were 
put to rest in the sanctuary of the cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, behind the 
throne which during thirty-five years he had adorned with his many virtues. 8 
Bishop Maigret was one of the Fathers of the Vatican Council. 

THE PORTUGUESE IMMIGRATION. Already in the first decades of 
the nineteenth century, Portuguese, principally whalers, had begun to visit the 
Islands, many of whom settled here. Dr. Joao Elliott de Castro, who was on 

1 Zeugniss der Reife, August 30, 1849. 

2 Letters to Sup. Gen. October 21, 1881; November 1G, 1881. Arch. M. H. 

3 Although Canon Law did then not allow vicars apostolic to erect a throne in their 
cathedrals, Bishop Maigret had mistakingly done so. His successor asked and obtained the 
privilege of continuing using the throne. Rescript of July 20, 1882. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 223 

the group in 1814, and arrived again with Kotzebue in 1816, was the physician 
of Kamehameha I, and probably saved the Russian expedition from utter 
destruction. 4 In the sixties they formed a considerable part of the white 
population, in 1867 their number at Honolulu being estimated at 200. Some of 
them must have been well-to-do, as the cost of building the chapel of St. 
Patrick at Halawa, Oahu, was almost entirely defrayed by one of them. 5 
However, a traitor was found among them. Jose Manuel, a colored sailor from 
Cape Verde, turned Protestant, and was forthwith made a licensed preacher. 
He was sent to Ewa, where a colony of Portuguese negroes was established at 
the time, and allotted a salary of $20 a month. Neither then nor later had he 
any success among his countrymen. In September of the same year he was 
transferred to Kaneohe, as pastor of a native church, and although in the 
annual meeting of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association it was resolved that 

"Whereas there were many Portuguese all over the group, and whereas the Lord 
had suscitated in the Rev. J. Manuel, a missionary for that nation; therefore was it 
resolved, to be the opinion of the assembly that it was not right to put his light 
under the bushel of Kaneohe; but as there were plenty of Hawaiian pastors who could 
fill that place, the Hawaiian Board was instructed to appoint the Rev. J. Manuel a 
missionary to the Portuguese all around the Islands." 

nevertheless he remained for many years quietly under his bushel, leaving it 
only to go to the capital for the purpose of peddling fish ; in the many years of 
his apostolate he does not seem to have perverted a single son of Portugal, 
either white or black. 6 

In 1878 the little streamlet of Portuguese immigration began to grow into 
a large, ever widening stream. That year the ship Priscilla brought a load 
of 114 men, women, and children. Since then hardly a year has passed which 
did not see one or several vessels bringing hundreds of immigrants from 
Madeira and the Azores. Up to the middle of 1926 not less than 27,870 
Portuguese have thus found new and better homes in Hawaii. They are a 
thrifty and well behaving people, and by far the best immigrants who have 
ever been brought to these shores. They are moreover a prolific race, families 
with a dozen children being by no means rare. As nearly all of them have 
either modest bank-accounts or landed property, or both, and continue to 
improve their financial and social situation, they are a striking and living argu- 
ment against the detrimental theories of Malthus. 

For the Catholic priests it was an easy matter to learn their language, so 
similar to 'Latin and French. Hence many of them were able to converse in 
Portuguese as early as 1883, 7 some already in the preceding year, whilst Father 
Damien was in this regard ahead of all of them, for in the Spring of 1868 he 
asked for Portuguese and Spanish books, saying that already he began to 
speak those languages a bit. 8 At present all the missionaries are familiar with it. 

The Protestant missionaries now once more thought of spreading their 
errors among these faithful sons of the Catholic Church, for in the Report of 
the Hawaiian Evangelical Association for 1884 we read: "We have not yet 
succeeded in finding the right person to undertake Evangelical work among the 
Portuguese, but yet hope to find one." (p. 14.) 

On November 15, 1889, a Portuguese priest arrived at Honolulu, who was 

4 A Voyage of Discovery, Von Kotzebue, London, 1821, vol. I, pp. 289, 292. 

5 This chapel was dedicated March 17, 1860. Some other Portuguese and some Irish also 
contributed. Letter of Bishop Maigret, April 2, 1860. 

6 Letter of Father Herman Koeckemann, December 20, 1867. (Hawaiian) Reports of the 
Hawaiian Evang. Ass. 1867, pp. 7, 9, 21. 1868, p. 7; 1869, pp. 3, 6; and later reports which 
show that he remained constantly at Kaneohe. 

7 Letter of Father Herman Koeckemann. July 2, 1883. 

8 Letter to Father Modest, March 24, 1868. Arch. C. M. Hon. 



224 History of the Catholic Mission in Hazvaii 

to become the source of some trouble, and perhaps the indirect cause of a 
Protestant Portuguese mission. Padre M. F. Fernandes, a native of Pico in the 
Azores, had been ordained priest at San Francisco. Uninvited and unan- 
nounced, he presented himself at the Mission at Honolulu, bearer of an exeat 
of the Archbishop and two other indifferent letters. Bishop Herman informed 
him at once that, as he was not a member of the Congregation of the Sacred 
Hearts, it would be altogether impossible to admit him into the local clergy. 
The Padre then promised that he would continue his voyage and go to Macao. 
However, a few days later a petition signed by over a hundred Portuguese was 
presented to the Vicar-Apostolic, asking that they be allowed to erect a church 
of their own, and to let them have Padre Fernandes to administer to their 
spiritual needs. Some of the signataries were spiritually very poor Catholics ; 
one was a noted apostate. Other Portuguese, among them the Consul, Count 
A., de Canavarro, were not in favor of the adventurous priest, whose educa- 
tion does not seem to have been much above that of the average layman. When 
on the following day the petitioners came for an answer to their request, the 
Bishop of Olba denied it, but granted the Padre the hospitality of the Mission, 
and permission to celebrate and to preach for some time. 

The adventurer finally left on December llth following, leaving his country- 
men, who theretofore had been satisfied with the care they received from the 
local clergy, in a state of ferment and discontent, not a little through the efforts 
of the above alluded to apostate, whose aim it was thought to be to second the 
efforts of the Protestants to proselyte the Catholic immigrants. 9 

In the annual meeting of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, which 
gathered in June 1890, it was reported that a Sabbath school had been con- 
tinued during the past year for the purpose, and that funds for a Portuguese 
mission had been voted ; that men had been sought to enter the field, but as yet 
had not been found, and that in one of the larger centers (Hilo) quite a com- 
pany stood ready to welcome among them a religious teacher, (pp. 20, 38.) 

On September 19, 1890, Dr. C. M. Hyde, so notorious as the slanderer of 
Father Damien, arrived at Honolulu, accompanied by three Protestant Portu- 
guese ministers from Illinois: Messrs. Soares, Baptista and Pires, the latter, 
a pastor of a church in Jacksonville, having secured a few months' leave of 
absence in order to assist his younger colleagues in their raid. 

Although they began to hold services at once, their initial efforts were not 
very brilliant, for when nearly two years later the First Portuguese Church 
was organized, they counted but eleven members, including the pastor and his 
wife. 10 

In November, 1890, the Rev. Mr. Pires visited the island of Hawaii, and 
established a proselyting center in the town of Hilo. There they had at first 
some better success than at Honolulu, as some persons (thirty had sent a peti- 
tion to the Hawaiian Board), who were but nominal Catholics, had themselves 
enrolled. 

Immediately after the arrival of this Protestant mission, the Bishop of Olba 
asked the Archbishop of San Francisco to send him a Portuguese priest of his 
diocese, Padre Domingo do Governo, in order to preach a mission throughout 
the islands and to warn the Portuguese against the false doctrines which were 
then about to be preached to them. The missionary arrived on November 14, 
and remained in the group till February 9th. Between these dates he preached 



9 Letter of Bishop Koeckemann, Arch. M. H. November 20, and December 13, 1889. 

10 A. V. Soares in 88th Annual Report of Haw. Ev. Ass. pp. 29, 30. 




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224 History of ihc Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

to become the source of some trouble, and perhaps the indirect cause of a 
Protestant Portuguese mission. Padre M. F. Fernandes, a native of Pico in the 
A/ores, had been ordained priest at San Francisco. Uninvited and unan- 
nounced, he presented himself at the Mission at Honolulu, bearer of an exeat 
of the Archbishop and two other indifferent letters. Bishop Herman informed 
him at once that, as he was not a member of the Congregation of the Sacred 
Hearts, it would be altogether impossible to admit him into the local clergy. 
The Padre then promised that he would continue his voyage and go to Macao. 
However, a few days later a petition signed by over a hundred Portuguese was 
presented to the Vicar-Apostolic, asking that they be allowed to erect a church 
of their own, and to let them have Padre Fernandes to administer to their 
spiritual needs. Some of the signataries were spiritually very poor Catholics; 
one was a noted apostate. Other Portuguese, among them the Consul, Count 
A. de Canavarro, were not in favor of the adventurous priest, whose educa- 
tion does not seem to have been much above that of the average layman. When 
on the following day the petitioners came for an answer to their request, the 
Bishop of Olba denied it. but granted the Padre the hospitality of the Mission, 
and permission to celebrate and to preach for some time. 

The adventurer finally left on December llth following, leaving his country- 
men, who theretofore had been satisfied with the care they received from the 
local clergy, in a state of ferment and discontent, not a little through the efforts 
of the above alluded to apostate, whose aim it was thought to be to second the 
efforts of the Protestants to proselyte the Catholic immigrants.'-' 

In the annual meeting of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association, which 
gathered in June 1890. it was reported that a Sabbath school had been con- 
tinued during. the past year for the purpose, and that funds for a Portuguese 
mission had been voted ; that men had been sought to enter the field, but as yet 
had not been found, and that in one of the larger centers (liilo) quite a com- 
pany stood ready to welcome among them a religious teacher, (pp. 20, 38.) 

On September 19. 1890. Dr. C. M. Hyde, so notorious as the slanderer of 
Father Damien, arrived at Honolulu, accompanied by three Protestant Portu- 
guese ministers from Illinois: Messrs. Soares. Baptista and Pires. the latter, 
a pastor of a church in Jacksonville, having secured a few months' leave of 
absence in order to assist his younger colleagues in their raid. 

Although they began to hold services at once, their initial efforts were not 
very brilliant, for when nearly two vears later the First Portuguese Church 
was organized, they counted but eleven members, including the pastor and his 
wife. 1 " 

In November, 1890, the Rev. Mr. Pires visited the island of Hawaii, and 
established a proselyting center in the town of Hilo. There they had at first 
some better success than at .1 lonolulu. as some persons (thirty had sent a peti- 
tion to the Hawaiian Board), who were but nominal Catholics, had themselves 
enrolled. 

Immediately after the arrival of this Protestant mission, the Bishop of Olba 
asked the Archbishop ol San Francisco to send him a Portuguese priest of his 
diocese. Padre Domingo do (loverno, in order to preach a mission throughout 
the islands and to warn the Portuguese against the false doctrines which were 
then about to be preached to them. The missionarv arrived on November 14, 
and remained in the group till February 9th. Between these dates he preached 

!i Letter df Bishop Koeekc-mann, Arch. .M. II. Xi.vemhrr I'd. and I iceemlior 1'!. ISS'.i. 
10 A. V. Snares in SSth Annual llrpnrt nf I law. tCv. Ass. ]ip. 'J!>. ::o. 




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GRAVE OP MOTHER MARIANNE 
Provincial of the Sisters of St. Francisco at Kalaupapa, Molokai 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 225 

to crowded audiences on the principal islands. This mission so timely given 
must have greatly contributed to forestall the efforts of the heretics. 

A second mission perhaps yet more successful was preached two years later 
to the Portuguese Catholics by another priest of their nationality, Padre 
Alexander D. de Campos, who incessantly gave missions to his countrymen on 
Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii from December 2, 1893 till the 23d of June of 
the following year. 

Yet another Portuguese priest, the Franciscan Padre Jose Rollins, came to 
the Islands for the purpose of giving a mission. He arrived at Honolulu on 
the 23d of August, 1911, and stayed for several months. 

However, by this time his help was scarcely necessary, as all local priests 
had grown quite familiar with the Portuguese idiom, and the Protestant mission 
has become almost a dead issue; also particularly, because a young Portuguese, 
Father Stephen Alencastre, born in Madeira, but reared in Hawaii, had in the 
meantime been sent to Belgium, there to make his ecclesiastical studies, and had 
been ordained priest at Honolulu, on April 5, 1902. 

The efforts which have been made to implant Protestantism in other locali- 
ties besides Honolulu and Hilo have constantly miscarried. A perusal of the 
Reports of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association shows that the Portuguese 
sectaries counted in 1924, two hundred fifty-nine (259) members, 288 Sunday 
school pupils, 80 members of the Young People's Society, and had baptized the 
preceding year 16 infants. Their entire number can therefore scarcely exceed 
700. Even this small number cannot be said to be the result of the mission- 
aries' activity in this group, as at different times Portuguese renegades have 
been imported by the planters from New England. 11 

And even these meager results would never have been attained had not 
certain owners and managers of plantations carried on a persistent crusade 
against the Catholics, and used their power as employers, as well as their 
money, to proselyte the Portuguese workmen. 12 

It is no mean recommendation of the Portuguese in Hawaii, that out of 
some twenty-seven thousand, only a handful have embraced the worship of the 
Golden Calf, when the temptations were so strong, and consent so easy. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS. After the departure of Father Larkin, St. Louis 
College was continued by Father Clement Evrard, who, less talented perhaps 
than his predecessor, soon proved more successful. It was, however, decided 
in the interest of Catholic education to obtain the aid of some religious teach- 
ing order, and with this end in view, the Vice-Provincial of the Mission, 
Father Leonor Fouesnel, left on a voyage to the United States on March 13, 
1882. He was felicitous in securing the valuable services of the Brothers of 
Mary or Marianists, members of a religious society founded in 1817 at 
Bordeaux, France, by the Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade, and 
introduced into the United States in 1849. 

Three months after the departure of the Vice-Provincial, the Mission 
bought a lot across the Nuuanu River, and there the cornerstone of a new 
college was laid on July 3, 1882. At the end of the long vacation the buildings 
were ready for use, and on September 18, Father Clement opened school on the 
new premises. He was assisted by Father Hubert Stappers, the last director 
of Ahuimanu College, and by two lay professors, Messrs. Donelly and Richard 
Stewart. A year later, on September 3d eight Brothers of the Society of Mary 

11 38th Ann. Rep. pp. 65, 66. 

12 Cf. Independent (Honolulu), April 18, 1898. 




GRAVE OF MOTHER MARIANNE 
I'rovinckil of the Sisters of St. Francisco at Kalaupajia. Mnlokui 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 225 

to crowded audiences on the principal islands. This mission so timely given 
must have greatly contributed to forestall the efforts of the heretics. 

A second mission perhaps yet more successful was preached two years later 
to the Portuguese Catholics by another priest of their nationality, Padre 
Alexander D. de Campos, who incessantly gave missions to his countrymen on 
Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii from December 2, 1893 till the 23d of June of 
the following year. 

Yet another Portuguese priest, the Franciscan Padre Jose Rollins, came to 
the Islands for the purpose of giving a mission. He arrived at Honolulu on 
the 23d of August, 1911, and stayed for several months. 

However, by this time his help was scarcely necessary, as all local priests 
had grown quite familiar with the Portuguese idiom, and the Protestant mission 
has become almost a dead issue ; also particularly, because a young Portuguese, 
Father Stephen Alencastre, born in Madeira, but reared in Hawaii, had in the 
meantime been sent to Belgium, there to make his ecclesiastical studies, and had 
been ordained priest at Honolulu, on April 5, 1902. 

The efforts which have been made to implant Protestantism in other locali- 
ties besides Honolulu and Hilo have constantly miscarried. A perusal of the 
Reports of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association shows that the Portuguese 
sectaries counted in 1924, two hundred fifty-nine (259) members, 288 Sunday 
school pupils, 80 members of the Young People's Society, and had baptized the 
preceding year 16 infants. Their entire number can therefore scarcely exceed 
700. Even this small number cannot be said to be the result of the mission- 
aries' activity in this group, as at different times Portuguese renegades have 
been imported by the planters from New England. 11 

And even these meager results would never have been attained had not 
certain owners and managers of plantations carried on a persistent crusade 
against the Catholics, and used their power as employers, as well as their 
money, to proselyte the Portuguese workmen. 12 

It is no mean recommendation of the Portuguese in Hawaii, that out of 
some twenty-seven thousand, only a handful have embraced the worship of the 
Golden Calf, when the temptations were so strong, and consent so easy. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS. After the departure of Father Larkin, St. Louis 
College was continued by Father Clement Evrard. who, less talented perhaps 
than his predecessor, soon proved more successful. It was, however, decided 
in the interest of Catholic education to obtain the aid of some religious teach- 
ing order, and with this end in view, the Vice-Provincial of the Mission. 
Father Leonor Fouesnel, left on a voyage to the United States on March 13, 
1882. He was felicitous in securing the valuable services of the Brothers of 
Mary or Marianists, members of a religious society founded in 1817 at 
Bordeaux, France, by the Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminadc, and 
introduced into the United States in 1849. 

Three months after the departure of the Vice-Provincial, the Mission 
bought a lot across the Nuuanu River, and there the cornerstone of a new 
college was laid on July 3, 1882. At the end of the long vacation the buildings 
were ready for use, and on September 18, Father Clement opened school on the 
new premises. He was assisted by Father Hubert Stappers, the last director 
of Ahuimanu College, and by two lay professors, Messrs. Donelly and Richard 
Stewart. A year later, on September 3d eight Brothers of the Society of Mary 

11 38th Ann. Rep. pp. GC, 6G. 

12 Of. Independent (Honolulu), April IS, 1SOS. 



226 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

arrived at Honolulu. Three of them reembarked the next day for Wailuku, 
where they were to take charge of St. Anthony's school; the remaining five 
were entrusted with the teaching in St. Louis College. 13 

They began teaching on September 10, 1883; enrolling on that day over a 
hundred pupils, which number increased within a fortnight to 150, twenty of 
whom were boarders. At the beginning of 1885 the number had more than 
doubled (283 day scholars and 47 boarders). To show its appreciation of the 
excellent work done by the Brothers, the Legislature of that year voted a 
subsidy of $10,000. This enabled the Bishop to make the enlargements ne- 
cessitated by the growing .number of pupils, and during the spring a new 
building, 90x45 feet, was added to the others. Further aid was given the 
College by the Government in the form of scholarships. These grants (in the 
nineties, $2500 biennially), were continued by the Republic which was pro- 
claimed July 4, 1894, but ceased after annexation by the United States. (June 
16, 1897-August 12, 1898.) 

The religious education of the Catholic youth was Bishop Herman's great 
and praiseworthy pursuit. By establishing the new St. Louis College and 
providing it with thoroughly trained religious teachers, he had filled the needs 
of his flocks in the capital ; but he sadly reflected on the difficulty of imparting 
the necessary instruction to the children in the rural districts. Although ready 
for every sacrifice in this noble cause, it was impossible to have Catholic 
schools except in the principal centers. The Board of Education itself 
acknowledged the inadequacy of its schools as far as moral teaching was con- 
cerned. "One great defect of our Common school teachers," says the President 
in his biennial report of 1880, "is the lack of inclination or ability to teach 
their pupils moral truths." By agitating the subject in the newspapers, 14 the 
Bishop obtained the issuing by the Board of Education of a circular, allowing 
all clergyment the use of the public schoolhouses, once a week after school 
hours, for religious instruction, 15 It appears, however, that the Catholic priests 
alone improved the opportunity for the benefit of Catholic children, and conse- 
quently this fair measure, which was a step in the right direction, was much 
criticized and opposed by the adversaries of the Church. In 1896 the Board 
yielded to the opposition and the permission was withdrawn. It was stated in 
the Biennial Report of that year ; "While the members of the Board of Educa- 
tion fully recognize the importance of religious teaching, they do not consider 
it best for the State to provide such instruction. . . . Hence ... a circular has 
been issued by the Board . . . withdrawing the permission formerly 
given . , ," 16 

Here the members of the Board showed very poor logic, as nobody had 
asked the State to provide such instruction, and the Catholics would have been 
first to object to it, had the Government ever presumed thus usurping the rights 
of the Church. 

Meantime, however, the Bishop had urged the rights of Catholics in this 
important matter by the publication of a pamphlet, entitled the School Ques- 
tion. In it he first poses the general principles which should guide in this 
matters, and then makes a practical application to the Hawaiian Islands. He 
proposed that 



13 As the college since in charge of the Brothers of Mary is merely the continuation of 
that begun by Father Larkin on Beretania street, who dedicated it to St. Louis, in honor 
of his protector, Bishop Louis Maigret, the Patron-Saint of the Institution is evidently that 
Prelate's: Saint Louis, King of Prance, and not St. Aloysius of Gonzaga. 

14 See Honolulu Bulletin pf November, 1888. 

15 Circular of November 21, 1888. 

16 pp. 8 and 9. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 227 

1. In such, localities of these Islands in which denominational schools cannot be 
had, it is just and proper that the Government furnish a public school for all the 
children of the different creeds. Religious instruction must be excluded from such a 
school, for the simple reason that the Government has no right to impose a creed upon 
any child. 

2. The regulation issued by the Board of Education about a year ago, empowering 
every minister of religion to give one hour per week after class hours, of religious 
instruction to the children of his creed, is a step in the right direction; it benefits 
some children, without interfering with the rights of others. 

3. The independent schools should be supported by public money as well as the 
public schools. The former do the same work as the latter, and they do it with equal 
success, to say the least. The independent schools are the normal schools, because 
they are the choice of the parents to whom the children belong incomparably more 
than to the State, represented by the Board of Education, whose business it should be 
to assist the parents in their honest efforts to educate their children according to the 
dictates of their conscience. Is it not just then, that good, independent schools should 
have their pro rata share of the public money contributed by all, in proportion to the 
number of their pupils ?17 

Unfortunately his arguments, obviously fair and convincing, were not 
listened to. The Hawaiian Government following in the footsteps of that of 
the United States, continued to impose the heavy burden of double taxation on 
Catholics and others who do not believe that the religious education of the 
child should be separated from and made secondary to his secular training. 

Moreover, the time of the Prelate's stewardship was soon after brought to 
a close. 

On February 18, 1892, he was suddenly stricken down with paralysis. His 
age made his recovery doubtful from the first, and with intervals of varying 
degrees of consciousness, his condition after the first day was shown clearly 
to be a dying one. After the stroke he spoke but a few words, and died on the 
22d following. 

Official recognition was taken of the deceased Prelate by the closing of Gov- 
ernment offices, the half-masting of consular colors and the attendance of dip- 
lomatic and consular representatives at the funeral services. The funeral pro- 
cession was marked by much solemnity, the body being borne from the church 
to its lasting resting place at the Catholic cemetery on a bier carried by over a 
score of stalwart Hawaiians, a token of respect which had been tendered but to 
one Hawaiian king. 

Thus the natives showed their love for one who had loved them much. For 
although, before his consecration, the deceased had been especially in charge 
of the English speaking part of the congregation, his predilection was always 
for the Hawaiians. He used to say: "It is for the natives that we came here, 
and not for the white people ; to preach the Gospel to the Hawaiians we are sent 
by the Pope, and sustained by the alms of the Propagation of the Faith." 

His zeal and regularity in the fulfilment of his duties were proverbial. His 
manners were always so dignified that people of all classes could only look up 
to him, and were rather timid of addressing him. However, his kindness was 
so great that soon the most timid came under the charms of his conversation. 

After he became Bishop, he was not satisfied with simply "overseeing" his 
flock; he himself continued to work most zealously in the Lord's vineyard, 
teaching catechism to the little ones, visiting the sick and the poor, and assidu- 
ous in the confessional. King Kalakaua, who diligently cultivated the Pre- 
late's friendship, either for political or less interested motives, had appointed 
him a Grand-Officer of the Order of Kalakaua. 

17 The School Question, April 30th, 1890, p. 5. 



228 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

BISHOP GULSTAN. 

On June 3, 1892, Father Gulstan Ropert was elevated by the Holy See to 
the episcopal dignity, with the title of Bishop of Panopolis, and appointed vicar 
apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Born at Kerf ago, Morbihan, France, on August 30, 1839, Francis Ropert 
had entered the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts when twenty years old. He 
was ordained priest May 26, 1866, and sent to the Hawaiian Mission about 
two years later, arriving at Honolulu June 9, 1868. 

He was in charge of the district of Hamakua, Hawaii, until October 2, 1883, 
when he was assigned to the Wailuku mission. He left this place for Honolulu 
in October 1891, having then been appointed vice-provincial. After the Bishop 
of Olba's death he earnestly begged of his religious superiors not to be nominated 
vicar-apostolic. 18 But Father Bousquet, the Superior-General, had for many 
years cherished the idea, of seeing the amiable little Briton mitred, as is forcibly 
suggested by a letter addressed to him by Father Herman on January 5th, 1878, 
when the need of giving a successor or coadjutor to Bishop Maigret began to 
be contemplated. He consequently ignored the priest's request, appointed him 
provincial on April 28, and warmly recommended him to the Propaganda as a 
candidate for the vacancy created by the death of Bishop Koeckemann. 

Having received the bull of his nomination, the Bishop-elect embarked for 
San Francisco, where on September 25, 1892, he was consecrated in St. Mary's 
cathedral, by Archbishop Riordan, assisted by Bishop Scanlan of Salt Lake City 
and Bishop Mora of Los Angeles. 

The coat of arms which the new Prelate adopted was of azure, a St. Anna of 
Auray, accompanied by the letters A.M. (standing for Ave Maria) in silver; the 
motto being: Tuus sum ego, salvum me fac. 

NEW RESIDENCE AND STATUE OF OUR LADY OF PEACE. 

One of the first measures of the new Vicar Apostolic was the erection of a 
plain but becoming residence for his clergy at Honolulu, who till then had no 
decent dwelling place. The plan of this wooden two story building, flanked at all 
sides, except at the rear, by a veranda, and closing the old coral house acquired 
by Bishop Maigret in 1862, had been designed by order of the late Bishop of 
Olba. 19 It was now executed at a cost of about $10,000. The old two story 
adobe house which stood between the present parsonage and the cathedral, and 
was currently said to be the First Catholic Chapel, built in 1828, was torn down 
after the completion of the new structure. It was probably constructed in 1846, 
as its dimensions (24 x 15) correspond to those of a house which according to 
Bishop Maigret's journal, was commenced on May 14, of said year. 20 (Cf. Ch. 
XIII quot. 36-40.J 

Under the erroneous impression then that the torn-down adobe house was the 

18 Letter of March 24, 1892. 

19 Letter of Bishop Gulstan, Sept. 17, 1892. Arch. M. H. 

20 If further proof were required to show that the house which stood on the spot now 
occupied by the statue of O. L. of Peace, was not the first chapel in which Father Bachelot 
celebrated Mass, the following extract from his relation in the "Lettres Lithographiees" will 
do: 

"As the chief who had informed us of our approaching departure had said: 'Tour house is 
yours, I don't want to take it; but the land belongs to me; break down the house if you 
want and sell the material: (notice, adds Father Bachelot, 'that the house was built of 
stone,') we have reasons to fear, etc. . . ." 

Now the above mentioned house was of adobe, and there could be no question of tear- 
ing it down and selling the material; nor would Father Bachelot have called adobe, stone. 
(L. L. vol. I, p. 34.) 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 229 

first Catholic chapel of Oceania, the Bishop erected on its site as a memorial a 
statue of Our Lady of Peace, which he blessed on December 24, 1893, the sixty- 
second anniversary of Father Bachelot's first expulsion. 21 

Bishop Gulstan was of a type opposite to that of his predecessor. The latter 
was of the aggressive, fighting type of a churchman ; the former, eminently kind 
and gentle of manner, was a lover of peace, and willing to make even heavy 
sacrifices to maintain it. 

It was this love of peace and fear of giving pain to others which made him 
hesitate in enforcing in his vicariate the condemnation by the Holy Office of the 
secret societies of the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, and the Sons of 
Temperance on June 24, 1894. The documents issued by the Holy See being 
addressed to the Bishops of the United States, his wish not to disturb the 
Catholics of his jurisdiction who were members of the condemned organizations, 
inclined him to the opinion that the proscription was limited to that country. 
Although confirmed in this opinion by Archbishop Riordan whom he had con- 
sulted, he remained perplexed. A letter of Card. Parocchi of January 18, 1896 
to the Apostolic Delegate in North America declared the three societies to be 
"intrinsically bad." This "intrinsical" badness was certainly not washed off by 
the waters of the ocean which separate Hawaii from the Continent. Still the 
Bishop continued to consider the Roman decree as of local and not of universal 
extension. But not wholly satisfied as to the soundness of his conclusions and 
obviously shy of Rome, he submitted the case to the Superior-General of the 
Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, who decided that since those secret societies 
had been condemned in the United States for being intrinsically bad, they could 
not be tolerated in Hawaii. 

Through procrastination the publication of the Roman decree had not grown 
any easier, and the Vicar Apostolic decided to wait for some favorable oppor- 
tunity. This offered when in the autumn of 1901 he had invited two Jesuit 
Fathers from St. Louis to preach a mission to the English speaking population 
of the vicariate, at the occasion of the Jubilee. During the course of the mission, 
one of the missionaries publicly read the decree condemning the three societies, 
and explained the reasons of the Church's opposition to them. 

The measure was well received by the interested Catholics, who either entirely 
broke with the societies, or, taking the benefit of the concessions contained in the 
letter of Card. Parocchi, Jan. 18, 1896, having become members in good faith 
before the condemnation, merely continued having their names on the roll, and 
paying their dues, without any further participation. 

Having successfully terminated their mission at the capital, the two mission- 
ers, Fathers Boarman and McGiviney went to Hilo and Wailuku, the only two 
places on the group where a sufficient English speaking audience could be had. 
Their pious efforts were crowned with considerable success. 

The better to counteract the baneful influence of secret societies, Bishop 
Gulstan had contemplated the introduction iu his vicariate of some Catholic 
benevolent organization. In consequence three councils of the Young Men's 
Institute were successively established under his auspices, at Honolulu (January 
3, 1901), Wailuku (July 7, 1902) and Hilo (October 1901). The last two, 
Gulstan Council and Francis Council were named after him. 

BROTHERS INFIRMARIANS. After Father Damien's death the Fran- 
ciscan Sisters had taken care of the home for boys begun by him at the village 
of Kalawao, whilst others were in charge of the girls' home situated at Kalau- 

21 Gulstan's letter to Bousquet, January 1, 1894. 



230 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

papa. It had been thought for some time that it might be advantageous to replace 
the Sisters at the former institution by male infirmarians, and as a result of the 
discussions on this subject, the Government in February 1895 applied to Bishop 
Gulstan for four brothers infirmarians. It offered to pay the traveling expenses 
of the Religious, to furnish them with board and lodging, and pay them a 
nominal salary of $20 a month. 

The Bishop immediately transmitted the request to the Superior-General of 
his congregation, and strongly insisted that it be accepted. 22 He soon afterwards 
decided to make his visit "ad limina", which would offer him an opportunity per- 
sonally to attend to the aforesaid matter which he considered of great importance. 

Consequently he announced his approaching departure to his clergy, informing 
them at the same time that he had affiliated the Mission with the Work of the 
Sacred Heart of Montmartre, and had fixed upon September the 25th, the anni- 
versary of his consecration, as the day annually to be solemnized by the ex- 
position of the Blessed Sacrament in the principal churches of the vicariate, as 
far as the circumstances allowed. 

Having nominated Father Cornelius (Matthias) Limburg as his pro-vicar, the 
Bishop embarked for France in company with Father Hubert Stappers, and a 
Portuguese youth, Peter Alencastre, who was to make his studies for the priest- 
hood at Louvain, Belgium. 

During this voyage Bishop Gulstan showed his devotion to the priests of his 
jurisdiction by paying a visit to each one's family, which caused him to journey 
through France, Germany, Belgium and Holland. 

On his return, November 16, of the same year, he was accompanied by 
Father Pamphile De Veuster, Father Damien's brother; one choir brother and 
four lay brothers, all of whom were destined for the Leper settlement; and a sub 
deacon, Aloys Lorteau, whom he ordained priest in the spring of the ensuing year. 
According to arrangements 'previously made with the Board of Health, the 
Brothers were given care of the Bishop's Home for Boys. Father Pamphile took 
the place of Father Conrarcly, who, repeatedly having had difficulties with the 
Board, and who, for being a zealous and devoted man, was disliked by many on 
account of his unconventional ways and somewhat bizarre views, was requested 
by the Vicar Apostolic to retire. 

Father Pamphile being an elderly man at the time of his arrival, and a re- 
markable scholar rather than a man of action, could not get accustomed to the new 
surroundings, and returned to Belgium, August 25, 1897. 

SCHOOLS. Bishop Gulstan, like his predecessor, took considerable interest 
in the Catholic schools. He erected a girls' school at Hilo, which he entrusted 
to the Franciscan Sisters, four of whom he personally installed there in September 
1900. At Honolulu he built a free school for boys (St. Francis School) in con- 
nection with St. Louis College (September 1893) ; whilst the Sisters of the 
Sacred Hearts improved their buildings about the same time by the construction 
at a cost of $30,000 of a fine concrete schoolhouse (1901). 

FATHER WENDELIN AND THE BOARD OF HEALTH. On Decem- 
ber 4th, 1901, Pilipo Mikila, a leprous native, and one Kalani, left the settlement 
in violation of the regulations of the Board of Health. The local captain of police, 
believing that they had been stealing sheep, arrested them on their return, and 
put them in jail. Kalani made a confession and was put in a light, airy cell. 
Mikila denied guilt, and as a punishment, was put in a cell with no outside win- 

22 Letter to V. R. Bousquet, February 15, 1895; Arch. M. H. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 231 

dow, comparatively dark and poorly ventilated. Until March 12th, 1902, he was 
not arraigned on any charge, and no written accusation was made against him. 
He was in an advanced state of leprosy when he was arrested, and grew even 
worse during his detainment. On the last day mentioned, he was taken home by 
the members of a society to which he belonged. He died six days later. He had 
no proper care before leaving the jail, and no medical attention, worthy of the 
name at any time. 

Complaints were made about this heartless and illegal treatment to the 
Attorney-General, and after an investigation, C. W. Reynolds, the superintendent 
of the settlement, and Dr. Oliver, the local physician were discharged for official 
neglect. 

It was a surprise to the public that at the same meeting of the Board of 
Health in which these resolutions were carried, it was similarly resolved "that the 
harmony and interests of the leper settlement would be promoted by the removal 
of Father Wendelin, (the priest in charge of the Catholic congregation among 
the lepers since Father Damien's death (cf. Ch. XVII) and that the 
Right Reverend Gulstan, Bishop of Panopolis, be requested to remove him forth- 
with and appoint some other priest to fill the vacancy made thereby." 

This summary action of the Board without any explanation at the time it was 
dealing with a scandal calling for removal of officers, made it appear that the 
Father was mixed up in the affair, in which however he had absolutely no 
concern. 

In answering the communication of the Board, the Bishop asked that charges 
against the priest be formulated and proved, and declared himself willing and 
ready subsequently to remove him; but he added that he could not comply with 
the Board's injunction as actually communicated, as it would be doing wrong to a 
presumably innocent man. 

The Board refused to prefer any charges, but determined that the permit 
of Father Wendelin to remain at the settlement be revoked, to take effect June 10, 
1902, and thus informed the Bishop. 

This action of the Board was prompted through complaints made by Super- 
intendent Reynolds, who had accused the priest of interference with his manage- 
ment. The accusations were either so slight or so ill-founded, that the Board 
did not care to prefer them, even to the Bishop; they were subsequently com- 
municated to the United States Senators, members of the Committee on Pacific 
Islands and Porto-Rico. 23 

At that time over a hundred couples were living in concubinage or adultery 
at the settlement, 24 and this unrestricted illegitimate association of the leper 
patients was permitted by those in charge of or having control of the leper settle- 
ment. 25 

Father Wendelin admitted having preached, not against the Board of Health, 
but against this shameful immorality, and the performance of public work ordered 
to be done on Sunday without any urgent necessity. 20 

The persistence of the Board in demanding the removal of Father Wendelin, 
without preferring any charges against him, excited general indignation at Hono- 
lulu. 

At the time the Board formulated its resolutions, Bishop Gulstan was absent 

23 Hawaiian Investigation, part 2, pp. 285, 286. 

24 Hawaiian Investigation, part 2, p. 282. 

25 Hawaiian Investigation. Report of Subcommittee on Pacific Islands and Porto Rico on 
General Conditions in Hawaii, p. 63. 

26 Hawaiian Star, April 28, 1902. 



232 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

on the island of Kauai, but the priests of the Mission were unanimous in con- 
demning the action of the Board. 

The central committee of the Republican party passed a resolution declaring 
it to be its sense "that the Board of Health would promote the public good and 
the peace and welfare of the Leper Settlement by reconsidering its resolution in 
reference to the removal of Father Wendelin." 27 

The executive committee of the Home Rule Party characterized the Board's 
action against the priest as "arbitrary and indefensible in the common inter- 
ests." 28 

The Catholic societies were up in arms against the Board of Health, and 
planned organized action to force it to rescind its arbitrary order. Meetings to 
this effect were held by the Catholic Benevolent Union, Damien's Council of the 
Young Men's Institute, the Portuguese Literary and Educational Club, and the 
Portuguese societies Concordia, Santo Antonio and Lusitana. The latter two 
societies which have large memberships, resolved to strike the name of Dr. Slog- 
gett, the president of the Board, from their list of physicians ; a very forcible 
and efficacious argument. 29 

Even the members of the Protestant Ministerial Union promised that they 
would take a hand at their next meeting, as many of them were in sympathy with 
the Catholics. 30 

Whilst thus the public feeling against the Board of Health was daily running 
higher, and this body was on the point of caving, a compromise was reached 
between it and the Bishop of Panopolis. On May 13, the Bishop once more 
addressed the Board, admitting its power to remove from the settlement Father 
Wendelin or any other member of the Mission, and declared that "if by his 
actions he had become a discordant element, and these actions were brought to his 
attention, he should feel it his duty to cooperate with the Board in bringing about 
his removal." However, he requested that Father Wendelin be retained in view 
of his long and faithful services at the settlement. 31 

The ensuing day the Board resolved that "out of respect for the Bishop and 
in appreciation of the charitable objects of the Catholic mission at the settlement, 
this request be granted on the distinct understanding that Father Wendelin attend 
strictly to his clerical duties in the future. . ," 32 

But Father Wendelin was not of the opinion that he could "strictly adhere 
to his clerical duties," without preaching against immorality and the breaking of 
the Sabbath, and requested the Bishop to be relieved of his charge. 

His request was granted, but the Bishop wanted him to remain at his post 
until the annual retreat, that in the meantime he might lok for one fit to fill the 
position. 

On September 23, Father Wendelin left the settlement to follow the spiritual 
exercises at Honolulu, and shortly afterwards was assigned to the mission work 
on the island of Molokai, south of the mountain range which separates the settle- 
ment from the remainder of the island. His place at the leper colony was filled 
by Father Maxime Andre, who theretofore had been in charge of the Hilo 
mission. 33 



27 Independent, April 28; Gazette, May 6, 1902. 

28 Evening Bulletin, May 14, 1902. 

29 Independent, May 14, 1902. 

30 Evening Bulletin, May 12, 1902. 

31 Haw. Invest., part 2, p. 290. 

32 Ibidem, p. 291. 

33 Cf. Hawaiian Investigation, part 2, pp. 276-293; 309-313; and Hawaiian Investigation, 
Report of Subcommittee on Pacific Islands and Porto Rico on General Conditions in Hawaii, 
pp. 63 and following. Father Maxime remained on his post of honor till his death on Jan. 
1, 1927, in the ripe age of 83 years. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 233 

Bishop Gulstan was assiduous until the end in visiting his extensive vicariate, 
notwithstanding the cruel sufferings which a cancer in the stomach had caused 
him since September 1898. 34 

In the summer of 1902 he made a trip to San Francisco and Lower California, 
partly for business and partly for the benefit of his declining health. Upon his 
return to Honolulu it was seen that his health was no better, and a physical fail- 
ing began to be apparent to those around him. Unconscious of the character of 
the disease which carried him to the grave, he kept up the delusion that some rest 
and good nourishment would restore him to health. 35 

With this end in view he went to Hilo in the beginning of December 1902, 
there to install the author of the present volume, who had then recently arrived 
from Belgium. 

There the Prelate became acquainted with the true nature of his sickness, and 
the nearness of its fatal issue. The information thus imprudently communicated 
prostrated the venerable Bishop. For a couple of weeks he hovered between life 
and death, and then rallied sufficiently to be conveyed aboard a steamer and 
taken back to Honolulu. 

Having edified all who approached him during his last sickness by his great 
patience and piety, he finally succumbed on the 4th of Januaiy 1903, having 
made no enemies. 



34 His letter to Bousquet, September 27, 1898. Arch. M. H. 

35 Letter to same, November 10, 1902. Arch. M. H. 



234 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Episcopate of Bishop Libert 

Bishop Libert. Kalihi Orphanage. Wailuku Orphanage. Father Louis Boys' 
Home. New Churches. Kaimuki Academy. St. Louis College. K. C. Building. 
Filipino Immigration. Apostolate among Orientals. Death of Bishop Libert. 

When the truth concerning his health which had so long been kept hidden 
from him, was revealed to Bishop Gulstan, he hastened to appoint a pro-vicar. His 
choice fell on Father Libert, who was then in charge of the Wailuku Mission. 
Thus he designated, as far as he was allowed, his successor, and after his death, 
the Holy See confirmed his choice by electing the Pro-Vicar to the titular see of 
Zeugma, and appointing him Vicar-Apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands. The brief 
of election was dated April 6, 1903, but it was not till May 12th following that 
news of Father Libert's elevation to the episcopate reached Honolulu. 

Hubert John Louis Boeynaems was born at Antwerp, Belgium, on August 18, 
1857. Having completed his classical studies at the seminary of Mechlin, he 
entered the novitiate of the Picpus Fathers at Louvain, and at its termination was 
admitted to the profession of the vows in the motherhouse of the Congregation 
at Paris, on May 10, 1877, as Brother Libert. Back at Louvain he devoted four 
years to the study of philosophy and theology. Ordained a priest on September 
11, 1881, he was sent to the Hawaiian Islands, where he arrived November 28 
of the same year. For fourteen years Father Libert exercised the ministry on the 
island of Kauai; he was put in charge of Wailuku Mission in April 1895, from 
whence the dying .Bishop of Panapolis called him to become his pro-vicar. He 
received the episcopal consecration at San Francisco, July 25, 1903. 

The new prelate adopted as his coat of arms : "azure, a heart gules on a cross 
couped d'argent," the colors representing those of the Hawaiian Territory, the 
cross and heart symbolizing the device: Lahore et Caritate, which the Prelate 
wanted to be his rule of administration. 

Bishop Libert was of a very conservative nature. In view of the rapid growth 
his Vicariate was to experience within the next quarter of a century, both in 
population and enterprise, this conservatism which caused him to be opposed to 
changes and innovations, acting as a check on the initiative of the more impetuous 
members of the clergy, prevented hasty action, and brought about a steady and 
solid development. 

His very pronounced inclination for carpentering caused him to take a personal 
interest in the building of churches and other institutions which could not be ac- 
complished without his approval. His great solicitude for the Kalihi Orphanage 
where for many years he passed his week ends, must be attributed to this propen- 
sity for manual labor. 

This orphanage, the acute need for which had been felt for years, was opened 
in Kalihi Valley on October 3, 1909. It is dedicated to Saint Anthony and from 
the beginning was put in charge of the Sisters of the Sacred Hearts . 

Up till 1918 the Catholic Mission almost exclusively defrayed all the expenses 
of this charitable institution. From that time on however it receives its share 
of the General Welfare Drive. The guardians of the inmates are expected to 
pay some modest contribution, if it is in their power. At the time of 
writing this chapter, there are over a hundred children in this Home. Larger 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 235 

buildings are urgently needed, as now for lack of accommodations, numerous 
applications for admission have to be turned down. 

Another orphanage, also under the protection of Saint Anthony, has been 
opened at Wailuku through the untiring efforts of Father Justin van Schaijk, 
who since 1912 has been in charge of the Wailuku Mission, which he has per- 
sistingly and wonderfully improved, sacrificing much of his own comfort and 
peace of mind to the realization of his lofty ideals. This orphanage was opened 
on March 19, 1923. It is under the care of the Franciscan Sisters of Syracuse. 
Thanks to their disinterested devotion, to the unflagging concern of the worthy 
Pastor, and the generous aid, both official and private, lent by the inhabitants of 
Maui of all denominations, 'this institution rejoices in a steady and sturdy growth. 

At Hilo, on the Big Island, a somewhat similar institution has attracted the 
attention of both Islanders and visitors from the Mainland. It is Father Louis 
Boys' Home. Father Aloysius Borghout had been for many years curate of 
St. Joseph's Church at that locality. His interest in erring boys caused him to 
be appointed probation officer. At times having on his hands orphans or de- 
pendent boys for whom he could not find a proper home, he housed them at the 
rectory, and provided for them from his salary as a probation officer. Soon their 
number grew and it became impracticable to keep them at the Mission. A home 
was built for them on the premises of the Brothers' School. It was opened on 
the 16th of September, 1916. 

Since then many additions and improvements have been made, and it is 
now considered a model institution of its kind. Father Louis has no employees 
or assistants. The sixty boys who at present are the inmates of the institution, 
cook their own bread, raise their own vegetables, prepare their own meals, wash 
and repair their own clothes, make their own beds, and so on. 

And everything is spick and span as in a nunnery. The expenses of the 
establishment are met by a share in the General Welfare Drive, a County sub- 
sidy and private contributions. 

Of the many churches which were constructed during the administration of 
Bishop Libert, four deserve special mention. 

The Sacred Heart Church on Wilder Avenue, Honolulu, was built by Father 
Stephen Alencastre, the present Vicar-Apostolic. It is entirely constructed of 
blue stone, and has a sitting capacity of over four hundred people. Its beautiful 
stained glass windows were imported from France. The church was blessed on 
the 1st of November, 1914. It took the place of a small wooden church also 
dedicated to the Sacred Heart, and situated somewhat further on Wilder Avenue. 

The Bachelot Hall constructed of the same material and in the same style as 
the church, was added in 1923. (Dedicated June 23.) 

In Hilo Father James Beissel erected a lasting monument to his memory when 
he built the new St. Joseph's Church and rectory on the corner of Kapiolani and 
Haili Streets. This beautiful concrete structure is in the Spanish style; the 
simple but pleasing stained glass windows were made in the United States. Its 
blessing took place in February, 1919. The former St. Joseph's Church with 
its two steeples which served as a beacon to navigators entering Hilo Bay, 
stood further down town near the corner of Waianuenue and Keawe Streets. 

St. Anthony's Church at Wailuku was enlarged and practically rebuilt by 
Father Justin van Schaijk in 1920. It was blessed on the llth of April of that 
year. It vies in beauty with the other churches we have mentioned, but its sur- 
roundings give it a more monumental aspect. 

A splendid school for boys, built in cement bricks, was added to the Wailuku 



236 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Mission complex in October 1925. It replaced advantageously the delapidated 
wooden structure which had outlived its usefulness as a school building, which has 
however been repaired and serves now as an additional dormitory for the orphan- 
age. The new rectory needed for years, but always postponed till "more neces- 
sary" constructions would have been completed, has also finally become a reality. 

After half a century of unremitting toil in the education of Hawaii's maiden- 
hood, the Sisters of the Sacred Hearts felt the necessity of opening a higher in- 
stitution of learning. A large, unimproved lot on Waialae Road, between 5th and 
6th Avenues was acquired, and an impressive concrete building was thereon 
erected to serve as an academy. The work carefully supervised by Bishop Libert, 
was practically completed in the summer of 1909. On September 5th the school 
was solemnly dedicated and blessed by His Lordship. The classes opened on 
September 13, though the accommodations were by far inadequate. The school 
started with thirty-three boarders and twenty day scholars. 

Sister Constantine acted as Superior under Mother Mary-Lawrence. Her 
place was taken in November 1916 by Mother Louise-Henriette who arrived from 
Massachusetts to be the first Superior resident at Kaimuki. Under her guid- 
ance the institution progressed by leaps and bounds. The grounds from a rocky 
and barren place were turned into beautiful gardens. The school attendance soon 
doubled, and after three years it became an absolute necessity to build a new 
wing in order to accommodate the ever increasing number of pupils. This addi- 
tion included an auditorium, a chapel and apartments for the Sisters. It was 
completed in the summer of 1920, and on August 15 the new chapel was blessed 
and given the name of St. Margaret Mary. This chapel, although offering a 
sitting capacity for 400 people, whilst the chaplain is saying two Masses on Sun- 
days, proves entirely too small for the growing population of Kaimuki. A much 
larger church will be constructed which will be dedicated to St. Patrick. 

On the opposite side of the convent a second new wing was constructed 
in the summer of 1926. 

Saint Louis College kept pace with the growing population. A dining hall 
to accommodate the boarders was erected in 1904; in 1911 a study hall with dor- 
mitories was added. A large two-story concrete schoolhouse was built in 1914 on 
River Street between St. Francis School and the principal entrance. In 1923 a 
two-classroom bungalow was constructed to allow the taking in of an additional 
one hundred pupils, the number of whom at the end of the school year 1926 
amounted to 1220, including seventy boarders. 

Several other churches and recreation halls have been built during the admin- 
istration of Bishop Libert. It is not possible to make separate mention of them 
all. In the following chapter the date of their erection will be given in the list 
of churches. 

The K. C. Building, however, cannot be so summarily dismissed. 

K. C. BUILDING. 

In 1919 the Knights of Columbus resolved to extend to the Hawaiian Islands 
the welfare work among the service men which since the entrance of the United 
States in the Great War, they had so successfully maintained on the mainland 
and in the belligerent countries. 

It was first thought to erect a hut at Schofield Barracks, some twenty miles 
from Honolulu. But as the military authorities refused the necessary consent, it 
was decided to open a club at Honolulu. After protracted oral deliberations, 
arrangements in writing were made on November 7, 1919 with Bishop Libert 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 237 

Boeynaems whereby the Catholic Church in the Territory of Hawaii demised 
and leased to the Knights of Columbus a parcel of land, part of the Cathedral 
premises, to have and to hold for the term of 19 years and eleven months, 
beginning November 1, 1919, yielding and paying therefor rent at the rate 
of one dollar per annum, the lessee covenanting that it would, within a year 
from that date and at its own expense erect upon the demised premises a 
building of at least two stories in height, suitable for the usual purposes of a 
Knights of Columbus building, and intended for service in the moral, physical, 
intellectual and religious improvement of men and women. 

For this purpose the Knights appropriated a sum of $50,000 from their pre- 
drive fund, which sum was then held in trust by Archbishop Hanna of San 
Francisco. 

Father Bachelot's algaroba tree which was standing at the Mission entrance 
on Fort Street, was cut down on Oct. 23, 1919 to make room for the projected 
building. The limbless trunk was again put up at the Beretania entrance of the 
Mission. On its spot arose soon afterward a huge, three-story reinforced con- 
crete pile, which toward the end of May of the following year was ready for 
occupancy. On the 29th of that month the formal dedication of the magnificent 
structure took place. 

The social service work for the soldiers and sailors began by the secretaries of 
the K.C. on the 1st of February at the University Club, was now transferred 
hither. Thousands of service men found hospitality and entertainment within its 
portals. 

Work of the K.C. clubs had ceased on the mainland sometime previous. 
Because of the fact that in Hawaii and possessions of the United States the 
change back to normalcy was slower, the club here and some other clubs were 
kept in existence longer. 

However on December 31, 1920, Albert G. Bagley, Department Director of 
K.C. War Activities at San Francisco informed Bishop Boeynaems that the 
Knights were to discontinue their activities in Honolulu, and that in the end of 
February following the building would be turned over to him. Consequently on 
March 21, 1921 they surrendered and terminated the lease of November 7, 1919, 
and gave, granted, bargained and conveyed unto the Roman Catholic Church in 
the Territory of Hawaii the building erected on the therein mentioned premises. 
On August 13, of the same year authority was moreover granted to retain all 
the furnishings and fittings contained therein. 

For the utilization of the building which in this way had become the property 
of the Catholic Mission, a Columbus Welfare Club was formed on the 3d of 
May, 1921, said club being composed of adult Catholics for the purpose of 
promoting such activities as pertain to the general welfare of the local Catholic 
community. 

On April 7, 1922, the name of the Club was changed into that of Columbus 
Welfare Association, under which it is presently known. The preceding year the 
organization had been denied a share in the General Welfare Drive, as it was held 
that it was duplicating existing organizations as the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. 
In 1922, however, the application having been renewed, notification was received 
that henceforward the Columbus Welfare Association was to be included in the 
United Welfare Campaign. 



238 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

The mere fact that in the last few years so many beautiful churches were 
built in concrete and the repeated mention of stained glass windows, are indica- 
tions of the material prosperity which the Hawaiian Islands have been enjoying, 
and in which the Catholics naturally had their share, albeit they belong almost 
exclusively to the less favored classes. In the past the missionaries had relied for 
the building of their churches, the maintenance of their schools and their own 
support, on the subsidies granted by the Societies for the Propagation of the 
Faith and of the Holy Childhood. The Hawaiian Mission during the century of 
its existence has received over one million dollars from this double source. Some 
return was made to these societies by taking up annually a collection for their 
benefit, but before 1914 these collections never amounted to more than $900. 
However when the War began to react on the Missions, and S.O.S. calls from the 
missionaries grew louder and more frequent, the Catholics of Hawaii did not turn 
deaf ears to these cries of distress. Every year their contributions for the 
Foreign Missions grew: in 1914, $918.25; in 1915, $1088.90; in 1916, $1333.25; 
in 1917, $1305.60; in 1918, $3479.34; in 1919, $4052.49; in 1920, $5379.70; and 
in 1921, $7012.01. After that the amount remained about stationary. The 
Mission then began to return somewhat more than it received, and began to have 
a feeling of comfort, as if self-supporting. The Filipino immigration of which we 
have to speak now, soon upset this nicely balanced state of affairs. 

About the beginning of 1910 the planters began to import laborers from the 
Philippine Islands. The greater part of them being bachelors, and rather indiffer- 
ent Catholics, they did not create much of a problem in the first few years. 
However, the immigration continued; married couples and girls were brought, 
till now in June, 1926, there are 50,000 Filipinos in the Territory of Hawaii, 
mostly Visayans, Tagalogs and Ilocanos. Especially among those of the latter 
tribe are many Aglipayans or as, they call themselves, Independientes ; schismatics 
then rather than Roman Catholics. 

The great majority of the Filipino Catholics in these Islands are poorly in- 
structed in their religion. As they were born and raised during the years of the 
rebellion against Spain and the consequent war with the United States, which 
disturbances brought about the exodus of about 5/8 of their religious teachers, 
this is certainly not surprising. Still they are strongly attached to the old 
religion which the Spaniards brought them together with the benefits of civiliza- 
tion, and are careful to have the Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation 
administered to their children. Although not very faithful in attending Mass 
themselves, they have a great devotion in having Masses offered for the souls of 
their departed relatives and in honor of their favorite Saints. They also dearly 
love religious processions, especially during the month of May. 

From the beginning the Fathers were assiduous in visiting their camps and 
in inviting them to the divine services, speaking to them in Spanish or in pidgin- 
English. In Honolulu three small Filipino centers were established to attract and 
instruct the children. In Iwilei is the modest Catholic Filipino Clubhouse to which 
a kindergarten is attached. If the appearance of this clubhouse is modest on account 
of the very restricted means of those in charge of it, it is a focus of great activity. 
Two other centers, San Jose in Kalihi-kai, and Santa Thecla on Liliha Street we have 
been unable to keep up. Presently plans are made and money is being saved for 
the purpose of erecting a large and durable church in honor of Saint Vincent 
Ferrer on School Street for the Filipinos who live by preference in that part 
of the city. The Very Reverend Father Victorinus Claesen whom they seem to 
have elected by silent but unanimous consent as their spiritual leader, is in charge 
of those various activities. He is ably assisted by a staff of zealous catechists, 
one of whom, Christian Andrews, was rewarded by the Holy Father in 1926 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 239 

with the golden cross "Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice." The latter catechist is authority 
for the statement that "while before these activities began a Filipino never went 
to the Sacraments, now there are very many making their Easter duties, whilst 
quite a few approach the Holy Table monthly and even weekly." 

In the past it has not been possible to do much for the conversion of the 
Orientals in our midst. Saint Louis College and the other Catholic schools 
have been the means of bringing a number of Chinese young people to the 
Church. A Chinese Sodality was erected in the College in 1915 which counts 
now 73 members although it does not comprise all the Catholic Chinese pupils of 
the school, but only those of the higher grades. A Catholic Chinese Club recently 
established in the Cathedral, wishes to get hold of those young people of their 
race who have left school. It counts at present some 40 members. A recently 
established Chinese Catholic Ladies' Society endeavors to do the same for 
those of their sex. In all there are some 1200 Chinese Catholics in the group. 

Unlike the Chinese, Japanese parents have been always satisfied with the 
education offered by the Public Schools. In consequence but few converts of 
that nationality came from our schools. In 1923 the Catholic Instruction League 
was founded, which consists of volunteer lay catechists who after working hours 
go in the slums and suburbs trying to teach catechism to those children who do 
neither go to the Catholic schools nor to the regular catechism classes for the 
pupils of the Public schools. Besides Catholic children these catechists soon suc- 
ceeded in attracting some Japanese youngsters. Teresa Chinen was the first 
convert thus made. She was baptized and made her first Communion on the 
feast of the Epiphany, 1924. In the month of April following she stood god- 
mother for her little pals, Teresa and Christian Yamamoto. In October, 1925, 
fourteen more children of Nippon were baptized, one of whom was an adult, to 
wit, the mother of Teresa Chinen. Fourteen at that time was thought to be a big 
crowd. But in March, 1926, fifty-four Orientals were admitted to the Church in 
Honolulu alone. Three of these were Koreans, the rest all Japanese. In May 
five more entered into the Fold, and a goodly number follow the catechism 
classes as a preparation for the reception of Baptism. The impetus is given, and 
great expectations are entertained for the future. In all we count now some 600 
Japanese Catholics in the Islands, besides about one hundred Koreans. The 
children of the Flowery Kingdom make very devout Christians. 

In 1922 it became evident that Bishop Libert was suffering from heart 
disease. As the disease progressed he could not perform his duties any more, 
and applied to the Holy See for a coadjutor. After some delay Father Stephen 
Alencastre was appointed Bishop of Arabissus on the 29th of April, 1924, and 
given to Bishop Libert as coadjutor with right of succession. 

A couple of days before the feast of the Ascension, 1926, Bishop Libert 
had gone to the Kalihi Orphanage as was his wont. Almost immediately after 
he got a touch of the flu, and his physician considered it advisable to take 
him to the hospital. In the afternoon of the Ascension having gone there, he 
died at 7:15 in the evening having received Extreme Unction .in the abbreviated 
form from the hands of his coadjutor who had been hurriedly telephoned for. 
The obsequies took place on the following Monday, May 17, the remains being 
interred above those of Bishop Herman Koeckemann on the King street ceme- 
tery. 



240 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER XX 
Bishop Stephen's Accession. Actual Status of the Mission 

Bishop Stephen Aleneastre. Erection of Curia. Missionaries. Districts and 
Churches. Catholic Population. Schools. Catholic Societies. Religious Papers. 

At the death of Bishop Libert, Bishop Stephen Aleneastre, having been 
previously appointed his coadjutor with right of succession, became automati- 
cally Vicar-Apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Born November 3, 1876, on the little island of Porto Santo, near Madeira, 
he received at baptism the name of Peter. In 1882 the family came to 
Hawaii, where they lived successively on the Big Island, on Kauai, on Maui, 
and finally at Honolulu. It was, at Hana, Maui, that the little Peter took the 
first steps on. the road which was to lead unto the episcopate, by becoming the 
mission boy of Father Anschaire, who in those days was working strenuously 
at the conversion of the Japanese, in whose language he had become wonder- 
fully proficient. When the family moved to Honolulu, Peter became the 
mission boy of Father Leonore, and went to school at St. Louis College. In 
the summer of 1895 he accompanied Bishop Gulstan on his voyage to Europe, 
and entered the novitiate of the Fathers of the Sacred Hearts at Louvain. As 
in the autumn of that same year the novitiate was transferred to Courtrai, it 
was in this place that he finished his time of probation. Having made his 
religious profession at Louvain on the 20th of April, 1896, he returned to 
Courtrai to make his studies for the priesthood. In the autumn of 1898 he 
was again sent to Louvain for the continuation of his theological studies. He 
had contracted, however, a catarrh of the lungs, which, it was feared, might 
develop in tuberculosis. In November of that same year he was therefore 
sent to the Apostolic School at Simpelveld, Holland, for a rest. When in the 
spring of the following year the physician declared him cured, it was deemed 
better not to expose him any longer to the inclemencies of the Northern cli- 
mate, but to allow him to return to Hawaii. Having arrived at Honolulu on 
the 26th of July, 1900, he was sent for a short time to Wailuku, returned again 
to Honolulu, where successively he was ordained sub-deacon, November 26, 
1900, deacon October 6, 1901, and priest April 5, 1902. From then on he was 
attached to the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, occasionally giving missions 
to his country men in the different islands. In 1913, after the death of Father 
Clement Evrard, he was given charge of the chapel of the Sacred Heart 
on Wilder Avenue, near Metcalf Avenue. Soon a larger church was deemed 
necessary, and Father Stephen started a campaign to collect funds for the 
execution of his plans. A lot was bought, also on Wilder Avenue, but some- 
what nearer town, opposite Punahou College, and there the first stone of the 
new Sacred Heart Church was laid on August 31, 1913. The building was 
erected in concrete blocks and has fine stained glass windows, made in 
Le Puys, France. The cost of the finished building, which was blessed on 
November 1st, 1914, was around $30,000. 

As we have said in the preceding chapter, Father Stephen was elected 
Bishop of Arabissus on April 29, 1924, and was consecrated by Bishop 




RT. REV. GULSTAN ROPERT, BISHOP OF PANOPOLIS 



240 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 



CHAPTER XX 
Bishop Stephen's Accession. Actual Status of the Mission 

Bishop Stephen Alencastre. Erection of Curia. Missionaries. Districts and 
Churches. Catholic Population. Schools. Catholic Societies. Religious Papers. 

At the death of Bishop Libert, Bishop Stephen Alencastre, having been 
previously appointed his coadjutor with right of succession, became automati- 
cally Vicar-Apostolic of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Born November 3, 1876, on the little island of Porto Santo, near Madeira, 
he received at baptism the name of Peter. In 1882 the family came to 
Hawaii, where they lived successively on the Big Island, on Kauai, on Maui, 
and finally at Honolulu. It was at liana, Maui, that the little Peter took the 
first steps on the road which was to lead unto the episcopate, by becoming the 
mission boy of Father Anschaire, who in those days was working strenuously 
at the conversion of the Japanese, in whose language he had become wonder- 
fully proficient. When the family moved to Honolulu, Peter became the 
mission boy of Father Leonore, and went to school at St. Louis College. In 
the summer of 1895 he accompanied Bishop Gulstan on his voyage to Europe, 
and entered the novitiate of the Fathers of the Sacred Hearts at Louvain. As 
in the autumn of that same year the novitiate was transferred to Courtrai, it 
was in this place that he finished his time of probation. Having made his 
religious profession at Louvain on the 20th of April, 1896, he returned to 
Courtrai to make his studies for the priesthood. In the autumn of 1898 he 
was again sent to Louvain for the continuation of his theological studies. He 
had contracted, however, a catarrh of the lungs, which, it was feared, might 
develop in tuberculosis. In November of that same year he was therefore 
sent to the Apostolic School at Simpelveld, Holland, for a rest. When in the 
spring of the following year the physician declared him cured, it was deemed 
better not to expose him any longer to the inclemencies of the Northern cli- 
mate, but to allow him to return to Hawaii. Having arrived at Honolulu on 
the 26th of July, 1900, he was sent for a short time to Wailuku, returned again 
to Honolulu, where successively he was ordained sub-deacon, November 26, 
1900, deacon October 6, 1901, and priest April 5, 1902. From then on he was 
attached to the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, occasionally giving missions 
to his country men in the different islands. In 1913, after the death of Father 
Clement Evrard, he was given charge of the chapel of the Sacred Heart 
on Wilder Avenue, near Metcalf Avenue. Soon a larger church was deemed 
necessary, and Father Stephen started a campaign to collect funds for the 
execution of his plans. A lot was bought, also on Wilder Avenue, but some- 
what nearer town, opposite Punahou College, and there the first stone of the 
new Sacred Heart Church was laid on August 31, 1913. The building was 
erected in concrete blocks and has fine stained glass windows, made in 
Le Puys, France. The cost of the finished building, which was blessed on 
November 1st, 1914, was around $30,000. 

As we have said in the preceding chapter. Father Stephen was elected 
Bishop of Arabissus on April 29, 1924, and was consecrated by Bishop 




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History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 241 

Cantwell at Los Angeles on the 24th of August of the same year. After the 
death of Bishop Libert, one of the first steps of the new Vicar Apostolic was 
to provide for a better administration of the Vicariate by appointing a vicar 
delegate, a chancellor, consultors, a defensor vinculi and general directors for 
the Apostleship, of Prayer and for the societies for the Propagation of the 
Faith and of the Holy Childhood. 

Having thus erected his curia, the Bishop left for the Continent, to attend 
the Eucharistic Congress of Chicago, and to promote the, affairs of his 
vicariate. 

In the autumn of 1926 he again made a voyage, to Rome this time, 
for the purpose of getting more laborers for his share of the Lord's vineyard. 
Having received permission of the Holy See he began negotiations with the 
Very Reverend Mgr. James A. Walsh, the founder and Superior General of the 
Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America (Maryknoll), and in conse- 
quence the first Maryknoller, Father W. S. Kress arrived at Honolulu on 
Febr. 4, 1927 and was put in charge of the Sacred Heart Church at Punahou. 

The missioners who assist the Vicar Apostolic in the ministrations of his 
flock, belong to the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts. Although 
yet sometimes styled members of the "French Mission," on account of previous 
historical associations, only two priests still claim France for the country of their 
birth. Like the population to whose spiritual needs they have to minister, they 
are of a cosmopolitan make-up. Of the 41 missionaries who form the present 
clergy, 14 are Belgians, 9 Dutch, 11 Germans, 2 French, 2 Portuguese, ITrish, 
1 Pole and 1 Luxemburger. 

On his arrival in the mission, the young missionary who through his early 
training has become acquainted with at least five languages, may lay some 
modest claim to polyglottous honors. Withal, ere he has been many hours 
in the Hawaiian Babel, he feels the inadequacy of his linguistic attainments; 
three more languages, English, Hawaiian and Portuguese, must be mastered 
in no long time, if he wishes to be of any use. Having become familiar with 
these three idioms which he needs imperatively and continually, he yet meets 
on every step with Catholics and those who wish to enter into the Church, who 
speak tongues radically different from those he has acquired. This endles's 
variety of languages which he ought to know, but will never be able to 
master, is the Hawaiian missionary's most encumbering handicap. 

A Protestant ex-minister of the monarchy in a report to the United States 
Congress thus pithingly characterizes the members of the Catholic Mission in 
Hawaii : 

"The Catholic missionaries in Hawaii strictly perform their ecclesiastical 
duties and do not mix in traffic nor politics. They worship the God of Heaven 
and not Mammon. They prefer sanctity to profanity; they admire religion 
and not wealth; and they are highly respected." 

The clergy finds efficient helpers in the members of the various religious 
orders, whose arrival we have narrated in preceding chapters : the laybrothers 
of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts (7), and the Sisters of the same 
Congregation (75) ; the Brothers of Mary whose provincial motherhouse is at 
Dayton, Ohio, and number 2 priests and 44 Brothers ; and the Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Francis from Syracuse, N. Y., 31 in number. Of their 
respective activities .mention will be made further on. 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 241 

Cantwell at Los Angeles on the 24th of August of the same year. After the 
death of Bishop Libert, one of the first steps of the new Vicar Apostolic was 
to provide for a better administration of the Vicariate by appointing a vicar 
delegate, a chancellor, consultors, a defensor vinculi and general directors for 
the Apostleship of Prayer and for the societies for the Propagation of the 
Faith and of the Holy Childhood. 

Having thus erected his curia, the Bishop left for the Continent, to attend 
the Eucharistic Congress of Chicago, and to promote the, affairs of his 
vicariate. 

In the autumn of 1926 he again made a voyage, to Rome this time, 
for the purpose of getting more laborers for his share of the Lord's vineyard. 
Having received permission of the Holy See he began negotiations with the 
Very Reverend Mgr. James A. Walsh, the founder and Superior General of the 
Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America (Maryknoll), and in conse- 
quence the first Maryknoller, Father W. S. Kress arrived at Honolulu on 
Febr. 4, 1927 and was put in charge of the Sacred Heart Church at Punahou. 

The missioners who assist the Vicar Apostolic in the ministi-ations of his 
flock, belong to the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts. Although 
yet sometimes styled members of the "French Mission," on account of previous 
historical associations, only two priests still claim France for the country of their 
birth. Like the population to whose spiritual needs they have to minister, they 
are of a cosmopolitan make-up. Of the 41 missionaries who form the present 
clergy, 14 are Belgians, 9 Dutch, 11 Germans, 2 French, 2 Portuguese, 1' Irish, 
1 Pole and 1 Luxemburger. 

On his arrival in the mission, the young missionary who through his early 
training has become acquainted with at least five languages, may lay some 
modest claim to polyglottous honors. Withal, ere he has been many hours 
in the Hawaiian Babel, he feels the inadequacy of his linguistic attainments ; 
three more languages, English, Hawaiian and Portuguese, must be mastered 
in no long time, if he wishes to be of any use. Having become familiar with 
these three idioms which he needs imperatively and continually, he yet meets 
on every step with Catholics and those who wish to enter into the Church, who 
speak tongues radically different from those he has acquired. This endless 
variety of languages which he ought to know, but will never be able to 
master, is the Hawaiian missionary's most encumbering handicap. 

A Protestant ex-minister of the monarchy in a report to the United States 
Congress thus pithingly characterizes the members of the Catholic Mission in 
Hawaii : 

"The Catholic missionaries in Hawaii strictly perform their ecclesiastical 
duties and do not mix in traffic nor politics. They worship the God of Heaven 
and not Mammon. They prefer sanctity to profanity; they admire religion 
and not wealth; and they are highly respected." 

The clergy finds efficient helpers in the members of the various religious 
orders, whose arrival we have narrated in preceding chapters : the laybrothers 
of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts (7), and the Sisters of the same 
Congregation (75) ; the Brothers of Mary whose provincial motherhouse is at 
Dayton, Ohio, and number 2 priests and 44 Brothers; and the Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Francis from Syracuse, N. Y., 31 in number. Of their 
respective activities mention will be made further on. 



242 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

DISTRICTS AND CHURCHES 

The Mission is at present divided in twenty-five districts. Five of these 
divisions are on the Island of Oahu : Honolulu, Aiea, Ewa, Waialua and Koolau. 

At Honolulu stands the simple but devout cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, 
erected in 1840-43 of coral blocks. It was Bishop Libert's plan to change the 
church gradually into a gothic edifice. With this end in view a concrete porch 
in that style was constructed in 1910. It was then realized that it would not 
be practical to collect sufficient funds entirely to materialize the plans, and it was 
decided to 'leave the building for the time being in its actual state ; a striking 
illustration of Luke XIV: 28-30. 

Further improvements were made, however, by the laying of a concrete floor 
and the placing of a new communion rail and new pews in 1912. In 1917 the 
wooden spire-topped belfry, which had become unsafe, was replaced by the 
present, low-pitched-roofed concrete tower. In the spring of 1926 the wood- 
work ravaged by termites was entirely renewed, and the beauty of the interior 
of the church became thereby greatly enhanced. Five thousand people attend 
Mass here every Sunday. 

Divine services are held furthermore in the following churches: The Sacred 
Heart Church at Punahou, a spacious and splendid church of concrete blocks, 
adorned with fine French stained glass windows, built through the efforts of the 
present Bishop. 

St. Augustine-on-the-Bcach, at Waikiki, is a neat and comfortable chapel 
entirely in lattice, and set in beautiful surroundings. 

St. John the Baptist at Kalihi-waena, also very neat, but not large enough 
for the growing population; Our Lady of the Mount at Kaiulani Tract, having 
an almost exclusively Portuguese congregation ; St. Anthony's, on Puuhale Road, 
built in 1916, to which belongs the little mission chapel of St. Joseph at Moanalua, 
in the beautiful park of Mr. S. Damon. 

There is furthermore St. Agnes-in-the-Palins on Kamani Street in Kewalo, 
which used to be a Protestant church, but was bought by the Mission, and 
blessed for Catholic worship on April 11, 1915; a very pretty little church. In 
Kaimuki on Sixth Avenue stands St. Margaret Mary's, a fine concrete building 
with artistic stained glass windows, made in Belgium. It is properly the chapel 
of the Academy of the Sacred Hearts of which it forms a wing. This place of 
worship was blessed August 15, 1920. It has a seating capacity of "four hundred 
people. The growth of the Kaimuki district has been so rapid that after only 
six years, St. Margaret's has grown inadequate. Building of a much larger 
edifice to be dedicated to St. Patrick is contemplated. It is to be located on 
the corner of Waialae Road and Sixth Avenue. 

Work on a church for the Filipinos to be named St. Vincent Ferrer will 
also begin in the immediate future. This church will be located on School 
Street. 

Mass may be heard moreover in the semi-public chapels of the Franciscan- 
Sisters on Liliha Street and of the Kapiolani Home. In the month of August, 
1926, the Bishop divided the City of Honolulu into nine quasi-parishes, this 
regulation to take effect on the first of January, 1927. The parish-churches are 
O. L. of Peace, the Sacred Heart, S. John-the-Baptist, St. Anthony, O. L. of 
the Mount, St. Agnes, St. Augustin. St. Patrick and St. Vincent. 

In the four outlying districts there are chapels at Ewa-Mill, Waipahu, Hono- 
uliuli and Waianae (district of Ewa) ; at Aiea and Puuloa (district of Aiea) ; at 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 243 

Waialua, Kahuku, and Kawailoa (Waialua district) ; and at Haleaha, Waikane 
and Heeia (Koolau district). 

The Island of Kauai is divided into three districts, West, South and East 
Kauai, with chapels at Waimea, Makaweli and Eleele; at Kalaheo, Koloa and 
Kapaia; and at Kealia, Kilauea and Hanalei. 

On Molokai there are two chapels in the leper settlement, in charge of as 
many priests, at Kalaupapa and at Kalawao. The first named, dedicated to St. 
Francis, was constructed in reinforced concrete in 1908 (blessed May 26, 1908) 
to replace the fine and large wooden structure planned and erected by Father 
Wendelin in 1899-1900, but entirely destroyed by fire on the afternoon of August 
12, 1906. 

The rest of the Island, practically the whole of it, as the leper settlement is 
only about 1/40 of the entire area, forms one extensive but thinly populated dis- 
trict only 300 Catholics with five chapels; at Kaluaaha, Kamalo, Moanui, 
Halawa, and Kaunakakai. 

M A U I has six districts with a total of 28 churches. At Wailuku is a 
splendid church which was blessed April 11, 1920. The pastor also looks after 
two chapels, one at Waihee and one at Waikapu. The Puunene district has but 
two chapels, at Puunene and at Spreckelsville. Paia, Kuau, Haiku and Keahu 
form the Paia district. A fine concrete church is now being built at Paia, and 
is nearly completed. To Makawao belong the chapels of Waiakoa, Kamaole, 
Ulupalaku and Huelo. 

Lahaina, the cradle of the Faith on Maui, has six mission chapels, Olowalu, 
Kaanapali, Honokohua, Honokohau, Kahakuloa, and Puukolii. The isolated Hana 
district has places of worship in the following seven localities: Puuiki, Kaupo, 
Kipahulu, Kaeleku, Nahiku, Keanae and Hana. 

HAWAII, the Big Island, is divided into nine missionary districts, as 
follows : 

Hilo-Town has an elegant concrete church in Spanish Mission style, built by 
Father James Beissel in 1919 on Haili Street. The former St. Joseph's church 
which stood on Keawe Street, between Waianuenue and Kalakaua streets and 
whose two steeples were a beacon for incoming vessels, was built in 1862, and 
was blessed on the 9th of September of that year. It was enlarged and given 
new steeples in 1905. 

There is also a chapel dedicated to the Holy Angels (at the Sisters School 
on Kapiolani Street), and a third small chapel at Kaiwiki, erected in honor of 
St. Anthony. 

The Honomu district has very neat churches at Honomu, Papaikou and 
Hakalau. The churches of Papaaloa, Waikaumalo (Ninole) and Ookala, now in 
charge of the priests of Honomu and Honokaa, will be formed soon into a 
separate district, with a priest's residence at Papaaloa. The Honokaa district 
comprises the churches .of Honokaa, Kukuihaele, Waipio, Kukaiau, and Kalopa. 
The Waimea chapel which presently is under charge of the Kohala priest, will 
probably soon be attached also to the Honokaa district. 

The north point of Hawaii is named Kohala. This district contains the 
following chapels; Hawi, Hawi-Homesteads, Kapaau, Halawa, Waiapuka and 
Waimea. 

On the West side of Hawaii we have two districts, North and South Kona, 
rich in historical associations, but poor in natural resources. Holualoa, Kailua, 
Laaloa, Kawanui, Kalaoa, Kealakekua and Kahalui belong to the former, Honau- 
nau, Napoopoo, Pahoehoe, and Kealia to the latter district. 



244 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

To the south of the island we have the district of Kau with chapels at 
Waiohinu, Hilea, Pahala and Honuapo. 

Puna, finally, has chapels at Pahoa, Olaa (9 miles), Olaa (11 miles), 
Mountain View, Kalapana, Malama and Kapoho. 

Together with the chapel of St. Louis College at Honolulu, which is not 
public, there are in the Vicariate 113 churches and chapels wherewith to accom- 
modate a population of well over one hundred thousand Catholics. 



POPULATION 

At the end of June, 1926, there were in Hawaii approximately 105,922 Cath- 
olics out of a total population of 328,444. According to nationalities they were 
divided as follows : 

Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians 14,830 

Portuguese 27,170 

Spaniards .., 1,700 

Porto Ricans 6,300 

Filipinos 48,000 

Nordics (i.e. Caucasians not of the Latin race) 6,022 

Chinese 1,200 

Japanese 600 

Koreans 100 



105,922 

Catholic soldiers and sailors are not included in this number. There may be 
some three thousand of them, which would bring the total of Catholics in 
Hawaii to 109,000. 

SCHOOLS. 

Thanks to the indefatigable devotion of the saintly members of the religious 
teaching orders, the Catholic schools in the Vicariate are continually gaining in 
efficiency, in the number of pupils, in equipment and in permanent improvements. 

We cannot give adequate praise to these humble men and women who, sacrific- 
ing whatever pleasures and advantages the world has to offer, devote all their 
talents, energy and time to educate without pay or hope of earthly reward, but 
merely for the sake of Christ the often unattractive progeny of unknown 
parents, to whom they are not related by any ties, either of blood, friendship or 
interest. The world takes no notice of them, though they are its salt and leaven. 
Unaware of success, not seeing the fruit of their labors, they patiently plod along 
the road of the Cross, extending little by little the boundaries of the Kingdom of 
Heaven. Christ is their Witness, as He will be their reward. 

Foremost among the Catholic schools of the Vicariate stands St. Louis 
College with 32 Brothers of Mary on the teaching force, and 1220 pupils (includ- 
ing 70 boarders) following the curriculum. 

The course of studies embraces the following branches : Christian Doctrine, 
General History, English, German, French, Latin, Algebra, Geometry, 
Trigonometry, Physics, Chemistry, Penmanship, Bookkeeping, Phonography, 
Typewriting, Commercial Law, Civic and Physical Geography. 

The graduating certificate of the College entitles its possessor to matricula- 
tion in the University of Hawaii. The commercial department is fitted out with 
45 typewriters, 20 calculators, 3 bookkeeping machines, and various other devices 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 245 

used in up-to-date offices, as adding machines, cash registers, mimeographs, filing 
cases and so on. 

The musical department embraces a band and orchestra of no mean efficiency ; 
whilst the scientific department has fine laboratories with an up-to-date physical 
cabinet, wireless and X-ray outfits. 

The graduates of St. Louis College are in great demand by the business 
firms of the territory, the best possible homage to the thorough commercial train- 
ing and the sound formation of character which the institution imparts. 

The present site of the College having grown too small and no longer suitable, 
the Society of Mary has acquired in Kaimuki on Waialae Road a large tract of 
land of 200 acres, called Laepohaku. There the grounds are now being prepared 
for the erection of a college, which the Brothers expect to occupy in Sep- 
tember 1928. 

The Marianists are also in charge of two other schools for boys of very high 
standard in the towns of Hilo and Wailuku, the first with seven teachers and 350 
pupils, the second, an eighth grade and commercial highschool with six teachers 
and 383 pupils. 

The Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary teach in the three 
following institutions : 

The Academy of the Sacred Hearts at Kaimuki, a suburb of Honolulu. Its 
curriculum embraces both primary and high school education. Its staff consists 
of 30 nuns, and the number of pupils in 1926 was 350, of whom 70 were 
boarders. The boarding school, which has existed since the arrival of the good 
Sisters, was first located on Fort Street, but was transferred to the present site 
on September 13, 1909 when the Academy was opened. 

It is an imposing building in reinforced concrete, admirably arranged 
internally; the surrounding grounds are spacious and pleasing. In 1920 a first 
wing was added on the east side of the main building; a western wing was 
added in 1926 and completed in September of that year. 

The science department has well-furnished laboratories with all the modern 
equipments necessary to an up-to-date high school. The commercial department 
runs twenty typewriters of the latest models, and is equipped with various other 
devices with which the modern stenographer is supposed to be familiar. 

The musical department is supremely efficient. 

The graduating certificate of the Academy also entitles the recipient to 
matriculation in the University of Hawaii. 

The Sisters also keep a primary private school and primary free school for 
girls in which the program of the public schools is closely followed. These two 
schools are located in the Fort Street Convent next to the Cathedral of Our 
Lady of Peace. Thirty-six nuns are in attendance. The number of pupils 
enrolled in these two schools is 597, of whom 70 are boarders. 

A well-frequented and successful music department is attached to the school. 

The original constructions have now all disappeared. The institution presently 
occupies an extensive square of elevated concrete buildings. Of these the two 
story building on Fort Street was completed in 1901 ; the main building on 
Garden Lane was erected in 1920, and its two wings in 1925, whilst the last 
addition, facing Union Street was completed in the autumn of 1926. 

The third institution in care of the White Sisters, the Kalihi Orphanage, was 
made mention of in the preceding chapter. 

The Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis, whose motherhouse is in 



246 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

Syracuse, N. Y., and who came to the Islands in 1883 to nurse the lepers and 
other sick, have since expanded their incomparable devotion; and their benefi- 
cent activity now embraces six establishments of charity and education. 

At the leper settlement they are in charge of the Bishop Home, where at 
present leprous women and girls are nursed by them. We wish to make here 
an honorable mention of Mother Marianne, the Provincial of the Franciscan 
Sisters who personally conducted her little band to Kalawao in 1888. She 
remained at this difficult post till her death which occurred August 9, 1918. 
In the words of one who knew her well "Rev. Mother Marianne has won the 
affection and the respect of all who have come in contact with her. She was 
an exemplary religious and an exact observer of the rules of her institute. 
As it was_to be expected of one who had held the place of Mother Superior 
of the whole Congregation, she was always dignified and polite, calm and 
firm. Being severe to herself, she always exhorted the members of her order 
to keep to the letter the rules and traditions of their institute." Mother Mari- 
anne died at the age of eighty-one years. 

Four Sisters are actually in attendance at the Bishop Home. 

The Kapiolani Home for non-leprous girls of leprous parents is established 
at Kalihi, a suburb of Honolulu. Some 50 girls are here educated by the 
good nuns. Not long ago the Sisters founded a novitiate at Honolulu, on 
Iviliha street, where they have presently seven novices and four postulants. 
- On the same premises a hospital dedicated to St. Francis is now ready for 
occupation. It will be the first Catholic hospital in the Islands. 

At Wailuku, Maui, the Sisters are having charge of the Malulani Hospital, 
which is, however, a county institution. In the same locality they take care 
of the St. Anthony's Orphanage, and of the parochial school for girls. At 
Hilo also they conduct the girls' school, the latter having five Sisters and 300 
pupils, the Wailuku school, five Sisters and 375 pupils. The instruction and 
education imparted in these schools are of the highest efficiency. 

Other Mission schools, not in charge of religious teachers are: 

The Sacred Heart School at Lahaina with two teachers and. 103 children ; 
St. Ann's at Heeia with two teachers and 35 pupils; whilst the Sacred Heart 
School at Waiohinu, Kau, at one time very flourishing, but lately in exceed- 
ingly poor condition, was closed after the school year 1925-26. , 

As a summary of the Catholic schools in the Vicariate we have the following : 



Teachers 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 
of Pupils 


St Louis College, Honolulu 


32 

30 
36 
5 
5 
6 
6 
2 
2 
1 
2 
6 


1,220 




1,220 

350 
597 
300 
375 
350 
383 
103 
35 
25 
104 
62 


Academy of the S.S. Hearts at Kaimuki, 
Honolulu 


350 
597 
300 
375 


Sisters' School Honolulu 




Sisters' School, Hilo 




Sisters' School, Wailuku 




Brothers' School Hilo 


350 
383 
56 
23 
10 
51 


Brothers' School, Wailuku 




S. Heart School, Lahaina . 


47 
12 
15 
53 
62 


S. Ann's, Heeia ... 


S. Heart's School Waiohinu 


Kalihi Orphanage .. 


Kapiolani Home - 







Totals 133 2,093 1,811 3,904 



History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 247 

Four laybrothers of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts are in attend- 
ance at the Baldwin Home for leprous boys in the Molokai . settlement It 
should be noticed here that the activity of the Brothers and Sisters at the 
leper settlement is limited to these two homes. The lepers outside of these 
institutions ha,ve to be cared for by their fellow sufferers in their own homes, 
or may go either to the Bay View Home, the McVeigh Home or the Pauahi 
Hospital, where the attendants are lepers themselves or so-called kokuas, i.e., 
helpers, but not trained nurses. 

The two priests of the colony are there exclusively to look after the 
spiritual needs of the faithful. Some years ago Father Maxime Andre started 
a Catholic Red Cross Society, whose members visit the people in their houses, 
give them the assistance which they can render, and notify the priest and the 
physician, whenever their services are required. 

CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 

There are numerous Catholic Societies in Haw.aii. The Young Men's In- 
stitute is represented by three divisions: Damien Council No. 563 at Honolulu 
with 160 members, Francis Council No. 572 at Hilo with 100 members. Both 
councils have Ladies' Auxiliaries in flourishing condition. Gulstan Council at 
Wailuku, established July 7, 1902, was discontinued towards the end of 1911 
but resuscitated in the winter of 1926. 

Among purely religious societies the Sodality of the Blessed Virgin occu- 
pies the first place. What we may call flourishing sodalities, considering the 
small congregations, exist in Honolulu at the Cathedral, the Sacred Heart 
Church, St. Margaret's, St. Agnes' and St. John's for girls, and at the latter 
two churches also for boys. Outside of the capital there are Sodalities for 
either boys or girls or sometimes for both at Hilo, Wailuku, Papaikou, Ho- 
nomu, Holualoa, Kukaiau and Lahaina. 

At Hilo there exists a Catholic Service Bureau with a membership of 300. 

The Sacred Heart League has centers in different places. 

At St. Louis College a Holy Name Society has been erected which has 
some 500 members on its rolls, and shows great influence for good. Branches 
have been established at Hilo and Wailuku, Holualoa and Heeia and recently 
at the Sacred Heart church, Honolulu. 

Confraternities of the Living Rosary, of the Holy Souls, the Holy Angels, 
Our Lady of Carmel, and others, established at various missions, contribute 
their share for the promotion of the spiritual good of the faithful. 

The so-called Brotherhoods of the Holy Ghosts, much in evidence among 
the Portuguese, can hardly be called religious, nor even benevolent societies. 
Only the one attached to the Cathedral distributes alms in kind to a few 
poor at its annual celebration. Many of the other "brotherhoods" organize, 
indeed, a religious procession on or about Pentecost, mostly under the direction 
of a priest, but for the rest have forgotten all about the original meaning of 
their institution and the ceremonies they perform; their raison-d'etre is simply 
the having of a good time and the perpetuation of the customs of the old 
country. If unattached to any church, and uncontrolled by the missionary 
they frequently become sources of superstition and disorder. Besides the 
preceding societies there are various charitable organizations among which 
we merely, mention the Catholic Ladies' Aid Society at Honolulu and Wailuku, 



248 History of the Catholic Mission in Hawaii 

and the Catholic Service Bureau at Hilo. The C. L. A. S. at Honolulu has 
about 200 members. It was established February 6, 1890. Notwithstanding 
its small resources it is doing a great deal of good. The Hilo C. S. B. was 
begun in 1924 and counts some 300 members. Plans are under preparation to 
establish here the St. Vincent de Paul conferences at the occasion of the 
coming centennial celebrations, and associate with them some way or other 
all other Catholic charitable and social activities. 

^ The Mission Press, once so fertile, has ceased to rotate since 1889. The 
Mission has a small monthly publication of eight pages in the Hawaiian 
language: Ka Hoolaha Manaoio (The Propagation of the Faith), with an 
issue of 1200 copies. They are distributed gratis to the natives who contribute 
the annual alms for the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. The need 
of a periodical in the English tongue had been frequently considered; before 
going to Rome Bishop Alencastre gave orders for the publication of a Catholic 
weekly. In consequence "The Church Bells" began their weekly "tolling" on 
October 31, 1926. 

Thus is the religious situation of the Catholic Mission in fair Hawaii. Like 
Father Bachelot's algaroba tree it has taken firm root in Hawaii's soil, and 
spread wide and dense. The future is God's. 

Whatever happens to the various industries of the Islands, it is hardly 
probable that .the flow of immigration will be stopped. Cosmopolitanism will 
increase and complicate the missionary's linguistic problems. Even if his num- 
bers increase in proportion to the population, the proselytizing activities of 
the various Protestant sects will keep him. from growing indolent. Having no 
other religious tenets left them but that expressed in their generic name, they 
can now concentrate all their energy and resources to make total infidels out 
of the numerous merely nominal Catholics, who coming from once Catholic 
countries, have become ripe for apostasy by neglecting religious instruction and 
the reception of the Sacraments. Even were they to be successful, our 
churches will not be depleted, the forward march of the Church not arrested. 
The children of Sem and Cham will profit by the defection of the sons of 
Japhet. The Japanese population which long has resisted all attempts to 
Christianize, it, seems to be turning towards Christ. Among Chinese and 
Koreans a rich harvest is whitening, and only waits for laborers to be 
gathered into sheaves. Among the Hawaiians also great numbers could be 
brought into the fold, had the missionary more leisure to occupy himself 
solely with them. 

With the help of God and under the mantle of Our Lady of Peace, the 
missionaries of the Sacred Hearts will continue to do their duty towards the 
souls which the Master transplants from the extremities of the earth in the 
Paradise of the Pacific to be nurtured by them for Heaven. 



V. C. J. S. 



INDEX 

Page 

Abraham Armand, Father 31, 32, 35, 43, 84 

Ahuimanu, College of 170, 194 

Alencastre, Bishop Stephen 225, 230, 235, 240, 248 

Algaroba 39, 237 

Arrival of Anglican missionaries 192 

Catholic missionaries 33, 99, 146, 152, 175 

Mormon missionaries 192 

Protestant missionaries 21, 23 

Art<mise French frigate 93, 129, 130, 134 ff., 142 

Bachelot, Father Alexis... 31, 33, 36, and foil., 60 ff., 78, 99, 103, 108, 109, 117, 143, 144 

Bachelot, Death of Father 118 

Baldwin Home 229, 247 

Banishment of Catholic priests See Exile 

Baptism Catholic rite 19, 20, 41, 43, 123 

Pagan rite, 15 

Protestant rite 123, 124 

Of Kalanimoku and Boki 19 

Barnabe Castan, Father 152, 176, 178, 182 

Bible presented to Liholiho 21 

Translated into Hawaiian 127, 147 

Bibliopathy 23 

Bingham, Rev. viii, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 40, 44, 49, 52, 70, 74, 80, 81. 127. 129, 131, 147. 151 

Bishop Home 211, 230, 246 

Bishops in Hawaii. See Rouchouze, Maigret, Koeckemann, Gulstan, Libert, Alencastre 

Board of Health 197, 230 ff 

Boeynaems, Bishop See Libert 

Bold 20, 27, 40, 41, 50, 51, 52, 53, 132 

Boki's permission to reside 34, 54, 62 

Bondu, Brother Melchior 31, 37, 57, 73, 76, 83, 87, 93, 94 

Brothers Marianists 225, 245 

of the Sacred Hearts 229, 230, 246, See Bondu 

Burning of churches and chapels 181 

California, Picpus Fathers in 77 and foil., 187 ff 

Castan, Father Barnabe See Barnabe 

Catechisms 45, 142, 143, 160 

Catechists Brothers See Bondu 

Native 145, 178, 180, 181, 182 

Catechism in the Public Schools, Instruction in 226, 227, 239 

Cathedral of O. L. of Peace 39, 150 

Census, See population 

Charles, Pouzot, Father 184 

Chinese in Hawaii 239 

Chronology, Hawaiian 5 f f 

Church in Honolulu, First 35, 150, 151 



250 Index 

Page 

Churches in Hawaii 242 

Circumcision 3, 15 

Clementine, Ship la 98, 101, 102, 106, 108, 146 

Clement, Father 203, 204, 225 

Coan. Rev. Titus 122, 124, 183, 185 

College of Almimanu 170, 194 

Monterey 78 

San Francisco 190, 191 

Saint Louis (old) ' 195 ff 

Saint Louis (new) 225, 226, 236, 245 

Columba Murphy, Father 86, 87, 88, 93, 98, 113, 114, 115, 146 

Comete, Ship la 29, 32, 33, 37, 63 

Confessors of Faith 53, 57, 68, 89, 125, 128, 131, 142, 180 

Congregation of the Sacred Hearts 29, 202 

Condemnation of Secret Societies 229 

Conrardy, Father 211 ff 

Consuls, American 34, 48, 71, 73, 93, 104, 106, 133, 136, 142 

British 26, 38, 71, 73, 83, 88, 93, 94, 104, 106 

French 104, 116, 134, 136, 165, 172 

Convents of the Sisters of the Sacred Hearts 193, 245 

Cook, Captain 1, 4, 17 

Damien, Father 197 ff, 223 

Desvault, Father 180 

Dionysius of Molokai 168 

Dreams of Hawaiians 10, 52, 53, 84 

Duboize, Mgr 186 

Dudoit, Jules 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 116, 132, 134, 142, 165 

Duhaut-Cilly 29, 34, 42 

Dutch 11 

Dutton 211, 215 

Ellis, Rev. William 2, 7, 8, 16, 23, 24, 25, 27 

Episcopalians : 194 

Ernest Heurtel, Father 146, 182, 183 

Esther, Hawaiian chiefess 68, 79, 83 

Exile of priests, First ; 70, 74 

Exile of priests, Second 103 

Filipinos 238 

Franciscan Sisters, see Sisters 

French agricultural mission 29, 33, 37, 38 

Ships 18, 19, 20, 94, 107, 129, 150, 165, 172 

Outrage at Honolulu 173 

Fornander 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 

Foreigners, Early 7, 8, 16, 17, 19, 40, 222, 223 

Freycinet 18 

Gaetano, Juan 12, 13 

Genealogies, Hawaiian 5, 7 

Generations, Hawaiian 5, 6, 7 

Gold Rush, Californian 187 



Index 251 

Page 

Grave of Father Bachelot 119, 120 

Bishop Koeckemann 227 

Bishop Maigret 222 

Bishop Libert 239 

Gulstan, Bishop 228, 233 

Hawaii 182, 243 

Hawaiians, Origin of 2, 3 

History of 18 

Religion of 14, 15 

Helio, the catechist 179, 182 

Herman, Bishop. See Koeckemann 

Heros, Ship le 29, 34, 42 

Heurtel, Father 146, 148, 182 

Hill, Joshua 64, 65, 66, 67 

Hilo, Catholic Mission 184, 235 

Protestant Mission 24 

Churches at 184, 235 

Howell, Padre 19 

Hyde, Dr. C. M viii, 212, 213, 214, 220, 224 

Idolatry, Catholics accused of 45, 47, 91 

Infanticide 6 

Infirmarians 229 

Influence of Protestant missionaries 26 

Irish in Hawaii 86 

Japanese 239 

Jesuits 32, 74, 82, 189, 229 

Joachim Marechal, Father 175, 183 

Judd, Dr 26 

July, 9th of 133, 150 

Kaahumanu 18, 20, 24, 25, 36, 41, 50, 51, 56, 60, 79 

Kaha